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27 Cards in this Set

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The fact on the back side relates to the next four questions:
A DNA strand has the following sequence of nucleotides: guanine, cytosine, adenin, adenine, thymine, guanine
2. How many amino acids will the mRNA code for?
it takes three nucleotide bases to code for an amino acid. Since this has six, it will code for TWO AMINO ACIDS
3. How many CODONS will the mRNA have?
Each codon codes for one amino acid. Thus, there are TWO CODONS on the mRNA
4. What are the ANTICODONS on the tRNAs that will bond to the mRNA?
When mRNA has an adenine, tRNA will have a uracil. When mRNA has a uracil, tRNA will have an adenine. When mRNA has a cytosine, tRNA will have a guanine, and when mRNA has a guanine, rRNA will have a cytosine. This makes the tRNA anticodons sequences: guanine, cytosine, adenine and adenine, uracil, guanine.
Fill in the blank:

a._________ b. __________
DNA----------->>RNA---------->> Protein
a. transcription
b. translation
An RNA strand has an ANTICODON. Is it tRNA or mRNA?
tRNA because only tRNA has anticodons
Protein synthesis is occuring in a ribosome. Is this a part of transcription or translation?
TRANSLATION - if it is occurring in the ribosome, the protein is actually being assembled.
Suppose scientists determine that a set of genes is significantly more prevalent in murderers than in the population at large. Would that mean that murderers are not at fault for what they do? Why or why not?
This would NOT mean that murders have no fault for what they do. Most genes only establish GENETIC TRENDS. Environmental and spiritual factors affect the extend to which you follow those trends.
If you look under a microscope and see distinct chromosomes in a cell, is the cell in interphase? Why or why not?
It is NOT in interphase. Chromosomes only pack into their condensed form during REPRODUCTION.
1. What will the mRNA sequence be?
cytosine, guanine, uracil, uracil, adenine, cytosine
A person decided to wait until he contracts measles before getting the vaccine. What is wrong with this strategy?
A vaccine is only good if you take it before getting infected, because it is meant to build up the antibodies that you need to fight the virus off before it overwhelms your body.
If a virus uses DNA as its genetic material, is it alive? Why or why not?
No virus is alive because a virus cannot reproduce on its own.
What is the purpose of the lytic pathway?
The lytic pathway is the way in which viruses reproduce - killing the cells of its host.
Which gamete can move on its own: the male gamete or the female gamete?
Sperm have flagella; thus, the MALE gamete can move on its own.
What is the difference between a polar body and an egg?
A POLAR body is a non-functional female gamete, because it is far too small to function properly. An EGG is the one female gamete produced by meiosis that is large enough to function properly.
How many useful gametes are produced in the meiosis of male animals? What are gametes produced in female animals called?
Male gametes are called SPERM which female gametes are called EGGS.
Four cells that originally (prior to meiosis I)had seven pairs of homologous chromosomes go through meiosis II. How many cells result? How many (total) chromosomes exist in each cell? Are the chromosomes duplicated or not?
Since there ar efour cells going through meiosis II, there are EIGHT cells produced...there are SEVEN chromosomes in each, but the chromosomes are NOT duplicated.
A single cell with seven pairs of homologous chromosomes goes through meiosis I. How many cells result at the end of meiosis I? How many chromosomes exist in each cell? Are the chromosomes in each cell duplicated or not?
There are TWO cells. Each cell has SEVEN chromosomes...the chromosomes ARE DUPLICATED because the purpose of meiosis II is to separte the duplicates from the originals.
What is closer to mitosis: meiosis I or meiosis II?
Meiosis II - it is essentially mitosis acting on two haploid cells
List (in order) the four stages of mitosis:
PROPHASE, METAPHASE, ANAPHASE, TELOPHASE
The diploid number of a cell is 16. What is its haploid number?
The haploid number is 8. (Diploid # is the total # of chromosomes in the cell. Haploid # is the # of homologous pairs. If there are a total of 16 chromosomes, then there must be 8 PAIRS.
Identify the stage of mitosis for the picture: (a)
TELOPHASE - notice how there are two distinct nuclei far apart from each other and the plasma membrane is beginning to constrict
Identify the stage of mitosis for the picture: (b)
PROPHASE - the chromosomes are still in the nucleus, but they are distinct. This means that they are ready to start mitosis.
Identify the stage of mitosis for the picture: (c)
METAPHASE - the chromosomes are lined up on the equatorial plane.
Identify the stage of mitosis for the picture: (d)
ANAPHASE - the chromosomes are pulling away from each other, but they are not far apart. Also, the plasma membrane has not started to constrict.
The haploid number of a cell is 9. What is its diploid number?
18. Since haploid number is the # of pairs, that tells us there are nine pairs. The diploid # is the total # of chromosomes in a diploid cell which has BOTH MEMBERS OF EACH PAIR...since there are nine pairs, the diploid number is 18.
List (in order) the stages of meiosis.
PROPHASE I, METAPHASE I, ANPHASE I, TELOPHASE, PROPHASE II, METAPHASE II, ANAPHASE II, TELOPHASE II