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78 Cards in this Set

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undernourished
under 2200 kcal/day
FAO
food & agriculture organization (UN)
food security
ability to get sufficient food daily
famine
large-scale food shortage, massive migration, economic distress
malnourishment
enough calories but not enough nutrients
anemia
low hemoglobin - IRON DEFICIENCY, most common nutrition problem
Kwashiorkor
protein deficiency, bloated bellies, "displaced child"
Marasmus
"to waste away", low protein AND calories, thin and elderly looking
obese
30 pounds or more overweight
CAFO
concentrated animal feeding operations, North American animals are often housed there
soil
mixture of weather mineral rock material, decomposing organic molecules, and living organisms
humus
sticky, brown residue from partially decomposed organisms
micorrhizal symbiosis
association between the roots of most plant species and fungi
soil horizons
horizontal soil layers
O, A, E, B, C, bedrock
soil profile
thickness, color, texture, composition of each horizon make this together
O horizon
organic material
A horizon
topsoil - mineral particles and organic material
E horizon
no clays or nutrients, they are removed by rainwater
B horizon
accuulated clays and nutrients from the E horizon, dense texture
C horizon
regolith - partially broken down inorganic minerals
regolith
C horizon
sheet erosion
thin layer taken off the land surface
rill erosion
rivulets of running water gathering together and cutting small channels in the soil
gully erosion
when rills enlarge tof orm bigger channels or ravines that cannot be removed by normal tilling operations
desertification
conversion of productive land to desert
waterlogged
soil that is saturated with water - plant roots die from too little oxygen
salinization
when mineral salts accumulate in soil
genetic engineering
removing genetic material from one organism and splicing it into the chromosomes of others
GMO
genetically modified organism
contour plowing
plowing across the hill instead of up and down
regolith
C horizon
sheet erosion
thin layer taken off the land surface
rill erosion
rivulets of running water gathering together and cutting small channels in the soil
gully erosion
when rills enlarge tof orm bigger channels or ravines that cannot be removed by normal tilling operations
desertification
conversion of productive land to desert
waterlogged
soil that is saturated with water - plant roots die from too little oxygen
salinization
when mineral salts accumulate in soil
genetic engineering
removing genetic material from one organism and splicing it into the chromosomes of others
GMO
genetically modified organism
contour plowing
plowing across the hill instead of up and down
strip farming
planting different crops in alternating strips
perennial species
plants that grow for more than 2 years
cover crops
grown after harvest to keep soil intact
mulch
protective ground cover - manure, wood chips, straw, etc
minimum till
reduces the number of times a farmer disturbs the soil by plowing or cultivating - disc/chisel plow instead of a traditional moldboard plow
conserv-till
uses a coulter (like a pizza cutter)
no-till
seeds are drilled directly into the ground
locavore
one who its locally grown, seasonal food
CSA
community-supported agriculture program - makes annual contribution to a local farm in exchange for weekly deliveries of what ever the farm produces
agroecology
sustainable farming using ecological knowledge
biological pests
organisms that reduce the availability, quality, or value of resources useful to humans
pesticide
a chemical that kills pests
biocide
broad-spectrum pesticide that kills a wide range of living organisms
inorganic pesticides
include compounds of arsenic, sulfur, copper, lead, and mercury
natural organic pesticides
"botanicals", extracted from plants usually
fumigants
small molecules like carbon tetrachloride, carbon disulfide, ethylene dichloride, etc
chlorinated hydrocarbons
synthetic insecticides that inhibit nerve membrane ion transport... DDT (an organochlorine) etc
organophosphates
an outgrowth of nerve gas research during World War II
carbamates
generally very toxic to bees and must be used carefully
halogenated pyrroles
new class of compounds based on a naturally occurring microbial toxin
microbial agents/biological controls
living organisms or toxins derived from them used in place of pesticides
pest resurgence/rebound
a surge in pesticide-resistant insects etc
pesticide treadmill
result of pesticide resurgence
POP
persistent organic pollutants, long-lasting and dangerous - 127 countries banned them - DDT, aldrin, clordane, etc
IPM
integrated pest management - applied at specific times and aimed at specific crops/pests, ecologically based, flexible
economic thresholds
the point at which potential economic damage justifies pest control expenditures
agencies that regulate pesticides
EPA, FDA, USDA
FIFRA
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act - mandates the registration/licensing of all pesticide productes
FFDCA
Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act - allows the EPA to set tolerance levels
microbial agents/biological controls
living organisms or toxins derived from them used in place of pesticides
pest resurgence/rebound
a surge in pesticide-resistant insects etc
pesticide treadmill
result of pesticide resurgence
POP
persistent organic pollutants, long-lasting and dangerous - 127 countries banned them - DDT, aldrin, clordane, etc
IPM
integrated pest management - applied at specific times and aimed at specific crops/pests, ecologically based, flexible
economic thresholds
the point at which potential economic damage justifies pest control expenditures
agencies that regulate pesticides
EPA, FDA, USDA
FIFRA
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act - mandates the registration/licensing of all pesticide productes
FFDCA
Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act - allows the EPA to set tolerance levels