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18 Cards in this Set

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valence electrons
The electrons that exist farthest from an atom's nucleus. They are generally the electrons with the highest energy level number.
noble gases
There are certain groups of elements that are rather important in chemistry. The first of these is called the ________ ________. They are the atoms that appear in column 8A of the chart. The reason that this group of atoms is important is that they have the ideal electron configurations in nature.
(In each case, the s and p orbitals in their highest energy level are full.)
inert substances
Atoms that have ideal electron configurations so they have no reason to change. As a result, they rarely undergo chemical reactions. Thus, they are _____________ ____________.
octet rule
Most atoms strive to attain eight valence electrons.
Lewis structure
Consists of an atom's symbol surrounded by dots. Each dot represents a valence electron in the atom.
electron-dot diagrams
The same as Lewis structures only a different name that does not give credit to Lewis!
Ionic compounds
made up of both metals and nonmetals
covalent compounds
made up entirely of nonmetals
ion
An atom that has gained or lost electrons and thus has become electrically charged.
“transition metal”
The vast majority of the exceptions on the periodic chart are metals. After all, the entire middle of the chart (groups 1B-8B) is called the ____________ _________ region simply because it doesn't follow our standard rules.
ionization
The process by which an atom turns into an ion by gaining or losing electrons.
ionization potential
The amount of energy needed in order to TAKE an electron away from an atom.

(remember.... some atoms may remain as atoms for a long time, simply because they do not have a strong enough desire for an ideal electron configuration)
periodic property
A characteristic of atoms that varies regularly across the periodic chart.
electronegativity
A measure of how strongly an atom ATTRACTS extra electrons to itself.
atomic radius
The larger the atom's _________ _______ the larger the atom.
covalent bond
A shared pair of valence electrons that holds atoms together in covalent compounds.

It is the fundamental thing that separates an ionic compound from a covalent one:
double bond
Two shared electron pairs make up this bond, which is much stronger than a single bond.
triple bond
Three shared electron pairs that are stronger than a double bond.