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78 Cards in this Set

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What is a temporary, foot-like extension of a cell, used for locomotion or engulfing food?
Pseudopod
What is the region of a eukaryotic cell that contains the cell’s main DNA?
Nucleus
What is a membrane-bounded “sac” within a cell?
Vacuole
What is the thin, watery cytoplasm near the plasma membrane of some cells?
Ectoplasm
What is the dense cytoplasm found in the interior of many cells?
Endoplasm
What is a protozoa that propels itself with a flagellum?
Flagellate
What is a firm, flexible coating outside the plasma membrane?
Pellicle
What is an organelle containing chlorophyll for photosynthesis?
Chloroplast
What is a pigment necessary for photosynthesis?
Chlorophyll
What is a light-sensitive region in certain protozoa?
Eyespot
What is a close relationship between two or more species where at least one benefits?
Symbiosis
What is a relationship between two or more organisms of different species where all benefit from the association?
Mutualism
What is a relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited?
Commensalism
What is a relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed?
Parasitism
What are hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion?
Cilia
What is a reproductive cell with a hard, protective coating?
Spore
What are tiny organisms that float in the water?
Plankton
What are tiny floating organisms that are either small animals or protozoa?
Zooplankton
What are tiny floating photosynthetic organisms, primarily algae?
Phytoplankton
What is the body of a plant-like organism that is not divided into leaves, roots, or stems?
Thallus
What is a substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms?
Cellulose
What is a special structure used by an organism to anchor itself?
Holdfast
What is a colony that uses holdfasts to anchor itself to an object?
Sessile colony
Which phylum of subkingdom Protozoa moves by means of a flagellum?
Mastigophora
Which phylum of subkingdom Protozoa moves by means of cilia?
Paramecium
Which phylum of subkingdom Protozoa moves by means of a pseudopod?
Sarcodina
Which phylum of subkingdom Protozoa has no means of locomotion?
Sporozoa
Which phylum of subkingdom Algae has strong, thick cell walls made of silicon dioxide?
Chrysophyta
Which phylum of subkingdom Algae has two flagellates, one stored in a groove around the cell?
Pyrrophyta
Which phylum of subkingdom Algae is green with cellulose cell walls?
Chlorophyta
Which phylum of subkingdom Algae is red living in multicellular colonies?
Rhodophyta
Which phylum of subkingdom Algae is brownish green living in multicellular colonies?
Phaeophyta
What is the difference between a food vacuole and a contractile vacuole?
A food vacuole stores food during digestion, while a contractile vacuole stores water in sacs to monitor the amount of water in a microroganism and prevent it from exploding.
What is the difference between endoplasm and ectoplasm?
Endoplasm is a dense cytoplasm, located in the interior of many cells, while the ectoplasm is rather watery and is near the plasma membrane.
The amoeba and euglena each have different means of locomotion. How are they different? How are they similar?
An amoeba moves by means of a pseudopod, used for both moving and grabbing food. A euglena moves by means of its flagellum. They both change shape when moving.
What is the suffix of the phyla for subkingdom Algae?
"Phyta": chlorophyta, chrysophyta, phaeophyta, pyrrophyta, rhodophyta
Are algae completely heterotrophic or completely autotrophic?
Completely autotrophic.
Are protozoas mainly heterotropic or mainly autotrophic?
Mainly heterotrophic.
What protozoas live in your body and are not harmful?
Entamoeba gingivalis (mouth) and Entamoeba coli (colon).
What protozoas are pathogenic to your body?
Entameoba histolytica (severe dysentary), Trypanosoma (African sleeping sickness via the tsetse fly), Balantidium coli (severe dysentary via pigs/rats), Plasmodium (malaria via mosquitoes), and Toxoplasma gondii (toxoplasmosis--severe birth defects--via cats).
Which protozoas produce a slimy coating on rocks near a pond, lake, or slow moving river?
Amoebas
Which protozoas have both heterotrophic and autotrophic abilities due to a special organelle attracted to light?
Euglenas
Which protozoa has both heterotrophic and autotrophic abilities, has two flagella, and live in colonies?
Volvox
Which protozoas have two nuclei and feeds itself with the help of cilia?
Paramecia
Which protozoas reproduce using spores as part of its natural life cycle?
Sporozoas
Which phylum of protozoas are all pathogenic?
Sporozoas
What is the function of the macronucleus in a paramecium?
