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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is anything that has mass and takes up space?
Matter
What is an explanation or representation of something that cannot be seen?
Model
What is a collection of atoms that all have the same number of protons?
Element
What are chemicals that result from atoms linking together?
Molecules
What is a change that affects the appearance but not the chemical makeup of a substance?
Physical change
What is a change that alters the makeup of the elements or molecules of a substance?
Chemical change
What is the name for three forms of matter (solid, liquid, or gas) that every substance is capable of attaining?
Phase
What is the random motion of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration?
Diffusion
What is a measurement of how much solute exists within a certain volume?
Concentration
What is a membrane that allows some molecules to pass through but does not allow other molecules to pass through?
Semipermeable membrane
What is a substance that alters the speed of a chemical reaction but is not used up in the process?
Catalyst
What is a molecule that contains only carbon and any of the following: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and/or phosphorus?
Organic molecule
What are two different molecules that have the same chemical formula?
Isomers
What are simple carbohydrates that contain three to ten carbon atoms?
Monosaccharides
What are carbohydrates that are made up of two monosaccharides?
Disaccharides
What are carbohydrates that are made up of three or more monosaccharides?
Polysaccharides
What is a chemical reaction in which molecules combine by removing water?
Dehydration reaction
What is the breaking down of complex molecules by the chemical addition of water?
Hydrolysis
What is a bond that links amino acids together in a protein?
Peptide bond
What is the process by which living organisms produce larger molecule from smaller ones?
Biosynthesis
What are found in the center of an atom in the Bohr model?
Neutrons and protons
What are found in orbit around the center of an atom in the Bohr model?
Electrons
Where are neutrons found in the Bohr model of the atom?
In the center
Where are protons found in the Bohr model of the atom?
In the center
Where are electrons found in the Bohr model of the atom?
In orbit around the center
What determines the vast majority of properties in an atom?
The number of electrons
Why is the Bohr model called the planetary model?
Electrons, like planets, are in orbit around protons and neutrons (the sun) at the center.
What does the number mean behind an atom's name (i.e., carbon-14)?
It means the number of protons and neutrons added together.
What is the difference between an atom and an element?
An element is a collection of atoms with the same number of protons/electrons. Different atoms within that element have a slightly different number of neutrons.
How many electrons are in an atom with 17 protons?
17 electrons
How many protrons are in an atom with 17 electrons?
17 protons
How many neutrons are in an atom with 17 protons?
We need more information.
How many atoms are present in the molecule H2CO3?
6 atoms
What atoms are present in H2CO3? How many of each are present?
2 hydrogens, 1 carbon, and 3 oxygens
Is C3H8O an atom, element, or molecule?
Molecule
Is carbon an atom, element, or molecule?
Element
Is carbon-12 an atom, element, or molecule?
Atom
If you add energy to the molecules of a solid, what will be the next phase of matter?
Liquid
If you add energy to the molecules of a liquid, what will be the next phase of matter?
Gas
If you remove energy from the molecules of a gas, what will be the next phase of matter?
Liquid
If you remove energy from the molecules of a liquid, what will be the next phase of matter?
Solid
What kind of membrane do you need to study osmosis?
Semipermeable
What kind of membrane do you need to study diffusion?
Fully permeable
Two solutions of different solute concentration are separated by a membrane. After awhile, the water levels of the two solutions change. Has osmosis or diffusion taken place?
Osmosis
Two solutions of different solute concentration are separated by a membrane. After awhile, the concentration levels of the two solutions change, but the water levels stay the same. Has osmosis or diffusion taken place?
Diffusion
What are two ways to speed up a chemical reaction?
Catalyst or higher temperatures
What three elements do all carbohydrates possess?
Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
What is the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in a carbohydrate?
2 hydrogens to 1 oxygen
What four things are necessary for photosynthesis?
sunlight, chlorophyll, carbon dioxide, water
Of the four things necessary for photosynthesis (sunlight, chlorophyll, carbon dioxide, water), which is a catalyst?
Chlorophyll
Of the four things necessary for photosynthesis (sunlight, chlorophyll, carbon dioxide, water), which are the reactants?
Carbon dioxide and water
Of the four things necessary for photosynthesis (sunlight, chlorophyll, carbon dioxide, water), which is the energy?
Sunlight
6C02 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2 is the balanced chemical equation for what process?
Photosynthesis
What are the reactants in the following equation for photosynthesis?
6C02 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
Carbon dioxide and water
What are the products in the following equation for photosynthesis?
6C02 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
Glucose and oxygen
How many molecules of carbon dioxide react in the following equation for photosynthesis?
6C02 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
6 molecules of carbon dioxide
How many molecules of water react in the following equation for photosynthesis?
6C02 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
6 molecules of water
How many molecules of glucose are produced in the following equation for photosynthesis?
6C02 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
1 molecule of glucose
How many molecules of oxygen are produced in the following equation for photosynthesis?
6C02 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
6 molecules of oxygen
What is the chemical equation for photosynthesis?
6C02 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
Which of the following is a carbohydrate: CO2, H2O, C6H12O6, 6O2?
C6H12O6
Which of the following is not a carbohydrate: glucose, fructose, water, sucrose?
Water
What kind of reaction is used for building disaccharides, polysaccharides, fats, and proteins?
Dehydration reaction
What kind of reaction can break down disaccharides, polysaccharides, fats, and proteins?
Hydrolysis
What is the chemical structure of an acid group, required in all organic acids?
O

OH C
Which is NOT an acid? Why?

