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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
List the 4 Somatic sensations
Tactile
Thermal
Pain
Proprioception
List the Tactile sensations
Touch
Pressure
Vibration
Itch
Tickle
Free nerve endings sense what?
Itch
tickle
Encapsulated nerves sense what?
Touch
Pressure
Vibration
Rapid adapting receptors
Meissner's corpuscles
Pacinian corpuscles
Slowly adapting receptors
Merkel's disks
Ruffini endings
Cold receptors are located where?
What type of fibers?
Stratum Basale of epidermis

Myelinated A fibers
Warm receptors are located where?
What type of fibers?
dermis

Unmyelinated C fibers
Fast pain is carried on what type of fibers?
myelinated A fibers
Slow Pain is carried on what type of fibers?
small unmyelinated C fibers
What establishes the circadian rythm
Suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus
describe phantom limb sensation
amputees still experience sensations such as itching, pressure, tingling or pain as if the limb were still there.
This causes progressive degeneration of the posterior portions of the spinal cord including posterior columns, posterior spinocerebellar tracts, and posterior roots in its later stages.
Syphilis
damage or disease of the lower motor neurons produces what?
Placcid Paralysis of muscles on the same side of the body
damage or disease of the upper motor neurons in the cerebral cortex causes what?
Spastic Paralysis on muscles on the opposite side of the body
This causes dopamine-releasing neurons that extend from the substantia nigra to the caudate nucleus and putamen to degenerate?
Parkinson disease
this is a hereditary disorder in which the caudate nucleus and putamen degenerate, with loss of neurons that normally release GABA or acetylcholine. Sx do not appear until age 30 or 40 and can also include mental deterioration
Huntington disease
this is an abnormal condition in which movements are jerky and uncorrdinated. If blindfolded, they cannot touch the tip of their finger to their nose.
Ataxia
cerebellar damage due to trauma or alcoholism in which the anterior part of the cerebellum is affected can cause this disorder.
intention tremor
this neuromuscular condition involves progressive destruction of anterior horn motor neurons and fibers of the pyramidal tract. As the disease progresses the sufferer loses the ability to speak, swallow, and breathe; death typically occurs within 5yrs
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Lou gehrig's disease
This motor disorder is causes the loss of muscle control and coordination. It is caused by damage of the moitor areas of the brain either during fetal development, birth, or infacny, hydrocephalus during infacy or radiation during fetal development
Cerebral palsy
describe narcolepsy
a condition in which REM sleep cannot be inhibited during waking periods resulting in involuntary periods of sleep that last aout 15min occuring throughout the day.
Monoplegia
paralysis of one limb only
Diplegia
paralysis of both upper limbs or both lower limbs
Paraplegia
paralysis of both lower limbs
Hemiplegia
paralysis of the upper limb, trunk, and lower limb on one side of the body
Quadriplegia
paralysis of all four limbs
Reduced ability to smell?
Hyposmia
total lack of the sense of smell?
Anosmia
Tip of the toungue and associated with safe foods?
Sweet
Back sides of the tongue associated with spoiled?
Sour
Back middle of the tongue associated with poisonous?
Bitter
Front sides of the tongue associated with sodium chloride
Salty
Diffuse location associated with meaty , savory or broth-like
Umami
List 3 types of papillae that contain tastebuds
Vallate papillae
Fungiform papillae (mushroom shaped)
Foliate papillae(mostly lost during childhood)
This papillae does not contain tastebuds
Filiform papillae
List the primary tastes in order of threshold from least to greatest.
Bitter
Sour
(sweet, salty, umami)
True or false:
70% of all sensory receptors in the body are in the eyes?
True
Victims of this disease retain peripheral vision but lose the ability to see straight ahead in the advanced stages
AMD (age-related macular disease)
this form of AMD involves the central vision gradually diminishing becuase the pigmented layer atrophies and degenerates. There is no effective treatment
Dry
The form of AMD occurs when new blood vessels form in the choroid and leak plasma or blood under the retina. Treatment involves laser surgery to destroy the leaking blood vessels
Wet
Loss of transparency of the lens is termed?
cataracts
This is when the lens loses elasticity with aging and therefore loses its ability to accommodate
Presbyopia
Nearsightedness
Myopia
Farsightedness
Hypermetropia
Irregular curvature of the cornea is called?
Astigmatism
The photopigment in rods is?
rhodopsin
The photopigments in cones are?
Photopsin I- Yellow or Red
Photopsin II- green
Photopsin III- blue-violet
Night blindness is also termed?
Nyctalopia
Increased sensitivity to sound is called?
Hyperacusia
Wandering eye describes this condition?
Amblyopia
Inflammation of the eyelids is?
Blepharitis
inflamation or infection of the cornea is?
Keratitis
Pinkeye is called?
Conjunctivits
This form of conjunctivitis is the greatest single cause of blindness in the world
Trachoma
Term for constriction of the pupil?
Miosis
Term for dilation of the pupil?
mydriasis
Rapid involuntary movement of the eyeballs
Nystagmus
this is an imbalance in the extrinsic eye muscles resulting in misalignment of one eye so that its line of vision is not parallel. (cross-eyed)
Strabismus
Term for an earache
Otalgia
Falling or drooping of the eyelid
Ptosis
A tumor arising from immature retinal cells
Retinoblastoma
an area of reduced or lost vision in the visual field
scotoma
ringing, roaring or clicking in the ears
Tinnitus