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120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
APA First Wave
- first generation laborers were young men
- part of larger global phenomenon: 35 million European immigrants also came to US
Invisible Minority
- race is seen as black or white
- seen as newcomers, so they’re not invited to engage in broader issues
Silent minority
- can’t share story, history
- seen in Kingston book
o challenges idea of silent minority, passive
 partly a result of invisibility
Chinese first wave
- 430,000 between 1849-1930 (drawn by the gold rush)
- Push: british opium wars, red turban rebellion, harsh economic conditions, harsh agricultural conditions
- Pull: “gold mountain”
- How: as contract laborers (not “coolies”), using “credit ticket” system, “paper sons” (sold geneaology information in light of natural disasters)
- Immigration stopped by Chinese exclusion act
APA first wave: push/pull factors
o Western colonialism
 *came to USA because European settlers were there
o War
o Economic instability, poverty
o Labor needs and recruitment
 Hawaiian sugar planters association
 Missionaries
 Countrymen
 “Divide and rule” philosophy
o Expansionist laws and philosophies: “manifest destiny”
o Biological racism: recruited laborers because they felt that others should be doing the work
o Push: British opium wars (1849-42, 1856-60); Red Turban
o Push: Precarious conditions in Guangdong
o Pull: US labor needs, labor recruiters
o Pull: Allure of gold mountain
japanese first wave
- 380,000 between 1885-1942
- Push: Perry’s 1853 excursion, meiji restoration (overhaul of japan economic system), family (dekaseginin, picture brides).
o Commodore Perry opened relations with Japan
o Picture brides were married to men based on photos, shipped to America from overseas.
- pull: spread of stories, labor brokers
- how: as laborers after Chinese Exclusion Act
korean first wave
- 7-8,00 between 1903-1920
- push: Japanese imperialism (occupied by japan), economic suffering, famine
- pull: American missionaries, newspaper ads, stories were circulated
- how: as laborers
filipino first wave
- 150-180,000 between early 1900s to 1920s
- Pull: 1898 Spanish American War, US rule, labor agents
- had become U.S. territory after Spanish American War
- push: poverty, lack of employment
- how: as laborers after Japanese and Korean exclusion, as US colonial wards (scholars, laborers, military enlistees)
sikh first wave
(smallest group)
- 6,400 between 1907-1909
- from India
- push: poverty
- pull: british colonialism, emigration agents and labor contractors, Indian pioneers
- how: as laborers after gentlemen’s agreement
"divide and rule" philosophy
Used during APA first wave immigration. dividing the large minority group into several different groups to prevent them from gaining power. Involves pitting those in smaller groups against each other to prevent harmony/unity.
model minority
- term coined at the end of civil rights movements
o Compared blacks to the quiet minority group, the APAs, to calm the madness of the civil rights movement

- got attention from media in 1960's
- used to recognize that asian american achieved success despite oppression
- it helps to excuse racism
refers to small, everyday interactions

Used in the context of sociological imagination.
= between micro and macro, social institutions like schools, family

Used in the context of sociological imagination.
social systems, structures, societies

Used in the context of sociological imagination.
definition of the sociological imagination
- “The trap”: inability to see past one’s own world and problems, and into the societal/global trends
o Pg. 5: false consciousness
- “troubles” = micro level, an individuals own problems
- “Issues” = macro level, societal problems
- Sociological imagination = a method of finding the relationship/connection between biography (micro) with history (macro). How one’s personal problems impact societal problems.
o A way out of “the trap”
represents micro level of sociological imagination
represents macro level of sociological imagination
the trap
inability to see past one’s own world and problems, and into the societal/global trends
micro level, an individuals own problems
macro level, societal problems
Orientalism (the 5 W's)
- Who
o Who is an Orientalist: anybody who researches, teaches or represents the orient
o Who is an Oriental: non-westerners
o Who wrote Orientalism: Edward Said
- What
o What is the Orient: an idea, a European invention, not Europe/“the other”
- Why
o Why is the Orient important: defines “us” in terms of “them”, the west is everything that East is not.
- Where
o Where does the Orient get its durability and strength: from Western hegemony (scholarship)
- How
o How does orientalism obscure the distinction between “representation” and “truth”: orientals are silent
 Pg. 21: “there is no such thing as a delivered presence, but a re-presence”
 “this is not a pipe” painting
- When
o Political: policy
o Pure: no effect on everyday reality
o Suprapolitical: objectivity free of policies
o Political scholarship has real concrete implications
the power of words or how we talk about something (basically “knowledge is power”). An idea by Foucault.
inhibiting the imagination, framing/defining one’s reality. A concept by Gramsci
representation vs. truth
refers to the definition of orientalism. part of the "how" orientalism works:
o How does orientalism obscure the distinction between “representation” and “truth”: orientals are silent
 Pg. 21: “there is no such thing as a delivered presence, but a re-presence”
 “this is not a pipe” painting
"pure" science
disciplines free of politics.

part of the "when" in defining orientalism.
above/beyond politics

part of orientalism "when" definition.
British opium wars
a push factor for the APA first wave immigrants.

