Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/90

Click to flip

90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Catabolism
breakdown of a substance which results in energy
What is the opposite of catabolism?
Anabolism
Anabolism
construction of more complex compounds from simpler compunds-this process needs energy(ATP) to drive it
3 steps in energy production
hydrolysis-glycolysis-aerobic respiration
What are some examples of anabolic reactions?
tissue replacement, growth, development
Hydrolysis
-The initial step in making energy
-It is a reaction where ATP loses a phosphate radical(energy) and becomes ADP
Carbs are broken down into..?
monosaccharides
Fats are broken down into...?
fatty acids and glycerol
proteins are broken down into..?
amino acids
Nucleotides are broken down into...?
nucleic acids
Aeorobic respiration
-final stage of cellular metabolism
-requires oxygen
-where ATP is replenished by phosphorylating ADP back to ATP
When ATP loses a phosphate radical, ___ occurs.
Hydrolysis
When phosphate bonds in ATP are broken, ___ is created.
Energy
How can glucise enter the cells?
active transport or facilitated diffusion
What are 3 carbohydrates?
sugars, starches, and cellulose
What is the function of carbs?
to provide and store energy
What is the monomer that forms carbs?
saccharide
What is the most abundant and most important monosaccharide?
glucose
What happens to glucose inside the cell?
the glucose molecules are either catabolized (broken down) to form ATP, or converted to glycogen or fat.
Where does glycolysis occur?
within the cytoplasm of the cell
Cellular respiration
-Process of taking in oxygen molecules to produce more ATP (occurs after glycolysis)
-2 stages: 1.Krebs cycle 2.Electron Transfer System
Krebs cycle
1st stage of cellular respiration, where 2 additional ATP and 2 carrier molecules are produced.
Electron Transfer System
-2nd stage of cellular respiration
-Where the carrier molecules generated by the Krebs cycle and glycolysis are acted upon to produce another 28 ATP
What is the net yield of ATP molecules from 1 glucose molecule in cellular respiration?
Total is 30
(2 ATP from glycolysis, 2 ATP from Krebs cycle, 28 from Electron TRansport system, less 2 ATP used along the way=30 ATP)
What are some functions of proteins?
-act as carrier molecules
-form structures
-aid in cellular communication
-act as enzymes
Enzymes
-specialized proteins that are used by cells to initiate reactions
-AKA catalysts-they speed up molecular reactions
Where are lipids primarily metabolized?
In liver cells
What is the main function of lipids?
Serve as energy reserves in animal tissues and plant seeds.
What could alter or cause protein bonds to break?
exposure to a variation in temperature or pH
Proteins are composed of what?
chains of amino acids
what are the 2 processes in protein catabolsim?
deamination and transamination
Deamination
process of breaking down a protein to produce ATP (ammonia also results which is converted to urine)
Transamination
When a protein is changed to form a different amino acid for other proteins
-allows for the production of ketoacids
RNA
molecule that translates gene info in the DNA into proteins
DNA and RNA shape differences?
DNA: double helix
RNA: single strand
What are the 4 nitrogen bases in DNA?
C-cytosine
G-guanine
A-adenine
T-thymine
What are the 4 nitrogen bases in RNA?
C-cytosine
G-guanine
A-adenine
U-uracil
What nitrogen bases are paired together in DNA and RNA?
C-G
A-T
A-U
Genes
-subunits of DNA
-each gene gives info for 1 peptide chain
What are the 3 types of RNA cells used in the translation of genes into proteins?
mRNA-messenger RNA
rRNA-ribosomal RNA
tRNA-transfer RNA
What are the 2 steps in protein synthesis?
Transcription and Translation
What happens to glucose inside the cell?
the glucose molecules are either catabolized (broken down) to form ATP, or converted to glycogen or fat.
Glycolysis
process where energy/ATP is released from the glucose molecule
Where does glycolysis occur?
within the cytoplasm of the cell
During glycolysis, ___ molecule(s) of glucose are used to make ___ molecules of ATP, ___ molecules of NAD, and ___ molecules of pyruvic acid
1 glucose= 4 ATP, 2 NAD, and 2 pyruvic acid.
