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45 Cards in this Set

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How much of the earth is covered by water?
71%
How much of the available water is freshwater?
.203%
What is infiltration?
When water moves from the surface of soil into the soil by gravity
What is percolation?
The continual movement of the water through the soil into the pores
What is transpiration?
The moving out of plant tissues through stomates into water vapor
What is the zone of saturation?
The wet part of the soil
Zone of unsaturation: the dry part of the soil
What is the water table?
The point between the zone of unsaturdation and the zone of saturation...seasonal cycle
What is an aquifer?
A specific part of your ground water where water is stored in your porous rock. Has a lot of water in it.
What is the natural recharge?
When the water infiltrates then percolates
What is lateral recharge?
When the aquifer will not fill up from the side (ex: slope)
What is a watershed?
A defined area where any surface water will shed to the bottom. keeps water in your local area
What is the percentage of water used in agriculture? industry? and domestic?
agriculture- 70%
industry- 20%
domestic-10%
How many gallons of water do humans need per day?
13 gallons
What causes water shortages?
Dry climate, dought, desiccation, and water stress
What are the pros of building dams/reservoirs?
1. Generates electricity
2. Recreational benefits: fishing
3. Now have available irrigation water
4. Downstream flooding reduced
5. Provides water for towns
6. Provides jobs when building
What are the cons of building dams/reservoirs?
1. Loss of water through evaporation
2. Earthquakes
3. Danger of Collapse
4. Loss of nutrients downstream
5. Fish spawning disrupted
6. Expensive to build
7. People displacement
8. Water-borne-diseases
9. no dillution
10. Global Warming
What is the pro of bringing in surface water?
Increased water for arid regions
What are the cons of bringing in surface water?
1. loss of water to other regions
2. loss of water through evaporation. 50%
How do you withdraw groundwater?
By using a well to pump out water. Esed for drinking or irrigation water.
What is the pro of withdrawing groundwater?
Increase water for arid regions
What are the cons of withdrawing groundwater?
1. aquifer depletion
2. causes subsidence-sink holes
3. salt-water intrustion
4. many streams robbed of necessary water b/c of loss of aquifers
What is desalination?
The removing of salts from ocean water by:
1. distillation- heat water and condense
2. reverse-osmosis- pumping the water across a selectively permeable membrane
2/3 of world use desalinization
What is the pro of using desalinization?
Increase water for arid regions
What are the cons of desalinization?
1. expense to build, run
2. brine = waste product, high amt.
3. Takes A LOT of enery
What is cloud seeding?
When you see a cloud coming through a region, and blasting it with silver iodide to bring rain
What is the pro of cloud seeding?
Increases water for arid regions
What are the con of cloud seeding?
1. tragedy of the commons
2. disrupts natural cycle
3. introcucing chemicals to your system
4. consists of waiting
What is towing icebergs?
Wrangling an iceberg using a boat and chain.
What is the pro of towing icebergs?
Increases water for arid regions
What are the cons of towing icebergs?
1. expensive
2. very dangerous
3. tragedy of the commons
4. opening fresh water sinks
5. question about dillution water
What are the pros of conservation?
1. reducing the burden on the waste water treatment plants
2. saving money and energy
3. slows the depletion of aquifers
4. reduces amount of dams and aquducts
5. decreases pollution of groudwater
What are the cons of conservation?
1. requires effort
2. money
Describe the flood-irrigation method:
efficiency: 50%
using a slope or gravity to move the water through unlined ditches or canals
lose water because of evaporation and seepage
Describe the central-pivot Sprinkler system
efficiency: 80%
evaporation before it even hits the ground.
Describe Low-Energy Precision-Application (LEPA)
efficiency: 95%
Sprays water cloe to ground in large droplets
Very expensive
Uses energy
Describe Drip irrigation
efficiency 90%
black tubes and water drops out. only good for perennials
What are other irrigation methods?
1. use computers and moisture probes to figure out exactly how much water is needed
2. could grow drought or salt-resistance crops
3.import crops that are good for the region
4. try and use reclaimed water for irrigation
What are some domestic and industry conservation techniques?
1. Use recycled water in industry- Japan and Israel
2. Use recycled materials
3. Xeriscaping and use reclaimed water
4. Start charging for water to encourage conservation
Flooding is usually cause by...?
too much rain, snow, snow burts, storm surge
Why do people live on floodplains?
Very fertile soil because of sediment left behind and access to water
What are the benefits of flooding?
1. Fertilizes soil
2. Recharges your groundwater and wetlands
What is the harm of flooding?
1. Loss of human life- #1 natural disaster killer
2. Loss of property
How have humans affected flooding?
deforestation, urbanization, mining, overgrazing, removed vegetation, weltand removal
What is channelization?
When you straighten or deepen the streams.
Leads to more erosion-positive feedback loop
Describe levees and dams in respects to flood prevention
Permanent or temporary
prevent the water from overflowing
if it breaks...PROBLEMS
if you've channelized or built a levee you can get a levee race...positive feedback loop