Vinegar
O

OH CCH3

Ethyl Alcohol
H2C═CH2
Ethyl alcohol because it lacks an acid group:
O

OH C
What does the pH scale measure?
The pH scale measures the level of acid or base on a scale from 0 to 14.
What number represents neutral (neither acid nor base) on the pH scale?
pH = 7
What numbers represents acids on the pH scale?
pH < 7
What numbers represents bases on the pH scale?
pH > 7
What colors represents acids on pH paper?
Reds, oranges, yellows
What colors represents bases on pH paper?
Blues, purples, greens
What are the basic building blocks of proteins?
Amino acids
What are the basic building blocks of lipids?
Fatty acids
What are the basic building blocks of polysaccharides?
Monosaccharides
If two proteins contain the same type and number of amino acids, but the order in which they link up is different, are the properties of the two proteins the same?
No, different order will mean different properties.
What are enzymes, and for what purpose are they usually used?
They are catalysts that break down food chemicals during digestion.
What is the active site of an enzyme?
It is the slot into which the only chemical needing to be broken down can fit.
Why is an enzyme like a lock and key?
Only one shape of chemical will fit into the active site and be broken down by the enzyme. Other chemicals cannot be broken down by a specific enzyme.
What are the **THREE** basic parts of the nucleotide?
Deoxyribose, phosphate group, and the nucleotide base.
What holds the two helixes in a DNA molecule together?
Hydrogen bonding
How does DNA store information?
The pattern of nucleotide pairs (cytosine/guanine or adenine/thymine) represent informaiton in a coded format much like dots and dashes represent letters in the Morse code.
What determines all of properties in an atom?
The number of electrons, protons, and neutrons
What is a strong attraction between hydrogen atoms and certain other atoms (usually oxygen or nitrogen) in specific molecules?
Hydrogen bonding
An atom is called lead-207. It has 82 electrons. How many protons does it have? How many neutrons does it have?
82 protons and 125 neutrons
An atom has 8 neutrons and 7 protons. Another atom has 8 neutrons and 6 protons. Do they belong in the same element?
No, atoms in the same element have the same number of protons and electrons. (FYI, the first atom was nitrogen-15 and the second was carbon-14.)
How many atoms are in one molecule of lactose: C12H22O11? How many atoms of each element?
45 atoms: 12 carbon, 22 hydrogen, and 11 oxygen
What is the tendency of a solvent to travel across a semipermeable membrane into an area of higher solute concentrations?
Osmosis
What is the word for lacking any affinity to water?
Hydrophobic
What is a solid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms?
Saturated fat
What is a liquid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms?
Unsaturated fat
What two of the following are molecules? C2H4O2, nitrogen-15, C8H18, Ca, S, carbon-14
C2H4O2 and C8H18
What two of the following are atoms? C2H4O2, nitrogen-15, C8H18, Ca, S, carbon-14
Nitrogen-15 and carbon-14
What two of the following are elements? C2H4O2, nitrogen-15, C8H18, Ca, S, carbon-14
Ca and S
What are chemical changes?
Mixing vinegar and baking soda
Boiling an egg
Boiling sugar water
Walking in the rain
Removing stains with enzymes
Adding sugar to tea
Mixing vinegar and baking soda
Removing stains with enzymes
Boiling an egg
What are physical changes?
Mixing vinegar and baking soda
Boiling an egg
Boiling sugar water
Walking in the rain
Removing stains with enzymes
Adding sugar to tea
Boiling sugar water
Walking in the rain
Adding sugar to tea
Lactose is a carbohydrate. It has 12 carbon atoms and 11 oxygen atoms. How many hydrogens does it have?
22 hydrogens
Lactose is a carbohydrate. It has 12 carbon atoms and 22 hydrogen atoms. How many oxygen atoms does it have?
11 oxygen atoms
Lactose is a carbohydrate. It has 22 hydrogen atoms and 11 oxygen atoms. How many carbon atoms does it have?
You cannot tell without looking it up.
A chemist measures the pH of several solutions. The results are: Solution A: 8.1, Solution B: 1.1, Solution C: 5.5, Solution D: 13.2. Which ones are acidic? Which ones are alkaline?
Acidic: B, C
Alkaline: A, D
Of the three basic parts of the nucleotide (deoxyribose, phosphate group, and the nucleotide base), which holds the DNA code?
Nucleotide base (adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine)
What will be the result of hydrolysis on a disaccharide?
Two monosaccharides
What will be the result of dehydration on two disaccharides?
A polysaccharide
Is the following fat saturated or unsaturated? Why?
OH-C-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3
║................................................................................................
O................................................................................................
Saturated because it has no carbon to carbon double bonds
Is the following fat saturated or unsaturated? Why?
OH-C-CH2-HC=CH-CH2-HC=CH-CH2-HC=CH-CH2-CH2-CH3
║................................................................................
O................................................................................
Unsaturated because it has carbon to carbon double bonds
What are linked together to form a protein?
Amino acids
What three things determine the properties of a protein?
The type, number, and order of amino acids
Two solutions of different solute concentration are separated by a semipermeable membrane. After awhile, the water levels of the two solutions change. Did water move from high to low concentration OR from low to high concentration?
Low to high concentration.
Two solutions of different solute concentration are separated by a semipermeable membrane. After awhile, the water levels of the two solutions change. Which water level **increased**, that with the high concentration or low concentration?
High concentration
Two solutions of different solute concentration are separated by a semipermeable membrane. After awhile, the water levels of the two solutions change. Which water level **decreased**, that with the high concentration or low concentration?
Low concentration