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48 Cards in this Set

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bi-polar communities
economic gap in APA communities, lower class and middle class living amongst each other
dual oppression
facing oppression from people unlike you, and from your own ethnic community
o Example: Koreans working at Forever 21 experience racism from higher class Korean American at the company, as well as other races
Race according to Omi and Winant
a structuring concept
- represents social actors
- organizing principle (determining how rights and resources are allocated)
- socially constructed, historically situated, and dynamic
- a concept with real, material consequences on the social and individual levels
Race at the macro-level
neo-conservatives, liberals, radicals
Racial formation according to Omi and Winant
The sociohistorical process by which racial categories are created, inhabited, transformed and destroyed through racial projects
Racism according to Omi and Winant
The creation or reproduction of structures of domination (through racial projects), based on essentialist categories of race.
important events in the Korean American First Wave
-1903 SS Gaelic
-Chong Gak
1907-8: Gentlemen's Agreement
-Korean nationalism
Korean American 2nd wave
begins during korean war, includes spouses of Korean soldiers, war brides, skiled workers
3rd wave korean americans
post-1965.

Sa I Gu: 1992 la riots, reference point for korean american experience. first multiethnic riot
accomodationist strategy
korean americans assimilate more than other minorities. adhering to western values.
south asian americans
3rd largest asian american group in the US
includes: sri lankan, burmese nepalese, bhutanese
the south asian question
should south asian america be part of asian america, or be a separate paradigm altogether?
- south asians are asian because they are on the continent of asia
south asian american migration: 1st wave
sikhs came from punjab in 1899
1910: US vs. balsara
- characterized by migration and naturalization limitations in US
US vs. balsara
ruled that asian-indians were caucasian.
south asian migration: 2nd wave
2nd wave: coincides with indian nationalist movement, US gets involved to prove that its a world power
south asian 3rd wave
- use H1-B visas for professional and tech migrants
- family reunification
- desis: reappropriated to describe new generation
vietnamese first wave
1975.
- occurs after the fall of saigon, vietnamese evacuated and airlifted from saigon.
- military personnel and persons from educated classes came to america
vietnamese second wave
1977-1979.
includes boat people: came over on boats (mostly rural people and ethnic chinese)
vietnamese third wave
post-1979.
included immigrants, and not refugees
refugees
- migrate to flee persecution
- usually eligible for public assistance
- refugee suffered from weird health problems and sudden death
immigrants
- migrating out of their own free will.
- migrate for better material opportunities and advancement
cultural approach
argues that family structure and relationships are the outcomes of values and traditions in Asian-American families
institutional approach
argues that family structure and relationships are the outcome of legal, economic and social institutions.
split household
= 1882-1920
- economic strategy: male sojourning, worked overseas
o immigration acts restricted immigration of women
- household composition: in US, primary individual. In China, wife took care of the kids
- work and family life: segregated
- division of labor: husband/father did paid work. Wife/other relatives did unpaid, domestic and subsistence work
- conjugal roles: segregated
- intergenerational relations: strong mother-child, weak father-child tie (distant)
small producer
= 1920-1965
- economic strategy: fused
- household composition: nuclear
- work and family life: family business
- conjugal roles: joint or shared
- intergenerational relations: strong
Glenn's Institutional Analysis
Dual wage
= 1965-present
- economic strategy: individual wage work
- household composition: nuclear
- work and family life: the two fields are separated
- division of labor: husband/wife doing paid and unpaid work, kids don’t work
- conjugal roles: symmetrical, not doing the same thing, but making the same contributions to the household
- intergenerational relations: attenuated parent-child tie (less likely for families to share information, kids are distant from parents)
feminist gaze
pay attention to men/women, public/private to better understand ideologies, interactions and institutional structures in society
i. “no name woman” uses feminist gaze
b. present scholarship looks at API history primarily through working class men’s perspective
i. women are passive objects of social forces
migration and API families:
patriarchal bargains
women and men strategically negotiate and maximize their power and options within patriarchal structures

