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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the structure of the external nose?
-hyaline cartilage, bone, nares that lead to vestibules, and hair
-lined with mucous membrane
what is the function of the external nose?
course filter due to hairs and mucous
what is the structure of the internal nose?
-nasal cavity; lines with muscle and mucous membrane
-paranasal sinus ducts
-nasal septum
-projections of superior, middle, inferior nasal conchae
what are paranasal sinus ducts?
airfilled chambers (hollow) lined with mucous membrane and provide drainage; named for the bone that theyre in
what is the nasal septum?
-divides right and left half
-CT in anterior
-perpendicular plate and volmer bones, ethmoid bones, superior and inferior conchae in posterior portion
what are the five functions of the internal nose?
1. warms incoming hair with capillaries (heat) and mucous (moisture)
2. filtering (trap in mucous)
3. olfaction
4. resinence (modifying/amplifying sound)
5. provides heat and moisture
how long is the pharynx?
5in long from internal nares to the crycoid cartilage of the laryngopharynx
what are the three regions of the pharynx?
1. nasopharynx
2. oropharynx
3. laryngopharynx
what is the nasopharynx?
receives air from nasal cavity and is made up of pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial tissue for secreting
-pharynheal tonsil
what is the oropharynx?
recieves air from the nasopharynx and food from fauces and is made up of nonkeratinized stratified squamos epithelium
- palatine and lingual tonsils
where are fauces?
between the pharynx and oral cavity
what is the laryngopharynx?
resporatory and digestive pathway and is made up of nonkeratinized stratified squamos epithium that resists pathogens
where does the laryngopharynx open into?
esophagus and larynx
what are the three functions of the pharynx?
1. filters contaminants (tonsils)
2. passageway for air and food
3. change resinence; resinating chamber for speech sounds
explain the structure of the larynx?
it has nine pieces of cartilage which include three single and three paired
what are the three single cartilages of the larynx?
1. thyroid
2. epiglottis
3. cricoid cartilage
what is the thyroid cartilage?
provides a shield (adams apple); larger in men because of testosterone
what is the epiglottis?
flap of elastic cartilage over larynx and prevents food from entering the larynx
what is the cricoid cartilage?
connection point between larynx and trachea (continuation of air tube)
what are the three paired cartilages of the larynx?
1. arytenoid
2. corniculate
3. cuneiform
what isthe arytenoid cartilage?
-influence changes in position and tension of vocal folds
-opening and closing of glottis and production of sound
what is the corniculate cartilage?
supporting structure for epiglottis; articulate with arytenoid
what is the cuneiform cartilage?
support vocal folds and lateral aspects of epiglottis and arytenoid cartilage
what are the three functions of the larynx?
1. passageway for air
2. epiglottis- provides switching mechanism between food and air
3. voice production
what four components make up the trachea?
1. pseudostratified ciliated columnar mucosal epithelium
2. submucosa
3. c-shaped hyaline cartilage rings
4. trachaelis muscle
what is the trachea?
wind pipe, anterior to esophagus
what is the pseudostratified ciliated columnar mucosal epithelium do?
-contains goblet cells
-trapped formed foreign particles by sweeping mucous up to swallow it via the esophagus (ciliated)
what is submucosa consisted of?
mucous and serous glands
what does the c-shaped hyaline cartilage rings do?
prevent tracheal collapse; expansion of esophagus into trachea
what does the trachaelis muscle do?
-connects the ends of the tracheal cartilage
-contracts to reduce the diameter of the tube and increase resistance to airflow
what six components make up the bronchial tree?
trachea, primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles
what are the smallest tubules in the bronchial tree?
bronchioles
what do the walls of bronchi contain?
cartilage rings and smooth muscle; the further into the bronchioles, the more smooth muscle, and the less cartilage
explain the structure and function of the bronchial tree?
-more branches=smaller diameter
-progressive alteration and eventual elimination of cartilage support
-amount of smooth muscle increases to bronchiolar level
-progressive change in lumen lining
what happens as we go further down the bronchial tree?
-further down we go the more cilia we lose
-less filtering and more macrophage as we get down past the cilia
where is the conducting zone?
starts at the nose to terminal bronchioles
where is the respiratory zone?
begins at respiratory bronchioles (exchange of gases)