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63 Cards in this Set

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Which of the following is NOT a part of the lymphatic system?

lymph nodes
lymphatic vessels
lymph
blood vessels
blood vessels
What is the role of the mini-valves in lymph capillaries?

reduce pressure
speed transport
connect to blood capillaries
increase permeability
increase permeability
Which of the following are considered the primary immune system cells?

dendritic cells
lymphocytes
plasma cells
macrophages
lymphocytes
What is/are the principal lymphoid organ(s) in the body?

the spleen
the thymus
tonsils
lymph nodes
lymph nodes
The primary, or central, lymphoid organs are
the thymus and bone marrow,
Which lymphoid organ provides a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response and provides blood-cleansing functions?

lymph node
spleen
Spleen
•Site of lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response
•Cleanses the blood of aged cells and platelets and debris
Which lymphoid organ serves as the site where T lymphocytes become immunocompetent T cells?

tonsils
spleen
thyroid gland
thymus gland
thymus gland

They become immunocompetent in the thymus gland. 2% of the cells survive the journey and eventually populate the lymphatic organs
Which of the following is/are the simplest lymphoid organ(s)?

thymus gland
tonsils
spleen
lymph nodes
Tonsils
What is the simplest lymphoid organs that are found at the entrance of the pharynx?
Tonsils
Which of the following is NOT a part of the MALT?

tonsils
Peyer's patches
lymph nodes
appendix
The secondary lymphoid organs include the spleen, lymph nodes,

and MALT (tonsils, appendix, Peyer's patches).
The secondary lymphoid organs include
the spleen, lymph nodes, and MALT (tonsils, appendix, Peyer's patches).
Where are Peyer's patches located?

distal portion of the small intestine
appendix
proximal portion of the small intestine
large intestine
located in the wall of the distal portion of the small intestine.
Which of the following is NOT a lymphoid cell?

macrophage
dendritic cell
eosinophil
reticular cell
eosinophil
Which of these statements about the lymphatic system is (are) true?
The spleen filters blood, removing microorganisms and other foreign substances.
The spleen
acts as a blood reservoir.
The tonsils that are referred to as "the tonsils" are the
palatine tonsils.
Which of these is NOT a location for aggregations of lymph nodes?

A) axillary (armpit) region

B) cervical region

C) inguinal (groin) region
This is the correct answer.
D) around the heart

E) around the intestines
around the heart
Lymph nodes
have germinal centers where lymphocytes divide.
Lymphatic organs
may filter blood or lymph.
The thymus
decreases in size in older adults.
Lymph nodes
have germinal centers where lymphocytes divide.
Lymphatic organs
may filter blood or lymph.
The spleen
acts as a blood reservoir.
The thymus
decreases in size in older adults.
With innate immunity,
each time the body is exposed to a substance, the response is the same.
Which of the following is a protective chemical that lyses cells, found on the surface of cells and in tears and saliva?
lysozyme
A(n) __________ is a group of 20 proteins activated by a series of reactions, in which one activated chemical then activates another; and promotes inflammation, phagocytosis, and cell lysis.
complement
Which of the following is a protein that interferes with virus production, and is produced by most cells in response to a viral infection?
interferon
Which of these chemical mediators does NOT promote inflammation?
interferon
The most important phagocytes are
neutrophils and macrophages.
Neutrophils
often die after a single phagocytic episode.

Neutrophils leave the blood quite often, providing phagocytic protection to the body.
Dust cells, microglia, and Kupffer cells are examples of
macrophages.

Dust cells, microglia, and Kupffer cells are all examples of macrophages.
Natural killer cells
exhibit no memory response.

Natural killer cells are a type of lymphocyte, not macrophage.
Which cells release enzymes that break down chemical mediators released by other cells?
eosinophils

Eosinophils release enzymes that are able to break down chemical mediators released by other cells. The enzymes released by eosinophils can break down the histamine that is released by basophils and mast cells during an inflammatory response.
In addition to the symptoms of local inflammation, systemic inflammation results in the
production of large numbers of neutrophils from red bone marrow.

production of pyrogens.

loss of large amounts of fluid from the blood.

System inflammation can result in the production of large numbers of neutrophils from red bone marrow, as well as the production of pyrogens, and the loss of large amounts of fluid from the blood.
Which of these results occur in response to the release of chemical mediators?
vasodilation

chemotactic attraction of phagocytes

increased vascular permeability

redness and swelling

Vasodilation, chemotactic attraction of phagocytes, increased vascular permeability, and redness and swelling, can all result in response to the release of chemical mediators.
Substances that stimulate adaptive immunity are called
antigens.

Antigens are substances that stimulate adaptive immunity. Phagocytes are cells, including neutrophils and macrophages, which carry out phagocytosis.
Which of these is an example of a self-antigen?
tumor antigen

A tumor antigen would be an example of a self-antigen, a molecule produced by the body that stimulates an adaptive immune response. Bacterial antigens are foreign antigens, molecules not produced by the body that are able to stimulate an adaptive immune response.
Antibodies
promote phagocytosis.



