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160 Cards in this Set

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Who was the Nigerian steward of the environment concerned about oil spills and toxic waste?
Ken Saro-Wiwa
Author of The Population Bomb.
Paul Ehrlich
Who was Edward O. Wilson?
A leader in promoting biodiversity
He was a watchdog that founded the World Watch Institute and many other things.
Lester Brown
Who was the other watchdog that helped establish the EPA, Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act?
Ralph Nader
He helped bring the US out of the Great Depression, was involved in the Soil Conservation Act of 1935 and helped with the TVA.
Franklin D Roosevelt
What was OPEC and the 1973 Energy Crisis?
OPEC said it would no longer ship oil to the US or any other supporters of Israel and led to many countries switching to often-permanent ways of remaining energy independent.
What main idea did Mathama Gandhi introduce?
The idea that the earth can not support every person's greed.
These were two of the "bad" people for the environment. One developed Freon and Ethyl leaded gasoline, the other tetra-ethyl lead and CFCs.
Charles Kettering and Thomas Midgley
Who was the Kenyan woman who planted over 10 million trees as of 2000?
Wangari Maathai
What was the incident called when the river in Ohio caught on fire in 1969 because of pollutants and lead to the Clean Water Act?
The Cuyahoga River Incident
Who wrote Silent Spring and what pesticide was it about?
Rachel Carson; DDT
This man founded the Sierra Club and was a major preservationist.
John Muir
He was the 1st environmentally friendly president.
Teddy Roosevelt.
What was the worst industrial disaster ever?
Union Carbide in Bhopal, India
Who was awarded a Nobel Peace prize for his movie, An Inconvenient Truth?
Al Gore
Who was the farmer who protested logging in t Mexico-Pro rain forest?
Rodolfo Montiel
What was the Exxon Valdez Incident?
An oil spill in 1989 where 11 million gallons of oil spilled in to Prince Edward Sound and it's still leaking into Alaskan waters.
Who was Lois Gibbs and what is she associated with?
Lois Gibbs was associated with Love Canal, a canal near Niagara Falls that was filled with hazardous wastes and sold to a school.
Who were the two worst presidents for the environment and what did they do?
Ronald Reagan and George Bush.
Reagan appointed federal positions to people who opposed env. laws, increased private energy and mineral development on public land, cut funding for energy conservation research, and lowered standards for MPG.
Bush continued exploitation of public land, allowed env. acts to be undercut and relaxed the Clean Air Act.
What was the problem with Donora, PA in 1948?
There was smog over the city that came from the steel mill emissions and it got 6,000+ people sick and about 70 died. It set laws for air pollution and got the CAA of 1970 started.
Who is the father of wildlife ecology?
Aldo Leopold
What is the nuclear power plant accident that started the decline of nuclear power for the US?
Three Mile Island.
What major fund did Jimmy Carter start and what was it for?
The Superfund and it was to help clean up toxic and hazardous abandoned waste sites.
What was the worst nuclear power plant accident in history?
Chernobyl.
Who discovered and campaigned against lead in gasoline?
Alice Hamilton.
What does CAA stand for.
The Clean Air Act.
What is the EPA?
The Environmental Protection Agency.
What halved the amount of CFCs going into the atmosphere?
The Montreal Protocol.
This law increased regulation of SOx and NOx and allowed trading of credits.
The Clean Air Act.
This treaty was made to cut down on greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
The Kyoto Protocol.
What are the three ways our water is used the most?
Agriculture irrigation, crop growing, and domestic use.
What is the effect that dammed rivers have on the estuaries that they feed?
The estuaries get saltier and the organisms die.
What is the largest aquifer in the US and where is it found?
The Ogallala aquifer and it's in the western US.
What is xeriscaping?
It's designing your land, usually agricultural, so that you can maximize the effects of a minimal amount of water.
What is a rain shadow?
It's the side of a mountain that doesn't get rain because the clouds can't make it over the mountain.
What is the first step in a Wastewater Treatment Plant and where does that waste go?
The water passes through a bar screen to catch the big stuff which is then taken to the landfill.
What is the second step in a Wastewater Treatment Plant?
The grit tank.
What are primary and secondary settling in WWTPs?
They let the nasty stuff that's left sink to the bottom.
What three places can the water go after a second settling tank?
The water can go back into the air tank, it can go to the anaerobic digester , or it can go to a disinfection tank.
Which nutrient cycle has guano as a main feature?
The phosphorous cycle.
What two nutrient cycles can lead to clouds forming and global cooling?
The water and carbon cycles.
What nutrient cycle involves volcanoes?
The sulfur cycle.
What nutrient gets locked up in marine sediments?
Phosphorous.
Which nutrient cycle involves combustion?
The carbon cycle.
In which nutrient cycle can lightning be a factor?
The nitrogen cycle.
What nutrient cycle uses nodules on the roots of legumes?
