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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
series, or log, of discussion items on a page of the World Wide Web
a radio or video clip of someone speaking
sound bite
an FCC rule that if a broadcaster sells time to one candidate, it must sell equal time to other candidates
equal time
information leaked to the media to test public reaction to a possible policy
trial balloon
words that imply a value judgement, used to persuade a reader without having made a serious argument
loaded language
media stories about events that are regularly covered by reporters
routine stories
media stories about events that, though public, are not regularly covered by reporters
feature stories
media stories about events that are not usually made public
insider stories
paying attention only to those news stories with which one already agrees
selective attention
the tendency of the national media to be suspicious of officials and eager to reveal unflattering stories about them
adversarial press
a public official's statement to a reporter that is given on condition that the official not be named
A newspaper can't be required to give someone a right to reply to one of its stories
Miami Herald vs. Toronto
How do we know that the information given through the media is correct?
The Internet and television check each other's news
How free is the press in the US?
It's the freest in the world, also libel laws are much looser than in other countries
What are two limits to the newspaper?
Must make a profit
Media bias
Describe the Party Press era.
How did it become what it was?
Political parties controlled the press because circulation was small and expensive, so only elites could afford it. At this time it was mostly elites that were into politics
Describe the Popular Press era. How did it become what it was?
Was the rise of self-supporting press and daily mass-readership. This was all due to the introduction of the high-rotary press.
Describe Magazines of Opinion and how they came to be.
Magazines of opinion were mass-circulated newspapers by local publishers. They came from the growing middles class repelled by "yellow journalism" and also wanted reform.
What is the advantage to politicians of electronic journalism?
They can speak directly to the audience without filters
What is the disadvantage to politicians of electronic journalism?
People can ignore it and it is also expensive.
How are talk shows preferable to talking heads in a politician's opinion?
There is a more easygoing atmosphere.
What is the ultimate free market for political news?
The internet
Where can you raise the most money in terms of media?
The internet
What is it called when two newspapers merge on the business side but keep their editorial independence?
joint operating agreement
Which form of media is intensely competitive?
Radio and TV
In the US, is the press locally or federally managed?
What group(s) provide all national news?
Associated Press and United Press International
What is the gatekeeper's role in National Media?
can influence what becomes national political issues
What is the scorekeeper's role in National Media?
keep track of and make political candidiates. Also decides who is winning.
What is the watchdog's role in National Media?
put close scrutiny on the candidate
What is the watchdog's opinion on candidates?
Tolerant on underdogs and tough on frontrunners
What is the least competitive form of media?
big city newspapers
Do reporters believe in confidentiality of sources?
Is confidentiality of sources to a reporter applicable in court?
No, in order to have a fair trial, even reporters must be compelled to produce the documents
Can police search a reporter's office for documental evidence?
No, they can only subpoena required documents unless it is a special case.
Who must get a license to broadcast? From where do they get it? How often must the license be renewed?
Radio and TV. FCC. 5 years for radio, 7 years for TV
Which is the most deregulated: radio or tv?
Does the equal time rule affect candidates campaigning on tv and radio?
Yes, must provide equal access and no higher than the cheapest price applicable.
What are the views of the memebers of the media?
Most are liberal, more so than the average citizen. More tend to be secular.
Are talk shows conservative or liberal?
Do the beliefs of the national media affect how they report the news?
Yes.Press philosophy in the US is to be neutral and objective. But it is difficult to see if this is achieved.
What are the three kinds of stories?
Routine, feature, and insider
How do these stories reflect the writer?
routine- reflect editor but is neutral

feature and insider- relect reporter
Does what the media write or say influence how their readers and viewers think? Why?
Probably. Some get influenced and others don't. It depends on selective attention.
Who was the first president to cultivate media?
Theodore Roosevelt
Why doe we have so many news leaks?
Our government has so many branches and they all compete for power by getting attention from the press.
Does America have news leaks?
America has the most leaks in the world.
What event(s) caused a distrust between the press and politicians?
Vietnam War and Watergate Scandal
Are negative attacking ads effective?
Yes it makes the opposition lose votes but at the same time decreases voter turnout.
When a source is quoted by name.
on the record
When a source can't be used
off the record
When a source is anonymous
on background
When a source is not only anonymous but also not mentioned as being from a source at all
on deep background