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147 Cards in this Set

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What is the transport of dissolved substances into cells?
Absorption
What is the breakdown of absorbed substances?
Digestion
What is the breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy?
Respiration
What is the removal of soluble waste materials?
Excretion
What is the removal of nonsoluble waste materials?
Egestion
What is the release of biosynthesized substances?
Secretion
What is maintaining the status quo?
Homeostasis
What is producing more cells?
Reproduction
What is the study of cells?
Cytology
What are the eleven functions of a cell?
Absorption, digestion, respiration, biosynthesis, excretion, egestion, secretion, movement, irritability, homeostasis, and reproduction
What cellular function also involves recognizing substances and keeping out harmful ones?
Absorption
What two cellular functions are closely related to catabolism?
Digestion and respiration
What cellular function is closely related to anabolism?
Biosynthesis
Which is a simpler function excretion (removing soluble substances) or egestion (removing nonsoluble substances)?
Excretion
What two cellular functions are related to the life function, sensing and responding to changes in the surroundings?
Movement and irritability
Which cellular function is involved in releasing substances needed by the body?
Secretion
Which cellular function is in direct conflict with abiogenesis? Why?
Reproduction because the only way scientists have observed the production of life is from a living cell.
A cell from a single-celled organism performs all eleven cellular functions. Is the same true for most cells in a multicellular organism?
No, most cells in multicelled organisms are more specialized and do not perform all eleven functions.
Which are more diverse, cells in the Kingdoms Protista/Fungi or the Kingdoms Plantae/Animalia?
Cells from Kingdoms Protista/Fungi
What is a rigid structure on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells?
Cell wall
What is the thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells?
Middle lamella
What is the semipermeable membrane between the cell contents and either the cell wall or the cell’s surroundings?
Plasma membrane
What is jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended?
Cytoplasm
What are substances in which one atom has an imbalance of protons and electrons?
Ions
What cytoplasmic motion coordinates movement of the cell’s content?
Cytoplasmic streaming
How many cells can fit across your fingernail?
2000 cells
What kind of cell lacks a cell wall, plant or animal?
Animal cell
What makes up cell walls?
Cellulose and pectin
What are four functions of the cell wall?
Absorption, secretion, excretion, egestion
What are four functions of the plasma membrane?
Absorption, secretion, excretion, egestion
Cytoplasm allows all functions, but which is the most important of all eleven life functions?
Movement
When does a plant form rigid secondary cell walls?
Once the plant reaches maturity.
What is the difference between the outer layers of a plant cell versus a bacterium?
A bacterium has a capsule for added protection; some have a capsule instead of a cell wall; some have neither.
What kind of substances does the plasma membrane admit into a cell? What kind of substances does it block?
It admits nutrients, water, and oxygen, while it blocks toxins.
What kind of substances does the plasma membrane release out of a cell? What kind of substances does it keep on the inside?
It releases water and waste, but keeps its contents.
Is the plasma membrane the only form of protection for an animal cell?
No, special cells (such as white blood cells) protect other cells of an animal's body.
What compounds are found in cytoplasm?
Water, small organic molecules, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and ions
When an atom gains an electrons, what kind of charge does the ion have?
Negative
When an atom loses an electrons, what kind of charge does the ion have?
Positive
Which compound in cytoplasm is responsible for movement in the form of cytoplasmic streaming?
Ions
What is the organelle in which nutrients are converted to energy?
Mitochondrion
What is the organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids?
Lysosome
What are non-membrane-bounded organelles responsible for protein synthesis?
Ribosomes
What organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes performs several tasks within a cell?
Endoplasmic reticulum
Which endoplasmic reticulum is dotted with ribosomes?
Rough ER
Which endoplasmic reticulum does not have any ribosomes?
Smooth ER
What organelles store starches or oils?
Leucoplasts
What organelles contain pigments used in photosynthesis?
Chromoplasts
Which vacuole rests at the center of most plant cells and contains a solution with a high concentration of solutes?
Central vacuole
Which vacuole contains the waste products of digestion?
Waste vacuole
What is the process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells?
Phagocytosis
Which vacuole holds the matter that a cell engulfs?
Phagocytic vacuole
What is the function of the mitochondrion?
Respiration
What is the function of a lysosome?
Digestion
What is the function of ribosomes?
Biosynthesis
What are the four functions of the smooth ER?
Biosynthesis, movement, excretion, egestion
What are the two functions of the rough ER?
