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61 Cards in this Set

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What is Aphasia?
Aquired Impairment in language, not speech for formulation (verbal/written) and comprehension (auditory/reading)
What is Language?
It involves semantics, syntax, morphology, phonology-graphology, and pragmatics. Aphasia affects all of these and social skills.
What are the language modalities impacted in Aphasia?
Formulation and Comprehension- Formulation consists of verbal output/expression (spontaneous, elicited, repetition) and written output (mechanics and meaning). Comprehension consists of auditory (comprehension/ understanding what is said) and reading (oral and understanding what is read)
How is Aphasia acquired?
Results from a new damage to the brain- "normal" prior to this with present language
What do nerve cells include?
Glial cells and neurons
What are glial cells?
They support and separate neurons and nerve fiber tracts
What are neurons comprised of?
Cell body, dendrites, axons, and synapse
What do dendrites do?
Receive information from other neurons and transmit it to the cell body
What do axons do?
Carry info away from cell body to other neurons
Some are covered in myelin to conduct info faster
What's a synapse?
tiny space between axon and dendrite- chemical process where chemical is released from the axon, travels across synapse, stimulates dendrite of another neuron
How are neurons characterized?
By function- Sensory respond to stimulation or receive input - Motor is responsible for muscles and glands- Interneurons connect neurons to other neurons (99%)
What is the Central Nervous System divided into?
Gray and White Matter
What is Grey Matter composed of?
Cell bodies, dendrites, and glial cells
What is White Matter composed of?
myelinated axons (white due to color of myelin around axon)
What is included in the CNS?
BRAIN, brain stem, cerebellum, and spinal cord
What does the CNS do?
Perceives and processes info (sensation, emotions, respiration, regulates behavior, thinking, remembering, comprehension)
What are the protective portions of the brain?
Skull and Meninges
What is the skulls purpose and composition?
To enclose and protect the brain- 8 plates, 4 on each side
What is the cranial vault?
the space inside the skull
What is the foramen magnum?
the opening at the base of the cranial vault where the brain stem passes to the spinal cord
What are the 3 Meninges?
Dura Mater, Arachnoid, and Pia mater (PAD)
What is the Dura Mater?
tough membrane that encloses the brain and lines the brain space
What is the Arachnoid?
spider weblike structure between Dura and Pia Maters- the space is called subarachnoid space
What is the Subarachnoid Space filled with and why?
Cerebrospinal fluid to protect CNS from trauma, carry waste from CNS, and is a place for metabolic compounds to travel
What is the Pia Mater?
It adheres tightly to the brain- contains many veins and arteries
What is the brain?
Largest part of CNS
Soft and mushy
Weighs 3 lbs.(3/4 water, 1/4 glial cells, neurons, and connective tissue)
2% of body mass
What is the brain dependent upon?
Constant supplies of Oxygen (uses 20% cardiac output and 25% of oxygen used by body)
10 seconds w/o- lose consciousness 20 secs w/o- heart stops 2-3 mins- brain damage
What is anoxia?
When no oxygen gets to the brain
What is the Cerebrum?
Contains 3/4 CNS Mass
Right and left hemispheres divided by longitudinal cerebral fissure
What is the longitudinal cerebral fissure?
deep fissure in the cerebrum that divides it into 2 hemispheres (right and left)
What is the surface of the Cerebrum called?
Cortex- pink in color, rich in nerve cells and blood vessels- has convolutions
What are sulci?
Depressions or valleys in cortex
What are fissures?
very deep sulci in the cortex
What are gyri?
ridges/convolutions in the cortex
What are the 2 prominent fissures on the LATERAL surface of each cerebrum hemisphere called?
Central Fissure (or fissure of Rolando or central sulcus) and Lateral Cerebral Fissure (or fissure of Sylvius)
What is the Central Fissure? (Fissure of Rolando)
It goes down the lateral surface of each hemisphere dividing it into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions
What is the Lateral Cerebral Fissure? (Fissure of Sylvius)
It goes along the lateral surface from front to back
What are the left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum used for?
Left- Language
Right- Creativity and Apprehension
What are the 4 lobes of the brain?
Frontal
Parietal
Occipital
Temporal
What is the Frontal lobe?
1/3 cortex in brain with the lateral cerebral fissure as its lower boundary, central fissure as its posterior boundary
FXN: Planning and execution fxns, some language, attention
What is the Parietal lobe?
Located: behind central fissure (anterior boundary) lateral cerebral fissure (lower boundary) 1-2 inches from occipital pole (posterior boundary)
FXN: perception and integration of touch, body awareness, visuospatial info
What is the Occipital Lobe?
Location: posterior portion of each hemisphere
posterior portion of parietal lobe to longitudinal cerebral fissure at occipital pole
FXN: processing visual info
What is the Temporal Lobe?
Location: bottom 1/3 of each hemisphere- lateral cerebral fissure marks upper boundary- anterior portion of occipital lobe is posterior boundary
FXN: Perception and discrimination of auditory stimuli
What are the 2 primary functions of the cortex?
Primary cortex (motor and sensory fxn) and Association areas (interpretation of information from primary cortex, planning motor sequences and activities)
What is the primary motor cortex?
narrow strip in front of the central fissure around the precentral gyrus
What is the function of the primary motor cortex?
Initiates/controls motor movement (muscles on contralateral side of body)
What is the Homunculus? (Little Man)
map of motor cortex- arranged upside down with foot/toes at top and downward to face- hand, mouth,tongue, and larynx comprise large areas of motor cortex - found in motor cortex
What is the primary somatosensory cortex?
Location: just behind central fissure (postcentral gyrus)
FXN: Somesthetic sensation (skin, muscle, joint, tendon) on contralateral side of body
What is the primary auditory cortex?
Location: upper surface of temporal lobe, near transverse temporal gyrus
FXN: hearing
What is the primary visual cortex?
Location: Occipital bone
FXN: Vision
What is the primary olfactory cortex?
Location: Posterior inferior frontal lobe
FXN: Smell
What are the 4 primary cortex areas?
Primary auditory cortex, primary olfactory cortex, primary visual cortex, and primary somatosensory cortex
What are the 4 association cortex?
Frontal assocation cortex, parietal association cortex, temporal association cortex, and parieto-occipital association cortex
What is the frontal association cortex?
Location: in front of primary motor cortex (premotor cortex)
FXN: planning and initiating volitional movements
What is the parietal association cortex?
FXN: processes tactile information, sense of position in space, visuospatial processing
What is the temporal association cortex?
FXN: discrimination and processing of auditory information
What is the parieto-occipital association cortex?
FXN: discrimination and processing of visual information, visual processing related to reading
What does damage to the frontal lobe result in?
Primary motor cortex- weakness/paralysis of muscles on contralateral side of body
Premotor Cortex- decreased complex volitional movements
Anterior Frontal Lobe- decreased affect, decreased attention, decreased initiation, possible behavior problems
What does damage to the Parietal lobe result in?
Primary Sensory cortex- contralateral issues, tactile agnosis (unable to recognize items by touch)
Association Cortex- decreased visuospatial skills, impaired drawing and copying, decreased processing of complex visual stimuli
What does damage to the Occipital Lobe result in?
Primary/Association Cortex: can cause blindness
Association cortex: visual agnosia (unable to recognize even though they can see it), in left hemisphere, could result in serious reading impairment
What does damage to the Temporal Lobe result in?
Primary Auditory Cortex: decreased processing of auditory information
Association cortex: located in left temporal lobe, decreased processing of auditory information