Chinese war against Britain.
treaty of nanking
is the agreement which marked the end of the First Opium War between the United Kingdom and China.

Under the treaty, China agreed to cede Hong Kong Island (together with some small nearby islands) to the British Empire, and open various treaty ports of China for foreign trade with low tariffs

Great Britain received:

* 21 million ounces silver for compensation
* Fixed tariffs
* Extraterritoriality for British Citizens on Chinese soil
* Most Favored Nation status
red turban rebellion
a Push factor for APA first waves:
it was a Chinese peasant rebellion
a Push factor for APA first waves: Precarious conditions in Guangdong

a province on the south coast of the People's Republic of China
Chinese exclusion act
1882: stopped immigration of first wave chinese.

Prohibited immigration of Chinese contract laborers for 10 yeasrs; subsequently renewed (until 1952); prohibited naturalization
gam saan haak
= "travelers to the golden mountain"

refers to first wave chinese immigrants headed to california during the gold rush. lured by the prospect of gold mining and employment
unfree laborer who had been kidnapped or pressed into service by coercion and shipped to foreign countries.

The chinese migrants in the U.S. were not coolies, they came voluntarily.
miner's tax
passed in 1852.

"Charges alien miners a tax; targets Chinese."
cubic-air law
required 500 cubic feet in every chinese house. no more than three chinese people could live in a house. prevented multiple chinese from living together.
sidewalk ordinance
1870: banned the use of carrying baskets or loads tied to poles while walking the on sidewalks
LA riot
1871: culmination of anti-chinese sentiment. Another one of the riots that led to chinese exclusion act.
Rock springs massacre
another example of Anti-Chinese violence (riot)
page law
banned prostitutes and criminals
anti-miscegenation laws
Amends CA anti-miscegenation laws to bar marriage between whites and “Mongolians”
central pacific railroad
1865: hires first 50 Chinese laborers (“coolies”).

major source of employment for chinese. made up 90% of the workforce within 2 years.

the chinese provided ample, reliable labor to construct it.

forced them to work through the harsh winter of 1866. they wanted better wages.
transcontinental railroad
a railway that crosses a continent, typically from "sea to sea". Terminals are at or connected to different oceans. Because Europe is criss-crossed by railroads, railroads within Europe are usually not considered transcontinental, the Orient Express perhaps being an exception.
the driving out
as a result of the exclusion act. the chinese were forced out of various states around the nation.
paper son
sold genealogy information in light of disasters\

1906: chinese came in as paper sons.
reserve army
part of early chinese life

low wage workers in a “dual-wage” system
o mining
o railroad workers
o manufacturing
o agriculture (especially reclamation work)
o “retreat into self-employment”
racial wedges
racial tensions/conflict.

characterized the conditions of early chinese life in america.

related to ethnic antagonism.
dual wage system
part of early chinese american life.

the work was equal but the wages were not.
bachelor societies
a chinese society in which the men outnumber the women.
bound feet
a practice in ancient china. began in 10th century ended in 20th. young girls feet were folded in half and secured with bandages.
mui tsai
daughters from poor families who had been sold. They were servants. White protestant missionaries women helped them.
parlor house/crib
both were locations where chinese prostitutes worked.
merchant's wives
o Occupied the elite class
o By 1900: 62% of Chinese females
 Maintained the culture and the household
exceptional women
o Immigrated alone, could speak English, could use their own resources. Independent women. Used the system to their advantage
commodore perry
1853: He opened up relations with japan, kicked off japanese migration. his expedition was one of the push factors for the japanese.
American expansionism

- the US opening up of japan
o commodore perry had opened up the bay. Didn’t want him to come into japan.
- annexation of Hawaii, followed the opening up of japan
- Spanish-american war
- “Open-door” policy in china
- Philippines occupation
- Enduring legacies
manifest destiny
part of american expansionism.

a phrase that expressed the belief that the United States was destined to expand from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean; it has also been used to advocate for or justify other territorial acquisitions
Spheres of Influence
A sphere of influence (SOI) is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural, economic, military or political domination.
secretary john hay
the secretary under Teddy Roosevelt.

Hay is also renowned for his comment, written in a letter to President Theodore Roosevelt, describing the Spanish-American War as a "splendid little war."