Biosynthesis, movement
What is the function of the chloroplast?
Biosynthesis
What is the function of the leucoplast?
Homeostatis
What is the function of the central vacuole?
Homeostatis
What is the function of a vacuole?
Homeostatis
A cell has a chloroplast, leucoplast, and cell wall. Is it Kingdom Animalia or Plantae?
Plantae
A cell has a lysosome and centrioles. Is it Kingdom Animalia or Plantae?
Animalia
What parts of animal and/or plant cells are also found in prokaryotic cells?
Cell wall, plasma membrane, DNA, cytoplasm, and ribosome.
What parts of animal and/or plant cells are NOT organelles?
Cytoplasm
What organelles of animal and/or plant cells are NOT bounded by a membrane?
Ribosome
What cells have more mitochondrion (powerhouses, energy producers): muscle cells or skin cells?
Muscle cells
What "suicidal" organelle releases its contents just before the cell dies, breaking down the proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates of the cytoplasm?
Lysosome
What organelle works as a "cleaning crew," breaking down worn-out organelles and debris in the cytoplasm?
Lysosome
What helps to hold the shape of an animal cell even though it lacks a cell wall?
Endoplasmic reticulum and cytoskeleton
What plastids are found in plant cells, but not animal cells?
Leucoplasts and chloroplasts
What does a ribosome synthesize?
Protein
What does the rough ER synthesize?
Protein because it is dotted with ribosomes
What does the smooth ER synthesize?
Lipids, hormones, and steroids
What does a lysosome break down?
Proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids via hydrolysis reactions
Is chlorophyll found in a chromoplast or leucoplast?
Chromoplast
Which vacuole is found primarily in plant cells?
Central vacuole
When a plant wilts, how is the central vacuole affected?
The central vacuole has very little water and cannot provide the turgor pressure to keep the plant rigid.
How are waste vacuoles moved to the plasma membrane?
Cytoplasmic streaming
What member of Kingdom Protista uses phagocytosis to feed?
Amoeba
How does a white blood cell engulf a foreign cell?
Phagocytosis
What vesicle formed at the plasma membrane allows the absorption of large molecules?
Pinocytic vesicle
What vesicle holds secretion products so that they can be transported to the plasma membrane and released?
Secretion vesicle
What organelles store and then modify proteins and lipids to suit the needs of the cell?
Golgi bodies
What spiral strands of proteins molecules form a tube-like structure?
Microtubules
How are pinocytic and secretion vesicles polar opposites?
Pinocytic vesicles transport material absorbed INTO the cell, while secretion vesicles transport material OUT OF the cell.
Which organelle looks like a stack of pancakes due to its flattened interconnected membrane sacs?
Golgi bodies
Which organelle packages and transports proteins and lipids as the "mailing service" of the cell?
Golgi bodies
Which organelle produces flagella in the euglena and the cilia in the paramecium?
Centrioles
What organelle is involved in the asexual reproduction of animal cells in a process called mitosis?
Centrioles
What highly porous membrane separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm?
Nuclear membrane
What are clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell?
Chromatin
What is a network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement?
Cytoskeleton
What are fine, threadlike proteins found in the cell’s cytoskeleton?
Microfilaments
What are threadlike proteins in the cell’s cytoskeleton that are roughly twice as thick as microfilament?
Intermediate filaments
What is the control center of the cell because it holds the cell's DNA?
Nucleus
Besides the nucleus, what other organelle keeps a major portion of the cell's DNA?
Mitochondrion
What are the three kind of fibers found in the cytoskeleton?
Microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments
What is the function of the nucleus?
It allows all functions because it holds the DNA.
What is the function of the cytoskeleton?
Movement
What four organelles play a role in biosynthesis?
Chloroplast (photosynthesis), ribosome/rough ER (protein), and smooth ER (polysaccharides and lipids)
What helps to hold an animal cell's shape?
ER and cytoskeleton
What four organelles are involved in secretion?
Golgi bodies (packages biosynthetic products and places it in a secretion vesicle); secretion vesicle (carries the products); cytoplasm (moves secretion vesicle); plasma membrane (releases it); cell wall (releases it in plant cells)
What is a lipid in which one of the fatty acid molecules has been replaced by a molecule that contains a phosphate group?
Phospholipid
What makes up the plasma membrane?
Proteins, cholesterol, and phospholipids
What is the difference between a phospholipid and a regular lipid?
