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80 Cards in this Set

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towns or cities with populations of 2500+ per sq mile.
some countries set the minimum at 10,000 or 50,000.
urban areas
the percentage of a population living in urban areas
a country's urbanization
rate of increase of urban populations
urban growth
1 million + people, some 400 exist today
large cities
10 million + people, 19 exist today
megacities
2 ways for urban population growth
natural growth, immigration
3 models of urban development
concentric circle model, sector model, mulitple nuclei model
city develops in a series of rings around a central business district. housing zones become more affluent towards the suburbs
concentric circle model
grows in pie wedges. cbd in center. industrial sector and housing are always opposite.
sector model
city develops around a number of cbds
multiple nuclei model
as cities spread outward, they can merge to form these
megaloplis
urban sprawl
megalopolis
city with a high waste society
linear metabolism
recycling society, more sustainable
circular metabolism
in these, the temperature can be as much as 6 degrees warmer
urban heat islands
3 types of rail systems
rapid rail, suburban or regional trains, light rail system
metros, subways, have exclusive tracks
rapid rail
regional trains that connect the central city with surrounding areas or provide transportation between major cities
suburban or regional trains
trolleys or trains that run with traffic or can be exclusive
light rail system
2 kinds of ionizing radiation we're exposed to
natural, back ground sources
from human activities
cosmic rays, soil, rocks, air, water, food are sources of
natural background radiation
x rays and treatments using radioactive isotopes are
sources of radiation from human activities
ionizing radiation can cause harm by
penetrating a human cell
knocking loose (ionizing) 1+ electrons from a cellular chemical
altering molecules needed for normal cell fxning.
ionizing radiation causes damage in 2 ways
genetic damage
somatic damage
this causes mutations in the dna, is passed on and affects the next generation
genetic damage
damage to tissues. causes harm in the victim's lifetime. ie, miscarriage, burns, eye cataracts, some cancers
somatic damage
isotopes with these sorts of half lives cause the most damage
intermediate
alpha particles cause harm in these ways
on the inside, very badly
outside, causes skin cancer
what's the difference from beta particles inside or outside the body?
no difference. both are shitty.
emfs are found in
overhead power lines, electrical applicances
emfs increase the risk for
come cancer
miscarriage
birth defects
alzheimer's disease
useful application of radioisotopes?
radiocarbon dating
tracers in polltn detxn, ag, industry
nuclear medicine
kill cancer cells
stress in crust causes solid rock to deform, suddenly fracture, and shift along the fracture. later abrupt movement on this causes earthquake
fault
pt of initial movement in an earthquake
focus
pt on surface directly above focus
epicenter
measure of the amount of energy released by earthquake. indicated by amplitude of vibrations when they reach seismograph
magnitue
population change=
(births + immigration)-(deaths +emigration)
annual rate of natural popltn change (%) =
(birth rate-death rate)/10
world's popltn will double in .... years
52
number of children a couple must bear to replace themselves
replacement level fertility
estijmated average number of children a woman will have between 15 and 49 if she bears children at same rate women did this year
total fertility rate
infant mortality is a good indicator of quality of life because it indicated both
level of nutrition and healthcare
as countries industrialize, first death rates, then birth rates decline in 4 stages
demographic transition
bad living conditions, high birth rate, high death rate, little popltn growth
pre industrial stage
industrialization. begin food prodxn increase, health care improves, death rates decrease, birth rates increase. popltn grows rapidly and 2-3% per year
transition stage
industrialization is widespread. birth rates decrease, approach death rates ,be/c more birth control, lower infant mortality, more jobs for women, children are expensive
industrial stage
birth rates decine, equals death rate. zero popltn growth
postindustral stage
popltn growth surpasses economic growth and local life support sustems
demographic trap
based on the assumption that future popltn and economic growth should be encouraged. increases property taxes
land use planning
takes into account geological, ecological, economic, health, and social factors. is costly.
ecological land use
mix of perennial grasses, legumes, sunflowers, grain crops, plants providing natl insecticides
polyculture
monoculture, in developed countries
industrialized ag, high input ag
industrialized ag in tropical developing countries. ash crops, bananas, coffee, soybeans, cane, cocoa, veg
plantation ag
tradiational subsistence ag, human labor and gradt animals. enough good for farm family's survival. shifting cultivation. nomadic livestock herding
traditional ag, low input
traditional intensive ag
add h20 and fertilizer. leaves enough to sell
1st green revltn
1950-1970
2nd green revltn
1967 on
tradtnl planters grow several crops on one plot
interplanting
plant with several varieties of one crop
polyvarietal cultivation
2+ crops grow at same time on same plot
intercropping
crops planted with trees
agroforestry, alley cropping
many plants mature at diff times planted together
polyculture low input
ppl can't buy enough food to meet basic energy needs chronic when get less than 90% minimum daily calorie intake on a long term basis
undernourishment.
less than 80% is seriously undernourished
ppl living on high carb, low protein diet
malnutrition
diet low in calories and protein. nursing babies with malnourished moms. means to waste away. can be reversed
marasmus
protein deficiency in babies. arrival of new child deprives them of breast milk. means displaced child
kwashiorkor
causes blindness
not enough vitamin a
causes anemia
not enough iron
causes thyroid probs, goiter
not enougn iodine
demersal
flatfish species
herrings, sardines, anchovies
pelagic
15 m below surgace, 55 km long
drift net fishing
bottom dwelling
demersal
surface dwelling
pelagic
fish ranching
hold anadromous species like salmonin captivity, release, they come back, harvest adults when return to spawn
any species that competes with us for food, invades lawns and gardens, destoys wood in houses, spreads disease, or is a nuisance
pest
95% organically produced ingredients
not genetically engineered.
can't be irradiated
can't be grown on land fertilized by sewage sludge
usda "organic"
nematocides
round worm killers
toxic to many species
broad spectrum agents
pt when econ losses caused by pest fdamage outweigh cost of applying pesitide
economic threshhold