The macronucleus controls metabolism.
What is the function of the micronucleus in a paramecium?
The micronucleus controls reproduction.
A microorganism produces a hard shell in order to reproduce as a part of its natural life cycle. Is it from kingdom Monera or kingdom Protista?
Kingdom Protista (Sporozoa)
A microorganism produces a hard shell in order to survive a harsh environment. This microorganism only produces a hard shell for emergencies; this is not a normal part of the life cyle. Is it from kingdom Monera or kingdom Protista?
Kingdom Monera (endospore)
Where do you find thin and watery cytoplasm in an amoeba?
Near the plasma membrane
Where do you find thick and dense cytoplasm in an amoeba?
Near the middle of the amoeba
Which protozoa stores its food in a gullet, which is pinched off, and becomes a food vacuole?
Paramecium
Two microorganisms just experienced conjugation. After the conjugation, the recipient looks just like the donor. To what kingdom do these microorganisms belong?
Kingdom monera
Two microorganisms just experienced conjugation. After the conjugation, the microorganisms each reproduce, but their offspring are not exact duplicates of the parents. To what kingdom do these microorganisms belong?
Kingdom Protista
What group of organisms produced three-fourths of all oxygen on the earth?
Phytoplankton
Within subkingdom of algae (also called phytoplankton), which phylum produces the most oxygen?
Chrysophyta, or diatoms
What are large deposits of diatoms called? Name two uses.
Diatomaceous earth is used as an abrasive (rough substance) in toothpaste and as bug-killer for crawling insects.
Why should environmentalists hug diatoms?
Diatoms are the greatest producers of oxygen on the planet.
What green chemical is found in both Euglena (a protozoa) and Chlorophyta (green algae)? What organelle stores this chemical in both protistas?
Chlorophyll, stored in the organelle chloroplast
A scientist sees evidence of a large number of dead fish floating in red water. Oddly, mollusks are alive. What is the name of bloom that caused this? What is the phylum and generic name of the algae that caused it? Should you eat clams from this water?
This is a red tide, caused by phylum Phyrrophyta, or dinoflagellates. They produced a toxin that killed the fish. Even though mollusks are immune to the poisons, humans that eat them are not and will die.
What two phyla contain macroscopic algae?
Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta
What three phyla of algae primarily live as single cells?
Chlorophyta, Chrysophyta, and Pyrrophyta
What two phyla of algae primarily live as multicellular organisms?
Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta
Whenever you eat ice cream, pudding, salad dressing, and jelly beans, you are ingesting a thickening agent from what phylum of algae?
Phaeophyta (brown algae)
Do red algae (phylum Rhodophyta) cause a red tide?
No, dinoflagellates (phylum Pyrrophyta causes a red tide)
Which phylum of algae did you see beachcombing in Alaska's cold marine waters?
Phaeophyta (brown algae), namely rockweed
Which phylum of algae would a seaweed farmer in the warm Philippine Sea gather?
Rhodophyta (red algae)
What is the purpose of a food vacuole? Name one phylum in which you expect to see it.
It stores food and is found in Sarcodina, Mastigophora, and Ciliophora.
What is the purpose of a contractile vacuole? Name one phylum in which you expect to see it.
It releases excess water, reducing pressure, and is found in Sarcodina, Mastigophora, and Ciliophora.
What is the purpose of a flagellum? Name one phylum in which you expect to see it.
It causes locomotion and is found in Mastigophora and Pyrrophyta.
What is the purpose of a pellicle? Name one phylum in which you expect to see it.
It retains cell shape and is found in Mastigophora and Cilliophora.
What is the purpose of a chloroplast? Name one phylum in which you expect to see it.
It stores chlorophyll and is found in Mastigophora and Chlorophyta.
What is the purpose of an eyespot? Name one phylum in which you expect to see it.
It detects light and is found in Mastigophora.
What is the purpose of cilia? Name one phylum in which you expect to see it.
They cause locomotion and are found in Ciliophora.
What is the purpose of a nucleus? Name one phylum in which you expect to see it.
It contains DNA and is found in all phlya.
What is the purpose of an oral groove? Name one phylum in which you expect to see it.
It takes in food and allows conjugation and is found in Ciliophora.
What is the purpose of a gullet? Name one phylum in which you expect to see it.
It stores food and becomes a food vacuole and is found in Ciliophora.