Antibodies can bind antigens together, rendering them ineffective.
An antibody molecule
has both heavy and light chains.

Antibodies are not MHC molecules. MHC molecules are glycoproteins that are found of the surface of cells that can bind with foreign and self-antigens.
Which of these results occur in response to the release of chemical mediators?
vasodilation

chemotactic attraction of phagocytes

increased vascular permeability

redness and swelling

Vasodilation, chemotactic attraction of phagocytes, increased vascular permeability, and redness and swelling, can all result in response to the release of chemical mediators.
Substances that stimulate adaptive immunity are called
antigens.

Antigens are substances that stimulate adaptive immunity. Phagocytes are cells, including neutrophils and macrophages, which carry out phagocytosis.
Which of these is an example of a self-antigen?
tumor antigen

A tumor antigen would be an example of a self-antigen, a molecule produced by the body that stimulates an adaptive immune response. Bacterial antigens are foreign antigens, molecules not produced by the body that are able to stimulate an adaptive immune response.
Antibodies
promote phagocytosis.

Antibodies can bind antigens together, rendering them ineffective.
An antibody molecule
has both heavy and light chains.

Antibodies are not MHC molecules. MHC molecules are glycoproteins that are found of the surface of cells that can bind with foreign and self-antigens.
Which antibody accounts for 80-85% of serum antibodies, can cross the placenta, and is responsible for Rh reactions?
IgG

IgG accounts for 80-85% of serum antibodies, can cross the placenta, and is responsible for Rh reactions.
T cells
are processed in the thymus.

T cells are responsible for cell-mediated immunity, not antibody-mediated immunity.
The activation of B cells
results in the production of antibodies

The activation of B cells results in the production of antibodies, not cytotoxic cells..
B cells
are stimulated by helper T cells.
The activation of T cells can result in
lysis of virus-infected cells.

production of memory T cells.

production of lymphokines.

delayed hypersensitivity reactions.


The activation of T cells can result in lysis of virus-infected cells, as well as the production of memory T cells, the production of lymphokines, and delayed hypersensitivity reactions.
Given these events that are part of helper T cell activation:

1. interleukin-1 released by macrophage (costimulation)
2. antigen processed by macrophage
3. helper T cell binds to macrophage
4. helper T cell releases interleukin-2 and divides
5. antigen displayed on MHC molecule

Arrange the events in the order that they occur as an antigen is recognized and a helper T cell is activated.
2,5,3,1,4,
MHC molecules are
cell-surface glycoproteins that display antigens.

MHC molecules are cell-surface glycoproteins that display antigens.
MHC class II molecules
are found on antigen-presenting cells

MHC class II molecules are found on antigen-presenting cells, such as B cells, macrophages, Monocytes, and dendritic cells..
__________ are responsible for the secondary antibody response.
Memory B cells

Memory B cells are responsible for the secondary antibody response. The memory B cells are stimulated to quickly divide, producing plasma cells that then produce a large amount of antibodies, when the immune system is exposed to an antigen that it has already produced a primary response to.
As the result of a bee sting, Joe B. Hive had an immediate severe reaction, and nearly died. This reaction was caused by
B cells.

The immediate hypersensitivity reaction was caused by antibodies produced by B cells reacting with allergens from the bee sting. This could cause a severe reaction, like anaphylaxis, within minutes.
The antigen-presenting cells that are required for the activation of B cells are
B cells.

B cells are the antigen-presenting cells that are required for the activation of B cells. They present processed antigen to helper T cells that then produce interleukins that stimulate the B cell to divide and produce antibodies.
Interleukins and CD4, B7, and CD28 proteins are all involved in
costimulation of helper T cells.

Interleukins and CD4, B7, and CD28 proteins are all involved in costimulation of helper T cells.
B cells are involved in
only adaptive immunity.

B cells are involved in only adaptive immunity.
Neutrophils are involved in
only innate immunity.

Neutrophils are involved in only innate immunity.
Complement is involved in
both adaptive and innate immunity

Complement is involved in both adaptive and innate immunity.
A vaccination is a way of acquiring
active artificial immunity.

A vaccination is a way of acquiring active artificial immunity, where an antigen is deliberately introduced into an individual to stimulate the immune system.
Antiserum is used to produce
passive artificial immunity.

Antiserum is used to produce passive artificial immunity. The antiserum consists of prepared antibodies that are injected into an individual needing immunity.
Each type of leukocyte is present in the blood in different proportions:
neutrophil 50 - 70 %
eosinophil 2 - 4 %
basophil 0,5 - 1 %
lymphocyte 20 - 40 %
monocyte 3 - 8 %