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15 Cards in this Set

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Ionizing radiation

1
enough energy to knock electrons from atoms forming ions, capable of causing cancer (ex gamma-Xrays-UV)
High Quality Energy

2
organized & concentrated, can perform useful work (ex fossil fuel & nuclear)
Low Quality Energy

3
disorganized, dispersed (heat in ocean or air wind, solar)
First Law of Thermodynamics


4
energy is neither created nor destroyed, but may be converted from one form to another
Second Law of Thermodynamics

5
when energy is changed from one form to another, some useful energy is always degraded into lower quality energy (usually heat)
Natural radioactive decay

6
unstable radioisotopes decay releasing gamma rays, alpha & beta particles
Half life

7
the time it takes for ½ the mass of a radioisotope to decay
Estimate of how long a radioactive isotope must be stored until it decays to a safe level
8
approximately 10 half-lives
Nuclear Fission

9
nuclei of isotopes split apart when struck by neutrons
Nuclear Fusion

10
2 isotopes of light elements (H) forced together at high temperatures till they fuse to form a heavier nucleus. Expensive, break even point not reached yet
Ore

11
a rock that contains a large enough concentration of a mineral making it profitable to mine
Organic fertilizer

12
low acting & long lasting because the organic remains need time to be decomposed
Best solution to Energy shortage

14
onservation and increase efficiency
Surface mining


14
cheaper & can remove more mineral, less hazardous to workers
Hummus

15
organic, dark material remaining after decomposition by microorganisms