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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
surviorship curve
Graph showing the number of survivors in different age groups for a particular species.
population distribution
Variation of population density over a particular geographic area. For example, a country has a high population density in its urban areas and a much lower population density in rural areas
carrying capacity
(K)Maximum population of a particular species that a given habitat can support over a given period of time
crude birth rate
Annual number of live births per 1,000 people in the population of a geographic area at the midpoint of a given year
Sensible and careful use of natural resources by humans. People with this view are called conservationists
conservation biologist
Biologist who investigates human impacts on the diversity of life found on the earth (biodiversity) and develops practical plans for preserving such biodiversity
age structure
Percentage of the population (or number of people of each sex) at each age level in a population.--
conservation biology
Multidisciplinary science created to deal with the crisis of maintaining the genes, species, communities, and ecosystems that make up earthUs biological diversity. Its goals are to investigate human impacts on biodiversity and to develop practical approaches to preserving biodiversity and ecological integrity
family planning
Providing information, clinical services, and contraceptives to help people choose the number and spacing of children they want to have
k - selected species
Species that produce a few, often fairly large offspring but invest a great deal of time and energy to ensure that most of those offspring reach reproductive age
life expectancy
Average number of years a newborn infant can be expected to live
J - shaped curve
Curve with a shape similar to that of the letter J; can represent prolonged exponential growth
exponetial growth
Growth in which some quantity, such as population size or economic output, increases by a fixed percentage of the whole in a given time period; when the increase in quantity over time is plotted, this type of growth yields a curve shaped like the letter J
environmental resistence
All the limiting factors that act together to limit the growth of a population
r- selected speceies
Species that reproduce early in their life span and produce large numbers of usually small and short-lived offspring in a short period of time
s- shaped curve
Leveling off of an exponential, J-shaped curve when a rapidly growing population exceeds the carrying capacity of its environment and ceases to grow
population dispersion
General pattern in which the members of a population are arranged throughout its habitat
biotic potential
Maximum rate at which the population of a given species can increase when there are no limits on its rate of growth
infant mortality rate
Number of babies out of every 1,000 born each year that die before their first birthday
population size
Number of individuals making up a populationUs gene pool
total fertility rate
(TFR) Estimate of the average number of children that will be born alive to a woman during her lifetime if she passes through all her childbearing years (ages 15-44) conforming to age-specific fertility rates of a given year. In simpler terms, it is an estimate of the average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years
population change
An increase or decrease in the size of a population. It is equal to (Births + Immigration) - (Deaths + Emigration)
age structure
Percentage of the population (or number of people of each sex) at each age level in a population.--
intrinsic rate of increase
Rate at which a population could grow if it had unlimited resources
population density
Number of organisms in a particular population found in a specified area.
logistic growth
Exponential population growth when the population is small and results in a steady decrease in population growth with time as the population approaches the carrying capacity
replacement level fertility
Number of children a couple must have to replace them. The average for a country or the world usually is slightly higher than 2 children per couple (2.1 in the United States and 2.5 in some developing countries) because some children die before reaching their reproductive years
Zero population growth
(ZPG)State in which the birth rate (plus immigration) equals the death rate (plus emigration) so that the population of a geographic area is no longer increasing
population dynamics
Major abiotic and biotic factors that tend to increase or decrease the population size and age and sex composition of a species
demographic trasition
Hypothesis that countries, as they become industrialized, have declines in death rates followed by declines in birth rates
minimal viable population
(MVP) Estimate of the smallest number of individuals necessary to ensure the survival of a population in a region for a specified time period, typically ranging from decades to 100 years
zero population growth
State in which the birth rate (ZPG)(plus immigration) equals the death rate (plus emigration) so that the population of a geographic area is no longer increasing