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93 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
muscle types:
skeletal
cardiac
smooth
muscles are classified by:
structure
funcion
location
what are the other names for muscle cells?
myocytes or fibers
what does muscle contraction depend on?
two kinds of myofilaments:
actin
myosin
what are actin and myosin
protiens
skeletal muscle chracteristics:
multi-nucleated, long thin sylinder shaped, striated, voluntary, attached to muscles, rapid contractions
cardiac muscle chracteristics:
interclated disks(reinforce fibers), in heart, striated, involuntary, bifrucated, rythmic contractions, uninucleated
smooth muscle characteristics:
non-striated, in walls of hollow visceral organs and blood vessles and skin, involuntary, slow and sustained contractions, uninucleated, spindle shaped
funtions of the muscular system:
movement, posture maintenance and body support, joint stability, heat generation, support soft tissue, guard entrances and exits
functional characteristics of muscle:
excitability, contractility, extensibility, elasticity
facia-
separates individual skeletal muscles from adjacent muscles and holds them in position by layers of dense CT
tendon-
a cordlike sturcture that is formed from dense CT projecting beyond the end of its muscle connecting it to bone; an extention of the fibers (linked sausages)
tendinitis
(tendonitis) tendon becomes inflamed and swollen after an injury of repeated use
tenosynovitis
connective sheath of a tendon may become inflammed and swollen
aponeurosis
a sheet like structure formed from dense CT associated with muscle may attach to bone or the coverings of adjacent muscle
fascicle-
a section (portion) of a muscle consisting of a bundle of muscle fibers and surrounded by a perimysium
epimysium-
a layer of CT that closely surrounds a SKELETAL muscle (covers whole)
perimysium-
CT that extends inward from the epimysium and separates muscles into FASCICLES and possesses collagen and elastic fibers, blood vessels, and nerves
endomysium-
the thin layer of CT that surrounds each of the individual muscle cells and interconnects adajacent muscle fibers.
the endomysium contains:
capillary networks, satellite cells, nerve fibers
deep fascia-
portion of the fascia that surrounds or penetrates muscles
subcutaneous fascia-
continuous from deep fascia; is fascia just beneath the skin forming the subcutan. layer
subserous fascia-
CT layer of the serous membranes covering organs in various body cavities and lining those cavities
another term for single muscle cell?
fiber
sarcolemma-
the plasma cell membrane of a muscle cell, surrounds cytoplasm
sarcoplasm-
the cytoplasm of a muscle cell
look at sarcoplasmic reticulum
look at transvers tubules
triad-
formed by a transvers tubule surrounded by tow cisternae of t tubules near the region where actin and myosin filaments overlap
myofibrils-
threadlike structures located in the sarcoplasm and anchored to the inner surface of the sarcolemma, play a fundamental role in the muscle contraction mechanism
each cylindrical _ consists primarily of two types of protein _ called?
myofibril, myofilaments;

thick myosin and thin actin
actin contains two proteins called:
troponin and tropomyosin
sarcomere-
a segement of a myofibril or a contractile unit located from z-line to z-line, a structural and functional unit
a of myofilaments:
each myosin molecule consists of 2 twisted protein strands w globular parts called CROSS BRIDGES (HEADS); project outward toward actin
a of actin:
thin filaments consists of double strands of actin twisted into a helix (2 pearl strands); actin has a binding site to which the cross-bridges or a myosin can attach
what are the 2 proteins associated w actin filaments:
tropomyosin troponin
troponin molecules have 3 protein subunits:
one binds to actin, one binds to tropomyosin, one binds to calcium ions
neuromuscular junction-
(myoneural juntion) the site where the axon and muscle fiber meet
motor end plate-
a specialized portion of the muscle cell membrane that is extensively folded with abundant nuclei and mitochondria (usually 1 per muscle fiber); part of sarcolemma
motor unit-
a motor neuron and the muscle fibers it controls
motor neuron-
carries impulse from cns to effector
synaptic cleft-
separates the membranes of the neuron and the membrane of the muscle fiber
synaptic visicles-
in the cytoplasm at the distal ends of nerve fibers store chemicals called NEUROTRANSMITTERS
sliding filament theory-
hugh huxley; when sarcomeres shorten, the thick and thin filaments slide past one another. the actin filaments move toward the center of the sarcomere from both ends
acetylcholinesterase-
decomposes acetylcholine remaining in the synapse; in the synapse and on the membranes of the motor end plate
creatine phosphate-
an energy source available to generate ATP from ADP
glycolysis-
what muscle cells depend on to synthesize ATP after creatine phosphate is used
myoglobin-
carries oxygen inside fiber; temporarily stores oxygen when contracted, a pigment that produces RED color in muscle tissue, , reduces the muscles need for a continuous blood supply during contraction, this is importan becasue....