Phospholipid contains one phosphate group and two fatty acid groups, while a lipid contains three fatty acid molecules.
What attracts the hydrophilic ends of a phospholipid?
Water inside and outside of the cell
What attracts the hydrophobic ends of a phospholipid?
Other hydrophobic ends
If the plasma membrane were made out of regular lipids (not phospholipids), it could never self-reassemble. Why?
No, regular lipids do not have hydrophobic and hydrophilic ends, which cause the attractive forces that helps the cell reassemble.
What is a carbohydrate attached to a protein in the plasma membrane?
Glycoprotein
What is a carbohydrate attached to a lipid in the plasma membrane?
Glycolipid
What movement of molecules through the plasma membrane happens through osmosis or diffusion?
Passive transport
What movement of molecules through the plasma membrane requires energy?
Active transport
A cell runs low on food and produces less energy. What kind of plasma membrane transport is not affected, active or passive?
Passive transport
A cell runs low on food and produces less energy. What kind of plasma membrane transport is negatively affected, active or passive?
Active transport
If a cell stops making energy, what kind of transport must it use?
Passive transport
What solution has a concentration of solutes essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution?
Isotonic solution
What solution has a concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution?
Hypertonic solution
What is the collapse of a walled cell's cytoplasm due to a lack of water?
Plasmolysis
What is the rupturing of a cell due to excess internal pressure?
Cytolysis
What solution has a concentration of solutes less than that of the cell that resides in the solution?
Hypotonic solution
What kind of solution can cause plasmolysis such as when a person drinks too much seawater?
Hypertonic solution
What kind of solution can cause cytolysis if the cell has no way to handle too much fresh water?
Hypotonic solution
What part of a plant cell helps a plant handle a hypotonic solution and avoid cytolysis?
Central vacuole
You see a cell explode while viewing it through a microscope. Is it in a hypertonic, hypotonic, or isotonic solution?
Hypotonic solution
You see the inner part of the cell shrink into a small size while viewing it through a microscope. Is it in a hypertonic, hypotonic, or isotonic solution?
Hypertonic solution
What is the simple form of the chemical equation that occurs when a cell burns one molecule of glucose?
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 -> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy
What do scientists call the energy necessary to start a chemical reaction?
Activation energy
What are the four stages of cellular respiration in order?
(1) Glycolysis, (2) formation of acetyl coenzyme A (oxidation of pyruvic acid), (3) Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle), (4) electron transport system
What three stages of cellular respiration take place in the mitochondrion?
Formation of acetyl coenzyme A, Krebs cycle, and electron transport system
What stage of cellular respiration take place in the cytoplasm?
Glycolysis
What two stages of cellular respiration are anaerobic?
Glycolysis and formation of acetyl coenzyme A
What two stages of cellular respiration are aerobic?
Krebs cycle and electron transport system
What stage of cellular respiration releases no energy?
Formation of acetyl coenzyme A
What stage of cellular respiration releases the most energy? How many ATP?
Electron transport system; 32 ATP
What two stages of cellular respiration release 2 ATPs of energy each?
Glycolysis and Krebs cycle
How many phosphate groups are in adenosine triphosphate (ATP)?
3
How many phosphate groups are in adenosine diphosphate (ADP)?
2
What would happen if the cell released energy directly without packaging it into ATP?
The cell would burn up and die.
What does ADP + P + energy become?
ATP
What happens when a phosphate group breaks off from ATP?
You get ADP and energy in addition to the phosphate group.
The first stage of cellular respiration needs 2 ATP of activation energy to get started. It releases 4 ATP. What is the net energy produced?
2 ATP
Cellular respiration needs 2 ATP of activation energy to get started. It releases 38 ATP. What is the net energy produced?
36 ATP
A cell has all necessary enzymes, glucose, mitochondrion, and oxygen required for cellular respiration. It fails to produce usable energy and burns up. What is missing?
ADP and P, which are required to react with energy to form ATP
During a hard workout, your oxygen levels are lower and you start to burn energy anaerobically. What two stages of cellular respiration is your body forced to use?
Glycolysis and formation of acetyl coenzyme A
During a hard workout, your oxygen levels are lower and you start to burn energy anaerobically. What happens to the pyruvic acid floating around in your cells?
Cellular fermentation (it is converted into lactic acid or alcohol)
During a hard workout, your oxygen levels are lower and you start to burn energy anaerobically. How does the lactic acid produced by cellular fermentation affect your muscles the next day?
Your muscles feel sore!