The nitrogen cycle.
Which two nutrient cycles use evapotranspiration?
The water and carbon cycles.
Which nutrient cycle uses oil and coal?
The carbon cycle.
This nutrient cycle deals with the protein part of body tissue.
The nitrogen cycle.
Which nutrient cycle deals primarily with photosynthesis and respiration?
The carbon cycle.
Which nutrient cycle is dependent on gravity?
The water cycle.
What is the main gaseous substance removed from the air by plants in the carbon cycle?
CO2
What form of nitrogen isn't usable be plants or animals?
N2
What organisms are main agents of nitrification and ammonification?
Bacteria.
Why is there an aeration tank and what is it used for in WWTPs?
It's the most important part of treating wastewater and microorganisms feed on our wastes and convert nitrates to N2 and solids are decomposed to CO2 and H2O.
Survival to an age when you can reproduce is...
Recruitment
The number of offspring that a female is able to produce under ideal conditions is....
Biotic potential (BP)
Abiotic and biotic factors that limit a population's growth is...
Environmental resistance (ER)
Biotic potential v. environmental resistance, or the number of individuals in an area is called...
Population density
What is the Goldilocks idea?
The idea that there is a medium that is stable, and anything on either side is bad.
The predator-prey cycle shows that...
When the number of predators are up, the number of prey are down, and then is followed by a rise in prey, and then a rise in predators, which starts the cycle over again.
What is interspecific competition?
Competition between two of the same type of animals for something. Example: A robin and a bluejay.fighting for a worm.
What is intraspecific competition?
Competition between two of the same species of animals for something. Example: Two robins.fighting for a worm.
The theory that no two organisms can occupy the same niche and coexist in the same location is...
The competitive exclusion principle.
Resource partitioning is...
Species occupying similar niches, but not quite the same allowing them to live.
What is the term for a species, who if removed from the ecosystem causes less diversity and possibly an ecosystem crash?
A keystone species. Example: An otter or mangrove tree.
What type of growth does a J-curve represent?
Exponential growth.
What type of curve shows growth that goes up to the carrying capacity and then hovers there?
An S-curve.
Carrying capacity is..
The maximum number of individuals that a population can support without degradation.
What is the difference between a k-strategist and an r-strategist?
A k-strategist has few offspring, cares for them a lot and has a high chance of reaching recruitment. Example: elephants, humans, bears.
An r-strategist has many offspring, cares for them a little and has a low chance of reaching recruitment. Example: roaches, bacteria, mice
The minimum number of individuals a population can have and still survive and recover is...
The critical number.
What is the difference between controlling population by top-down and bottom-up?
Top-down controls using predation, bottom-up controls using scarcity of a resource.
What is an event that is more effective if the population is in close proximity to each other?
A density dependent factor. Example: predation.
What is an event that affects the population no matter how close the individuals are to each other?
A density independent factor. Example: a deep freeze or a fire.
In primary succession ____ is the starting point.
Rock.
In secondary succession ____ is the starting point.
Soil
What are two "pioneers" on solid rock that show mutualism by breaking down the rock into soil, and having a place to stay?
Lichens and mosses.
What are pioneers?
The first organisms to colonize in succession.
The top stage of succession is...
A climax community.
A non-catastrophic fire that is necessary for healthy ecosystems by helping clean out the forest floor and making way for new life is a...
Ground fire.
A fire in the tops of trees that are catastrophic is a...
Crown fire.
Annuals...
Grow only one year, must reseed.
Perennials...
Come back every year from root stock.
The formation of new species from old species is...
Speciation.
MSW is...
Municipal solid waste
Organic matter allowed to decompose in air is...
Compost.
The largest component of MSW is...
Paper and paperboard.
A landfill is...
A facility used to store MSW.
WTE stands for...
Waste to energy.
In primary recycling, the waste is used to make...
New products like the parent materials. Example: Paper to paper.
In secondary recycling, the waste is used to make...
Different products that may not be recyclable.
Water and chemicals that drain from landfills is...
Leachate
The bottle law...
Required deposits on reusable glassware.
The final waste product of WTE facilities is...
Fly ash
An industrial chimney is also called...
A stack.
Reducing potential waste during product development is called...
Source reduction
A refuse cell is...
A storage unit of landfills.
What is VOCONOSOPM and what do the 5 parts stand for?
It's a mnemonic device to remember the major pollutants.
VOC - Volatile Organic Compound
CO - Carbon Monoxide
NO(x) - Nitrogen Oxides
SO(x) - Sulfur Oxides
PM - Particulate Matter
Biotic means...
Of organic origin.
Of non-organic origin is...
Abiotic.
Organic means...
Of carbon/hydrogen.
A group of a single species in a specified area is a...
Population.
An association is...
A close knit group of different populations.
An ecosystem is...
Groupings of populations of different types that work together to meet each other's ecological needs. Includes all biotic and abiotic factors.