In August 1898, Hay was named Secretary of State and helped negotiate the Treaty of Paris (1898).
open door policy
The Open Door Policy is a concept in foreign affairs stating that, in principle, all nations should have equal commercial and industrial trade rights. As a theory, the Open Door Policy originates with British commercial practice, as was reflected in treaties concluded with Qing China after the First Opium War (1839-1842).
fists of righteous harmony
The Society of Right and Harmonious Fists (Traditional Chinese: 義和團; Simplified Chinese: 义和团; pinyin: Yìhétuán); was a society in China that executed the unsuccessful Boxer Rebellion in the closing years of the 19th century. They were anti-foreign (originally against the Qing government, but eventually turning against Christian converts and colonizing foreign powers). The society's slogan then was "support the Qing and destroy the foreigners".
boxer rebellion
1900. Attacks against foreigners by Empress-supported “Boxers” (“Fists of Righteous Harmony”). Defeated by an international relief force. US participation allows US access to China’s markets until WWII.
kanaka maoli
= the native hawaiians

the Polynesian peoples of the Hawaiian Islands who trace their ancestry back to Marquesan and possibly Tahitian settlers (starting circa AD 400), before the arrival of British explorer Captain James Cook in 1778.
taking over another place as a territory
queen lili’uokalani
the sister of the first monarch, kalakaua.

under 1893 revolution: lili’uokalani was imprisoned and surrenders throne
republic of hawaii
created in 1894

The Republic of Hawaiʻi was the formal name of Hawaiʻi from 1894 to 1898 when it was run as a republic. The republic period occurred between the administration of the Provisional Government of Hawaiʻi which ended on July 4, 1894 and the adoption of the Newlands Resolution in Congress in which the Republic was annexed to the United States and became the Territory of Hawaiʻi on July 7, 1898.
William mckinley
As president, he fought the Spanish-American War in an attempt to expand United States colonial power. After victory in the "splendid little war," he annexed the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam, as well as Hawaii. He was reelected by a landslide over Bryan again in 1900. He was assassinated by anarchist Leon Czolgosz and succeeded by Theodore Roosevelt.
yellow journalism
Yellow journalism is a pejorative reference to journalism that features scandal-mongering, sensationalism, jingoism or other unethical or unprofessional practices by news media organizations or individual journalists.

The term originated during the circulation battles between Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal from 1895 to about 1898, and can refer specifically to this period. Both papers were accused by critics of sensationalizing the news in order to drive up circulation, although the newspapers did serious reporting as well.
william randolph hearst
His New York City paper, the New York Morning Journal, became known for sensationalist writing and for its agitation in favor of the Spanish-American War, and the term yellow journalism (a pejorative reference to scandal-mongering, sensationalism, jingoism and similar practices) was derived from the Journal's color comic strip, The Yellow Kid.
Joseph Pulitzer
In 1895, William Randolph Hearst purchased the rival New York Journal, which led to a circulation war. This competition with Hearst, particularly the coverage before and during the Spanish-American War, linked Pulitzer's name with yellow journalism.
The World
a newspaper by pulitzer
Spanish-American War
Four-month war in Cuba and Philippines, which ends with a treaty transferring the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam to US rule.
Commodore Dewey
attacks spain in manila bay

an admiral of the United States Navy, best known for his victory (without the loss of a single life of his own forces due to combat; one man died of heat exhaustion) at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War.
manila bay
took place on the 1 May 1898 during the Spanish-American War. The American Asiatic Squadron under Commodore George Dewey engaged the Spanish Pacific Squadron under Admiral Patricio Montojo y Pasarón and destroyed the Spanish squadron.
Teddy Roosevelt
As Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Navy, he prepared for and advocated war with Spain in 1898. He organized and helped command the first U.S. volunteer cavalry regiment, the Rough Riders, during the Spanish-American War.
Rough riders
"The Rough Riders" was the name bestowed by the American press on the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment during the Spanish-American War.
kettle hill
The Battle of San Juan Hill was the bloodiest and most famous battle of the Spanish-American War.
treaty of paris
signed on December 10, 1898, ended the Spanish-American War. The Treaty of Paris provided that Cuba would become an independent country, and the United States acquired Puerto Rico and Guam and agreed to pay Spain twenty million dollars for the Philippines.
a term that may be applied to any idea or movement opposed to some form of imperialism.

Example: members of the Anti-Imperialist League that opposed the occupation of the Philippines during the Spanish-American War
which countries were affected by the treaty of paris?
Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines

The first country acquired its independence.

