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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How much of the world's population does the US contain?
5 percent
How much of the world' soild waste does the US generate?
33 percent
What is solid waste?
Any unwanted liquid or solid
How many metric tons of waste does the US generate? and how many per person?
US- 11 billion metric tons
Per Person- 40 metric tons
What things make of 98.5% of all solid waste generated in the US?
mining, overburden, tailings, oil, natural gas production, agriculture (3rd largest), industry(4th largest...fly ash)
How much is municipal solid waste? And what types of things make up municpal solid waste?
1.5 % is MSW. This includes homes, library, police station, Peninsula Hotel)
Of the MSW, how much is composted/recylced? How much is sent to a landfill? How much is incinerated?
27 % is recycled/composted; 58 % is landfill; 15 % is incinerated.
What are the four categories of hazardous waste?
toxic, flammable, reactive, and corrosive to metal
Describe toxic waste
Pesticides!!! paint strippers, solvents. Teratogenic-birth defects/mutagenic/carcinogenic
Describe flammable waste
exl gasoline, paint, solvents
Describe reactive waste
acid or base: oven cleaner, ammonia, chlorine bleach
Describe corrosive to metal
industrial cleaning agents, oven cleaners, drains, batteries
What are the 7 things that Congress did not include as hazardous?
1. radioactive waste
2. household hazardous waste
3. mining waste
4. oil/drilling waste
5. liquid waste w/ organohydrocarbons
6. cement kiln dust from burning hazardous waste
7. waste from small businesses that generate less than 270 pounds hesmat each month
What are these "nonhazardous" emissions called?
linguistic detoxification- 5.5 billion metric tons of hesmet per year only 6% definied as hazardous. whats up with that?!?!?!?!
What is waste management?
a high-waste approach. "waste is an unavoidable product of economy. recommends-bury the waste, burn the waste, ship the waste.
What is pollution prevention?
A low-waste approach. Sees waste as a resource not to be wasted. recommends REDUCE, REUSE, RECYCLE, BURN, then BURY. 70% of our solid waste could be reduced, eliminated. 30 % could be buried.
What are the 5 reasons to reduce?
1. Saves energy and virgin resources
2. Life cycle costs are less than for clean-up costs.
3. Reduces environ. impact of extracting/processing/using resources.
4. Decreases pollution control/waste management costs
5. Improves worker health and safety
What is 3M?
Minnesota Mining and manufacturing.
6000 3P programs-Pollution Prevention Pays...employee generated
Saved company 1 bill. Prevented 2.2 bill pounds of trash
How do you reduce?
DESCREASE CONSUMPTION
Redesign manufacturing processes and prodcuts to use less materials (ex: heated aluminum or plastic fans)
Use green design and life cycle assessment when developing products
Individuals use less hazardous cleaning products (USE BAKING SODA)
Design products to last longer.
Eliminate or reduce unnecessary packaging
Pay as You Throw Philosophy(trash txes)
What are the benefits of reuising?
Extends resoure supplies.
Keeps high quality products from turning into low quality products.
EX: use newspaper instead of paper towels. use cloth napkins, use dishes
Describe the trend through the decades of refiallable beer and soda bottles in regards to percentages.
1964L 89% of all soda and 50% of all beer bottles were refillable, by 1995 7% of beer and soda were refillable. NOT GOOD.
Describe compost
Microorganisms break down organic material into humus. Biodegradable waste is 35% of waste stream. Can compost at home, indoor facility, municipal facility. Then use humus as fertilizer/
Problems: it smells, attracts rodents
Vermiculture: using worms to break down organic waste
How much of MSW is recycled?
27%
What is primary (close-loop recycling)?
a product being recycled made into same product. Reduces by 50%
What is Secondary (open-loop recycling)
Bottle to playground equipment
whats the difference between pre-consumer and post-consumer?
pre-consumer never went to the consumer. Perhaps a mistake with it during creation
What is MRF?
materials-recovery facilities
What is dirty MRF?
mix trash and recyclables in the same bin. 50% recovery.
What is Clean MRF?
all recyclables put in same bin. 70% recovery
How many MRFs do we have in US?
300
What are the cons of MRFs?
expensive to build, to run, waste a lot of recyclables. Can omit air pollutants, hazardous to health.
Describe source separation approach
at the source you separate all recyclables (100 % recovery)
Can have at home or drop-off
Pros: produces little air and water pollution. decrease in litter, creates 3-6 more jobs than landfill, saves energy and resources
most profitable-aluminum, iron, copper, paper.
What are the cons of recycling?
Recycliing ha sbecome above reproach
If land fills are so subsizdized, recycling becomes too expensive.
Recycling may not be effective for cheap materials like plastic, gas.
What are factors that hinder recycling?
Don't include the env. and health costs of raw materials in market prices of consumer items.