contraction does what?
decreases blood flow
lactin acid threshold-
a rapid increase in blood vessels, is made when oxygen supply is to low to sustain aerobic reactions
oxygen debt-
amount of oxygen needed for reactions to occur to get back to original concentrations
fatigue-
the condition in which a muscle fiber cannot contract
cramp-
a painful condition in which a muscle undergoes a sustained, involuntary contraction
heat-
by product of cellular respiration, all cells generate heat
threshold stimulus-
the minimal stimulus needed to start a muscle contraction
twitch-
the response of a single muscle fiber to the ACh released by a single action potential and invloves a period of contraction followed by a period of relaxation
myogram-
a recording of the events of a muscle twitch
three periods of a muscle fiber
latent-between stimulation and beginning of the contraction; contraction- a muscle fiber is generating force or contracting; relaxation- the period in which a muscle fiber is decreasing tension
refractory period-
the period in which a muscle fiber is unresponsive to stimulation
muscle fibers have an - - - response.
all or none
summation-
the combination of the force of individual twitches
tetanic contractions-
(tetanus) contractions that lace relaxation
recruitment-
an increase in the number of activated motor units.
muscle tone-
(tonus) the amount of sustained contractions in a muscle; this is important for maintaining posture
types of contractions:
isotonic; concentric; eccentric, isometric
isotonic contraction-
a tyupe of contraction that produces movement of a body part
concentric contraction-
an ISOTONIC contraction in which shortening of the muscle occurs
eccentric contraction-
an ISOTONIC contraction in which lengthening of the muscle occurs
isometric contraction-
a contraction in which muscle tension increases but no movements ob body parts are produced
rhythmicity-
a pattern of spontaneous repeated contraction
peristalisis-
a wavelike motion produced by smooth muscle contration
syncytium-
a group of muscle fibers that contract as a unit
origin-
the immovable end of the muscle
insertion-
the moveable end of the muscle
prime mover-
(agonist) the muscle primarily responsible for producing an action
synergist-
a muscle that assistss the prime mover
antagonist-
a muscle that resists the action of a prime mover
flextion-
decreasing of angle
extention-
increasing of angle
strain-
muscle fibers and ass. CT are torn due to overstrectching
convulsion-
series of involuntary contractions of various voluntary muscles
fibrosis-
degenerative disease in which CT w many fibers replaces skeletal muscle tissue
fibrositis-
inflammation of CT w many fibers; especially in the muscle fascia; also called muscular rheumatism
muscular dytrophy-
progressive muscular weakness and atrophy caused by deficient dystrophin protein
myalgia-
pain resulting from any muscualr disease or disorder
myology-
study of muscles
myoma-
tumor composed of muscle tissue
myopathy-
any muscular disease
paralysis-
loss of ability to move a body part
atrophy-
the decrease in size and strength of a muscle
hypertrophy-
the enlargement of muscle that a forcefully exercised
sphincter-
a ringlike band of muscle
myasthenia gravis-
chronic disease that makes muscles weak and fatigued. results from immune system;s attack on neuromuscular junctions
shin splints-
soreness on the front of the leg due to straining of anterior lege muscles often resulting from walking up and down hills