What is the end result of glycolysis? (molecules and #'s)
2 ATP, 2 NAD, 1 pyruvic acid
Cellular respiration
-Process of taking in oxygen molecules to produce more ATP (occurs after glycolysis)
-Occurs in cells with mitochondria that can then react on the pyruvic acid created from glycolysis
-There are 2 stages: 1.Krebs cycle and 2.Electron Transfer System
Krebs cycle
1st stage of cellular respiration, where 2 additional ATP and 2 carrier molecules are produced.
Electron Transfer System
-2nd stage of cellular respiration
-Where the carrier molecules generated by the Krebs cycle and glycolysis are acted upon to produce another 28 ATP
What is the net yield of ATP molecules from 1 glucose molecule in cellular respiration?
Total is 30
(2 ATP from glycolysis, 2 ATP from Krebs cycle, 28 from Electron TRansport system, less 2 ATP used along the way=30 ATP)
Enzymes
-proteins that are used by cells to initiate reactions
-AKA catalysts-they speed up molecular reactions
What are 3 carbohydrates?
sugars, starches, and cellulose
What is the function of carbs?
to provide and store energy
What is the monomer that forms carbs?
saccharide
What are the 3 classifications of carbs?
monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides (depending on the # of monomers present).
What is the most abundant and most important monosaccharide?
glucose
How can glucose enter the cells?
active transport or facilitated diffusion
Once glucose enters the cell, what two things may occur?
1. the glucose is catabolized to produce ATP
2.converted to glycogen (fat) to store for future use
What are the 2 stages of cellular respiration?
1. Krebs cycle
2. Electron Transfer System
Krebs Cycle
-first stage in cellular respiration
-an additional 2 ATP molecules and 2 carrier molecules are created
-this occurs after glycolysis
Electron Transfer System
-2nd stage of cellular repiration
-the carrier created by glycolysis and Krebs cycle are acted upon to create 28 more ATP
What is the net # of ATP produced from 1 glucose molecule in cellular respiration?
30 ATP (32 total created but 2 are used during the process).
What is the function of lipids?
They serve as energy reserves in animal tissues.
Where are lipids primarily metabolized?
Liver
How are lipids metabolized?
Liver cells remove fats from the blood and hydrolyze the molecules so the products can be used in the Krebs cycle.
What are proteins composed of?
chains of amino acids linked together by covalent peptide bonds
What is the structure of amino acids?
1. central carbon and hydrogen atom
2. amino group
3. carboxyl group
4. variable group aka R group
Essential amino acids
amino acids that cannot be created by the body and must be supplied in the diet
-most species have 10, cats have 11
2 forms of protein catabolism
1. deamination
2. transamination
Deaminiation
process of breaking down a protein to create ATP/energy
-the amine group is removed from the amino acid-it then enters the Krebs cycle=ATP is formed
-also created ammonia which is converted to urea
Transamination
interchange of an anime group to another carbon chain to form a different amino acid
-tjhey become building blocks for other proteins
uremia
when ammonia builds up in the bloodstream
-can be the result of a diseased liver
BUN
blood urea nitrogen
What controls the synthesis of proteins?
the genes in DNA
What are the 5-carbon sugars for DNA vs. RNA?
DNA: deoxyribose
RNA: ribose
What are the nitrogen bases in DNA?
A-Adenine
T-thymine
C-cytosine
G-guanine
What are the nitrogen bases in RNA?
A-adenine
U-uracil
C-cytosine
G-guanine
What does T in DNA become in RNA?
U-uracil
DNA and RNA are composed of what?
chains of nucleotides which have a phosphate group, a sugar group, and a nitrogen base.
How are the nitrogen bases in DNA and RNA paired?
DNA: T-A C-G
RNA: U-A C-G
What are the 2 steps in protein synthesis?
Transcription and Translation
Transcription
-1st step in protein synthesis
-DNA is unwound and the molecule RNA polymerase copies the DNA onto a mRNA
Translation
-2nd and final step in protein synthesis
-mRNA attaches to the ribosome and tells the tRNA what amino acids to attach
codon
base triplets on the mRNA. Amino acids attach to the tRNA with the complimentary anticodon
A set of 3 base pairs on mRNA is called a ____
codon
_____ are the building blocks of proteins.
amino acids
The site for protein synthesis in mammalian cells is the ___?
Ribosome
Cells use the reactions of ___ to produce energy?
glycolysis
____is the chemical reaction where the amine group is removed from the amino acid.
Deamination
_____ are substances that increase the rate of a chemical reaction and are unchanged by the reaction.
catalysts