Give more tax breaks/subsidies for resource-extracting industries than recycling industries
Lack of large, steady markets for recycled materials.
Describe #1 Pete
CA- 70% recycled. clear water, soda bottles. polyethaline. SAFE
Describe #2 HDPE
high density polyethaline. cloud milky plastic. ex milk jugs. 25% recycled. 409...Ralph's Bag. SAFE
Describe #3 V
Vinyl. generates dioxin when burning. plastic looking things. TOXIC.
Describe #4 LDPE
lowdensity polyethaline. Shrink wrap, baggies. SAFE
Describe #5 PP
Polypropoline. Yogurt containers. ketchup bottle. dairy. cottage cheese. Safe?
Describe #6 PS
polystyrine. Foam containers, stryrofoam, togo containers, cups, pkastic spoons. plastic, glassy cups. Safe?
Describe #7 Other
everything else...plastic beaker
Describe PC.
Polycarbonate. Yusuke's bottle haha.
Describe the % of the breakdown of trash
40% Paper, 12% Yard Waste, 12% Plastics, 7% Metals, 6% Glass, 6% Food Waste, 6% Wood, 10% Other(fabric, textiles...)
What are the problems with landfills?
Available land fill space has declined by 75% in 20 yrs.
To build a landfill is a restrictive permit- no wetlands, no floodplanes, not near a body of water, CA- not on a fault.
People have N.I.M.B.Y (Not in My Back Yard) they smell have animals, contaminate groundwater, lower property values.
Mountaingate Country Club, Bel Air- golf course built on landfill
Describe key info. about incineration.
In a tradition incinerator you're burning your trash 1000-1500 degrees Celcius. Reducing volume of trash by 85% using far less land. can't burn metal and glass.
What are the cons of MRFs?
expensive to build, to run, waste a lot of recyclables. Can omit air pollutants, hazardous to health.
Describe source separation approach
at the source you separate all recyclables (100 % recovery)
Can have at home or drop-off
Pros: produces little air and water pollution. decrease in litter, creates 3-6 more jobs than landfill, saves energy and resources
most profitable-aluminum, iron, copper, paper.
What are the cons of recycling?
Recycliing ha sbecome above reproach
If land fills are so subsizdized, recycling becomes too expensive.
Recycling may not be effective for cheap materials like plastic, gas.
What are factors that hinder recycling?
Don't include the env. and health costs of raw materials in market prices of consumer items.
Give more tax breaks/subsidies for resource-extracting industries than recycling industries
Lack of large, steady markets for recycled materials.
Describe #1 Pete
CA- 70% recycled. clear water, soda bottles. polyethaline. SAFE
Describe #2 HDPE
high density polyethaline. cloud milky plastic. ex milk jugs. 25% recycled. 409...Ralph's Bag. SAFE
Describe #3 V
Vinyl. generates dioxin when burning. plastic looking things. TOXIC.
Describe #4 LDPE
lowdensity polyethaline. Shrink wrap, baggies. SAFE
Describe #5 PP
Polypropoline. Yogurt containers. ketchup bottle. dairy. cottage cheese. Safe?
Describe #6 PS
polystyrine. Foam containers, stryrofoam, togo containers, cups, pkastic spoons. plastic, glassy cups. Safe?
Describe #7 Other
everything else...plastic beaker
Describe PC.
Polycarbonate. Yusuke's bottle haha.
Describe the % of the breakdown of trash
40% Paper, 12% Yard Waste, 12% Plastics, 7% Metals, 6% Glass, 6% Food Waste, 6% Wood, 10% Other(fabric, textiles...)
What are the problems with landfills?
Available land fill space has declined by 75% in 20 yrs.
To build a landfill is a restrictive permit- no wetlands, no floodplanes, not near a body of water, CA- not on a fault.
People have N.I.M.B.Y (Not in My Back Yard) they smell have animals, contaminate groundwater, lower property values.
Mountaingate Country Club, Bel Air- golf course built on landfill
Describe key info. about incineration.(Hint: talk about the different incinerators)
In a tradition incinerator you're burning your trash 1000-1500 degrees Celcius. Reducing volume of trash by 85% using far less land. can't burn metal and glass.
a plasma converter burns at 30,000 degrees Fahrenheit. (glass-like solid_. end product ash. can't burn nuclear waste.
Releases NOx, SOx, methane, lead, mercury, dioxins, PM
What is the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act?
Commonly refered to as CERCLA or superfund.
passed in 1980 in reponse to Love Canal. generated in response to abandoned waste sites. Lays blame and liability on pollutors...makes them pay for it. Money from trust funds if they keep site clean. Current and historical owner get blame. B/c of Bush- now tax payers fund
What is the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act?
Refered to as RCRA
passed in 1976
EPA responsible for hazardous wastes from cradle to grave.
Also does nonhazardous wastes.