b.Pre-migration: Vietnamese women deferred to men’s authority in exchange for male economic protection
c. Vietnamese migration has given women more resources (more transferable skills, could provide nail services), men less resources

post-migration
a. Vietnamese women used heightened resources in the US to cope more effectively with male authority
i. Informal networks: as sources for emotional and material support
ii. They gossip to collectively and effectively re-interpret situations and influence male behavior
cultural membership
determined by cultural practices
racial membership
determined by biology and blood line
second-generation: portes and rumbaut
revised previous model of assimilation
- gradual adoption of dominant culture
- immigrant population is diverse
things that impact how second generation kids assimilate
a. parents
b. education
c. peer group
d. where they live
e. English speaking ability
f. Networks: resources, support system.
segmented assimilation
depends on time of arrival and context of reception.
i. voluntary ethnicity: European Americans typically experience this outcome
ii. ethnic strength: ethnicity becomes a source of strength
iii. ethnicity as a mark of subordination
pace of acculturation
different rates of for parents and kids of integration into mainstream culture
- Dissonant: parents and kids incorporated at different rates. Parents incorporated slower. Also a generational role reversal
- consonant acculturation: incorporated at the same levels
- selective acculturation: pick what to adopt from U.S. culture, and what to maintain from homeland culture
racism in assimilation
Hourglass: high skill/high education jobs at the top, low skill/low education jobs at the bottom, not many people in the middle.
Counterculture: solidarity based on the shared sense of being marginalized
Some of the immigrants experience more racism because of their skin color (especially if darker skin color), accent
hourglass
high skill/high education jobs at the top, low skill/low education jobs at the bottom, not many people in the middle.
counterculture
solidarity based on the shared sense of being marginalized
Three outcomes for members of second generation
1. downward assimilation: less successful than parents
2. mostly upward: more successful than parents, lose homeland culture/tradition
3. upward bicultural: more successful than parents, maintained lots of homeland culture/tradition

outcomes can vary overtime
pan-asianism
an ideology that Asian countries and peoples share similar values and similar histories and should be united politically or culturally.

- gained force in the 1960s with the creation of asian-american organizations/academic programs
Cultural vs. institutional:
Have stable family units
cultural "evidence":
low rates of divorce and illegitimacy

institutional explanation: spouses forced to stay together by lack of economic options
Cultural vs. institutional:
Have close ties
Cultural "evidence": absence of adolescent and teen rebellion

institutional explanation: low delinquency rates reflect demographic composition, which continued for adolescents (until mid-1950)
Cultural vs. institutional:
Are economically self-sufficient
Cultural "evidence": avoidance of welfare dependency

institutional explanation: avoidance is necessitated by the illegal status of many immigrants
Cultural vs. institutional:
Are conservative
Cultural "evidence": retention of Chinese language and customs at home

Institutional explanation: retention is a reflection of ghetto life and denial of permanent membership in society
what does race/racism do?
- Reproduces structures of domination
- creates essentialist categories
Twelve Stories:
Sophy Keng
Cambodian, fled from Thailand.
Family received government financial support = active encouragement

don't have financial resources

Dropped out of school. Sophy got married young, she had a son, now doesn't get government support.
Twelve Stories:
Boua Cha
-downward and upward bicultural
-Hmong student
-Large family lives in two different apartments.
Family receives government assistance. Boua has to maintain the house.
Speaks english well. Has lots of connections through school and church, accepted into a university.

Got married after high school, has kids. Didn't go to college.
Twelve Stories:
The Montoyas
-A filipino family
-both parents from manila, mother a nurse, father a technician
- they value good education for their kids, children don't speak native language
- have access to good resources
- downward assimilation
- consonant pace of acculturation
- filipinos have mostly upward acculturation
Twelve Stories:
Quy Nguyen
-Vietnamese covaledictorian, went to UCSD. Her siblings are well-educated too.
-parents are well-educated, left as a part of Saigon = active encouragement
-consonant pace of acculturation
-live in small community
-mostly upward, doesn't mention vietnamese culture