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50 Cards in this Set

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What is the normal volume of urine excreted in a 24-hour period?
1.0-1.8 liters
Explain why urinalysis is a routine part of any good physical examination.
Finding "abnormal" constituents in the urine may include pathology.
What substance is responsible for the normal yellow color of urine?
Urochrome
Which has a greater specific gravity: 1 ml of urine or 1 ml of distilled water? Explain:
1 ml of urine - Urine contains disolved solutes, which are not found in distilled water and add to the density of the sample.
Explain the relationship between the color, specific gravity, and volume of urine.
Generally, the smaller the volume the greater the specific gravity (more solutes/volume) and deeper the color.
A microscopic examination of urine may reveal the presence of certain abnormal urinary constituents. Name three constituents that might be present if a urinary tract infection exists.
WBCs, RBCs, and casts.
How does a urinary tract infection influence urine pH?
becomes alkaline
How does starvation influence urine pH?
becomes acidic
What's presence of erythrocytes in the urine?
hematuria
What's presence of hemoglobin in the urine?
hemoglobinuria
What's presence of glucose in the urine?
glycosuria
What's presence of albumin in the urine?
albuminuria
What's presence of ketone bodies (acetone and others) in the urine?
ketonuria
What's presence of pus (WBCs) in the urine?
pyuria
What are renal calculi and what conditions favor their formation?
Kidney stones, urinary retention, urinary tract infection, alkaline urine.
All urine specimens become alkaline and cloudy on standing at room temperature. Explain:
This results due to bacterial metabolism or urinary components.
Glucose and albumin are both normally absent in the urine, but the reason for their exclusion differs. Explain the reason for the absence of glucose:
It's completely re-absorbed (unless present in the blood in excessive levels).
Explain the reason for the absence of albumin in urine:
It's too large to pass through the filtration membrane.
Glomerulonephritis is characterized by?
albumin & casts
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by?
glucose, ketone bodies, and high specific gravity
Pregnancy or exertion is characterized by?
albumin
Hepatitis or cirrohosis of liver is characterized by?
bilirubin in urine
Pyelonephritis is characterized by?
Pus, high specific gravity, and casts in urine.
Gonorrhea is characterized by?
Pus and high specific gravity in urine.
Starvation is characterized by?
ketone bodies in urine
Diabetes insipidus is characterized by?
Low specific gravity in urine.
Kidney stones are characterized by?
Ketone bodies in urine.
Eating 5-lb box of candy at one sitting is characterized by?
glucose in urine.
Hemolytic anemias are characterized by?
hemoglobin in urine.
Cystitis (inflammation of the bladder) is characterized by?
Pus & high specific gravity in urine.
Name the three major nitrogenous wastes found in the urine:
Urea, urine acid, and creatinine.
Explain the difference between organized and unorganized sediments:
Unorganized sediments crystalize or precepitate out of solution, whereas organized sediments contain cellular elements such as WBCs and RBCs.
A tangled capillary knot that filters fluid from the blood into the lumen of the renal tubule is:
a glomerulus
A filtrate-processing tubule is:
a renal tubule
An enlarged structure at the beginning of the renal tubule is:
a glomerular capsule
The glomerulus plus the glomerular capsule is:
a renal corpuscle
Arteriole supplying the glumerulus is:
an afferent arteriole.
Arteriole draining the glumerulus is:
an efferent arteriole.
In terms of the blood supply to and from the glomerulus, explain why the glomerular capillary bed is unusual:
normally a venule drains capillary bed. In the kidney, an efferent arteriole drains the glomerular capillary bed.
Explain how would pressure in the glomerulus be affected by constricting the afferent arteriole?
Constricting the afferent arteriole will reduce the amount of blood flowing into the glomerulus, thereby reducing glomerulus pressure.
Explain how would pressure in the glomerulus be affected by constricting the efferent arteriole?
By restricting the outflow of the glomerulus, pressure in the glomerulus is increased.
If systemic blood pressure started to rise, what could the arterioles of the glomerulus do to keep glomerular filtration rate constant?
The afferent arteriole could constrict.
One of the experiments you performed in the simulation was to close the valve at the end of the collecting duct. Is closing that valve more like constricting an afferent arteriole or more like a kidney stone?
It's like having a kidney stone - glomerular filtration rate is zero when stone is present (or when the valve was closed). Constricting the arteriole would reduce but not eliminate glomerular filtration.
Constricting the efferent arteriole would have the same effect on glomerular filtration as (constricting/dilating) the afferent arteriole.
It's the same as dilating the afferent arteriole.
What causes production of dilute urine?
decreased ADH
What results in increased sodium loss?
decreased aldosterone
What causes the body to retain more potassium?
decreased aldosterone
What will cause water retention due to sodium movement?
increased aldosterone
What causes water reabsorption due to increased membrane permeability?
increased ADH and increased aldosterone
What increases sodium reabsorption?
increased aldosterone