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40 Cards in this Set

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a large, complex organization composed of appointed officials
bureaucracy
an economic theory that government should not regulate or interfere with commerce
laissez-faire
the extent to which appointed bureaucrats can choose courses of action and make policies that are not spelled out in advance by laws
discretionary authority
the government offices to which people are appointed on the basis of merit, as ascertained by a written exam or by applying certain selection criteria
competitive service
a job that is filled by a person whom an agency has already identified
name-request job
a close relationship between an agency, a congressional committee, and an interest group
iron triangle
a network of people in Washington DC- based interest groups, on congressional staffs, in universities and think tanks, and in the mass media, who regularly discuss and advocate public policies
issue network
legislative permission to begin or continue a government program or agency
authorization legislation
a legislative grant of money to finance a government program or agency
appropriation
funds for government programs that are collected and spent outside the regular government budget
trust funds
funds for government programs that are collected and spent outside the regular government budget
trust funds
the ability of congressional committee to review and approve certain agency decisions in advance without passing a law
committee clearance
the authority of Congress to block a presidential action after it has taken place. The Supreme Court has held that Congress does not have this power
legislative veto
complex bureaucratic rules and procedures that must be followed to get something done
red tape
What has the Constitution said about bureaucracy?
Almost nothing
What was the original role of bureuacracy?
To serve not regulate

Power of regulation can only be given to them by Congress
What are the three areas of power for bureacracies?
Paying subsidies
Transferring money from federal to state to local levels
Devising and enforcing regulation
Who gives the written test for a recommendation into the bureaucracy?
Office of Personal Management (OPM)
Why is the OPM referral no longer needed?
It was not relevant and was difficult
OPM didn't take professionals into account, professionals are needed
had to change racial composition
What are the exceptions to the new methods of selecting government employees?
Presidential appointments
Schedule appointments
Noncareer executive assignments
What has the merit system caused?
outrage over the spoils system
fear of Democrat anti-spoils wave
Can a President fire a bureaucrat that was not appointed by him?
No
What is the difference between government and private businesses?
The government has a larger number of constituents
What is the biggest constraint in bureaucracy?
No job belongs to any single agency
Why are there less iron triangles now?
Because there are more interest groups
What kind of supervision does Congress have on Bureaucracy?
-No agency may exist without Congress approval
-no money spent without authorization
-funds may not be spent no matter what unless appropriated
What are five major problems with bureaucracy?
red tape, conflict, duplication, imperialism, and waste
Why does conflict appear between agencies?
The agencies have cross purposes
What is duplication in bureacracy?
Two agencies do the same thing
What is imperialism in bureaucracy?
Agencies grow without care to cost
What is waste in bureaucracy?
Spending more than needed
Why do the major problems within bureaucracy exist?
To control the agencies
What is the latest attempt to reform the bureaucracy?
National Performance Review (NPR)
What are 5 examples for constraints?
Administrative Procedure Act
Freedom of Information Act
National Environmental Policy Act
Privacy Act
Open Meeting Law
Before adopting a nw rule or policy, an agency must give notice, solicit comments, and (often) hold hearings
Administrative Procedure Act
citizens have the right to inspect all government records except those containing military, intelligence, or trade secrets or revealing private personnel actions
Freedom of Infomation Act
Before undertaking any major action affecting the environment, an agency must issue an environmental impact statement
National Environment Policy Act
Government files about individuals, such as Social Security and tax records, must be kept confidential
Privacy Act
Every part of every agency meeting must be open to the public unless certain matters (for example, military or trade secrets) are being discussed
Open Meeting Law
What is original jurisdiction for Supreme Court?
Cases involving:

-two or more states
-the US and a state
-Foreign ambassadors and other diplomats
-A state and a citizen of a different state