Spain acquired the last three countries listed.
meiji restoration
1868: one of the push factors for first wave japanese

An overhaul of japan economic system. Japan’s rapid urbanization and industrialization to “protect itself against imperialist powers.” Brings about great Japanese social disruption and agricultural decline.
plantation society
- largest population in HI by 1923
- hard work, harsh conditions
- 1853: 97% in HI
o Becoming the majority of the population enabled them to form their own enterprises
- 1923: 16% in HI
- Divide and rule: didn’t want servants to get along because if they worked well together, they may rebel. Supervisors/plantation owners did the dividing
- Relative cultural autonomy: Japanese were the dominant group
o Despite divisive attempts, the population could still create solidarity
- HI laborers association: protesting work and pay
alien land law
Bars all aliens as citizenship. Therefore bars aliens from owning land in CA.
immigrant act of 1924
people from places where they can’t become citizens cannot come to US.
- Children of immigrants, 2nd generation
- By 1930’s, 50% of Japanese Americans
- Children of two worlds
- WWII was a defining moment for the japanese
first-generation Japanese immigrants to America.
children of the Nisei.
pearl harbor
a simple spot on the island of Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi, west of Honolulu. Much of it and its surrounding lands is a United States Navy deep water naval base: headquarters of the U.S. Pacific Fleet. The attack on ______ by Japan on December 7, 1941 brought the United States into World War II.
Shikata Ga Nai
a Japanese language phrase meaning "it can't be helped" or "nothing can be done about it".

Historically, it has been applied to situations in which masses of Japanese people as a whole have been made to suffer, including the Allied Occupation of Japan, Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation and the Japanese American Internment.
Feb 1942: executive order 9066, by FDR.
Executive Order 9066
by FDR.

This order authorized U.S. armed forces commanders to declare areas of the United States as military areas "from which any or all persons may be excluded."
Farewell to Manzanar
-daughter of issei and Nisei
-interned in 1942
-wrote manzanar in 1973
loyalty oath
questions 27 and 28 on the internment camp questionnaire. people who replied no to these questions were called no-no boys
civil liberties act of 1988
a United States federal law that granted reparations to Japanese-Americans who had been interned by the United States government during World War II.
orientalism: basic definition
- Draws from the ideas of at least 2 other theorists: Foucault and Gramsci
- A theory of cultural domination from the east by the west through hegemonic discourse (on that frames reality).
The three main immigration acts
-Chinese exclusion act -gentlemen’s agreement
-1917 immigration act
What are the defining events for the japanese?
Pearl Harbor and the Internment Camps
Why did immigration continue after the gentlemen’s agreement?
This is because spouses and children could still come.
What were the four categories of chinese women during the first wave?
prostitutes, mui tsai, merchants wives, exceptional women.
Partial truth
How orientalism obscures the distinction between “representation” and “truth”
What created the japanese emigration "explosion"?
Japanese government allows recruitment of contract laborers
What was the significance of Hawaii's annexation?
1896: First US acquisition of Pacific territory
USS Maine Explosion
Sensationalized incident helps spark Spanish-American War
Philippine-American War
Three-year war for Philippine independence from America. Led by Emilio Aguinaldo.
SF School Board Decree
Declares that all persons of Asian ancestry must attend segregated schools in Chinatown.
Gentlemen's agreement
Mutual agreement between Japan and the US to limit Japanese emigration to the US, with the exception of wives, children, and other relatives of existing relatives.
Immigration Act
Declares immigrants from Asia as prohibited, because of ineligibility for citizenship.
National Origins Quota
Puts in effect discriminatory quotas according to national origin groups.
Tydings-McDuffie Act
Provided for Filipino independence from US after a 10-year “transitional period,” during which the US could maintain military forces in the PI.
What are the dates of WWII
Pearl Harbor attack
Dec 7, 1941
when the US joins. Had the most significant impact on Japanese american life.
Executive Order 9066 signed
Authorizes US military to evacuate any and all persons from “military areas” and provide accommodations for them elsewhere
Civilian Exclusion Orders
Issued by the US army. Required “all Japanese persons, both alien and non-alien will be evacuated” from areas on the Pacific coast, and confined to “relocation camps”.
What happened when WWII ended?
japan surrendered, the japanese relocation camps closed
Filipino Naturalization Act
Overturns Naturalization Act of 1790, making Filipino nationals racially eligible to become naturalized
Philippines independence
Official American occupation ends in the PI; although US military installations remain until 1992
McCarran-Walter Act
Prohibits discriminatory race and gender quotas.
Retains national preferences; installs occupational preferences.
US Civil Rights Act
Prohibited discrimination for reason of color, race, religion, or national origin, and sex. Desegregated public schools, and forbade employment discrimination.
US Voting Rights Act
Placed federal observers at polls to ensure equal voting rights
Immigration Act
Abolishes national origins quota system, and creates system of equal per-country visa limits. Revises family and occupational preferences.
Civil Liberties Act
Awards $20K per victim as reparations for US internment of Japanese Americans during WWII