A fancy word for "boundary" between two ecosystems or aquatic systems is...
An ecotone.
A biome is...
A major life zone.
All biomes together from about one km down to eight km up is...
The biosphere.
What captures sunlight and uses photosynthesis to make O2 and C6H12O6?
A producer.
What is C6H12O6?
Glucose.
What does chlorophyll do?
It captures sunlight.
Another word for a producer is an...
Autotroph.
What is a consumer?
Something that eats producers or other consumers.
What is another word for consumer?
A heterotroph.
A predator that lives in prey is called...
A parasite.
What do detritivores eat?
Dead stuff.
What do we call the group that breaks down dead things?
Decomposers.
The trophic level is also known as the...
Feeding level.
The "mass" of all the biological items is known as...
The biomass.
How are the biomass pyramid and energy pyramid related?
The higher you go one the biomass pyramid, the less of each level you have. Example: There is less biomass of all the humans on earth than of all the plants on earth.
The higher you go on the energy pyramid, the less energy is transferred. Only 1/10 of the energy in the level below gets to the level above. Example: If grass has an energy of 1000, and cows are the next level up, they only get 100.
If only 10% of the energy in one trophic level makes it to the next level, the other 90% is...
Waste heat.
Symbiosis means..
Organisms working in some relationship with each other.
Where something lives is it's...
Habitat.
A niche is..
An organism's "job" or role.
The range of tolerance is...
The range up to which an organism can live and survive.
Slash and Burn and swidden are the same words for...
The practice of burning a forest to ashes to fertilize the land, then growing crops on it for about 3 years, and then moving to another plot to repeat the process, and then returning to the original plot after decades, giving it time to recover.
The part of history where we grew food and raised animals to support ourselves.
The Agricultural Revolution.
Hunting and Gathering was...
The first way humans obtained food but it could only support a small population.
The part of history where we had mechanized farming and more people working in factories was...
The Industrial Revolution.
The present stage of human development is...
The Information & Globalization Revolution.
The Conservationist Movement is also known as...
The Wise Use Movement.
A conservationist is...
One who promotes that concept of using wilderness land for sustainable, multiple uses.
A preservationist is...
One who promotes the concept of using the wilderness only for low-impact fun such as hiking and camping.
The Sagebrush Rebellion was...
A coalition of ranchers, miners, loggers, farmers and some elected officials who were against regulation of the use of public lands.
What are HAZMATs and what qualifies a substance to be a HAZMAT?
A HAZMAT is a hazardous material that has one or more of the following: high ignitability, high corrosivity, high reactivity and/or high toxicity.
What is the difference between LD50 and LDL0?
LD50 is the dose at which 50% of test organisms die.
LDL0 is the lowest dose at which death occurred in animals.
What is the threshold level?
The level at which no ill effects are observed.
What does EPCRA stand for and what does it do?
It's the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act or 1986 and it requires industries to report the locations and quantities of toxic chemicals stored at sites and to report the releases of toxic chemicals into the environment.
What is PERC?
One of the halogenated hydrocarbons that's used in dry cleaning.
What are the 3 methods of land disposal and how do they differ?
Deep-well injection, surface impoundments and landfills.
Deep-well injection is putting the wastes under the water table.
Surface impoundments are putting wastes in a pond and holding them there.
Landfills are piles of trash.
The SDWA is the...
Safe Drinking Water Act and it let the EPA set national standards to protect public health.
Superfund is also known as...
CERCLA or the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act or 1980.
What is phytoremediation?
The use of plants to suck the toxic chemicals out of soil.
What are LUSTs?
Leaking Underground Storage Tanks.
What is DOT Regs and what does it regulate??
The Department of Transportation Regulations and it regulates containers and methods of packing in the transport of various HAZMATs.
What Act requires industries to inform workers of the hazards of working with certain materials.
OSHA or the Occupational Safety and Health Act.
What is a MSDS?
A material safety data sheet.
What is SARA?
The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986.
What is Title III of SARA called?
EPCRA or Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-know Act.
What does RCRA mandate?
The tracking of hazardous materials from "cradle to grave"
What is important about El Niño?
It stops the usual ways of making money in some parts of the world where fishing is important.
Why are CFCs so bad for the ozone layer?
Because one CFC can reduce many ozone molecules to O2 molecules.
Where is ozone supposed to be found?
In the stratosphere.
What is ozone called when it's found in the troposphere and what does it cause?
Ground level ozone, asthma.
What does VOC + NOx produce?
Ozone
VOC + NOx also make...
Photochemical Smog.
SOx + H2O makes...
Sulfuric acid, but when combined with soot makes Industrial Smog.
NOx + H2O makes...
Nitric acid.
What is a primary pollutant?
A pollutant that are direct products of evaporation and combustion.
What is a secondary pollutant?
A pollutant that involves 1+ primary pollutant and reacts in the atmosphere to make another compound.