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81 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is DIGESTION?
The chemical breakdown of food into small organic fragments suitable for absorption by the digestive epithelium.
Digestive mesenteries are made of...
...double sheets of peritoneal membrane
What do the mesenteries do?
Stabilize the positions of the attached organs and prevent the intestines from becoming entangled.
What is the inner lining of the digestive tract?
The mucosa
What is the mucosa?
A mucous membrane consisting of an epithelium, moistened by glandular secretios and a lamina propria of areolar tissue
Where is simple columnar epithelium located?
The stomach, small intestine, and almost the entire length of the large intestine.
This is called the...
...digestive epithelium
The digestive epithelium contains _________ cells.
Goblet
Where does most absorption occur?
Large intestine
Contractions in these layers alter the shape of the lumen and move the epithelial pleats and folds.
the lamina propria
The submucosa has large ____ ________ and _______ ________
Blood vessels, lymphatic vessels
The submucosal plexus is also called the...
plexus of Meissner
The plexus of Meissner contains ______ ______, parasympathetic ganglionic neurons, and sympathetic postganglionic fibers that innervate the mucosa and submucosa.
sensory neurons
Muscularis externa....
The myenteric plexus is also called the...
plexus of Auerbach
(mys, intestine)
The Plexus of Auerbach network is made up of
-
-
-
-
Parasympathetic ganglia
Sensory neurons
interneurons
sympathetic post ganglionic fibers
There does the myenteric plexus lie?
between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers
The muscular layer of the digestive tract consist of ______ ______ ______ _____
visceral smooth muscle tissue
These smooth muscle cells undergo _______ _____ and their ______ triggers a wave of contractions that spreads through the entire _____ ____
-spontaneous depolarization
-Contraction
-muscular sheet
_________ consists of waves of muscular contractions that move a bolus along the length of the digestive tract.
Peristalsis
What is a bolus?
A small oval mass of digestive contents (in this case)
These movements churn and fragment the bolus, mixing the contents with intestinal secretions.
segmentation
The lateral walls of the oral cavity
cheeks
The cheeks are supported by the pads of fat and the _______ ______
buccinator muscles
The space between the cheeks (or lips) and the teeth
vestibule
The passageway between the oral cavity and the oropharynx
fauces
The bulk of each tooth that consists of a mineralized matrix similar to that of bone
dentin
How does dentin differ from bone?
It doesn't contain cells
The ____ _____ receives blood vessels and nerves from the root canal.
pulp cavity
The narrow tunnel located at the root, or base, of the tooth
the root canal
The layer that covers the dentin of the root, providing protection.
Cementum
Cementum also....
...firmly anchors the periodontal ligament
The layer that covers the dentin of the crown
Enamel
The blade-shaped teeth located at the front of the mouth are the _____
incisors
Incisors are useful for _____ or _____, such as when you nip off the tip of a carrot stick.
clipping or cutting
These teeth are conical, with a sharp ridgeline and a pointed tip.
the cuspids, or canines
the cuspids are used for...
...tearing or slashing
these teeth have very large flattened crowns with prominent ridges
Molars
The molars excel at ______ and _____
crushing and grinding
The _____ is a hollow muscular tube with a length of appx ___cm and a diameter of about ___cm at its widest point
-esophagus
-25cm (1ft)
-2cm (0.75in)
When your stomach is relaxed (empty), the mucosa is thrown into prominent folds called _____
rugae (wrinkles)
The rugae (wrinkles) are temporary features that....
...let the gastric lumen expand.
Gastric glands are dominated by 2 types of secretory cells, the ______ and _____ _____
-parietal
-chief cells
Parietal cells secrete...
HCl and intrinsic factor
Chief cells are most abundant near ...
...the base of a gastric gland
Chief cells secrete _______, an inactive proenzyme
pepsinogen
The rugae (wrinkles) are temporary features that....
...let the gastric lumen expand.
Gastric glands are dominated by 2 types of secretory cells, the ______ and _____ _____
-parietal
-chief cells
Parietal cells secrete...
HCl and intrinsic factor
Chief cells are most abundant near ...
...the base of a gastric gland
Chief cells secrete _______, an inactive proenzyme
pepsinogen
Pepsinogen is converted by the ____ in the gastric lumen to ______, an active proteolytic (protien-digesting) enzyme.
-acid
-pepsin
The stomachs of newborns (but not adults) produce ____, also known as _______, and ______ _____, enzymes important for the digestion of milk.
-rennin
-chymosin
-gastric lipase
(pyloric glands)
These 3.enteroendocrine cells produce at least _____ hormones, most notably, the hormone _____.
-seven
-gastrin
Gastrin stimulates secretion of both ____ and _____ _____ (gastric phase)
-parietal
-chief cells
Gastrin also stimulates _______ __ ___ ______ _____ that mix and stir the gastric contents.
contractions of the gastric wall
The final segment of the small intestine.
The ileum
The ileum is the ______, averaging _____m (___ft) in length
-longest
-3.5
-12
The ileum ends at the _____ _____
-ileocecal valve
The ileocecal valve is a sphincter that controls the flow of materials from the ___ into the _____ of the _____ _____
-ileum
-cecum
-large intestine
The intestinal lining bears a series of transverse folds called _____
plicae
The plicae are different from the rugae in the stomach in the fact that they ....
...are permanent and don't disappear when the small intestine fills
The small intestine contains roughly _____ plicae. Their presence greatly ______ ____ _____ _____
-800
-increases the surface area
_______ transport materials that are unable to enter blood capillaries
Lacteals
When ____ arrives in the duodenum, _____ is released.
-chyme
-secretin
On the anterior surface of the liver, the ____ ____ marks the division between the organ's ___ ____ and ____ ____.
-falciform ligament
-left lobe
-right lobe
the liver has ____ lobes
-4
The basic functional units of the liver are the ___ ____
liver lobules
The common bile duct is formed by the union of the ____ ___ and the ____ ____ ____
Cystic duct
Common hepatic duct
The gallbladder's 2 major functions are:
___ _____ and
____ _____
bile storage
bile modification
Bile is secreted continuously, but is released into the duodenum only under the ______ of___
stimulation of CCK (cholecystokinin)
The major fxn's of the large intestine include:
The reabsorption of ____ and the ____ of _____ _____ into _____
-water
-compaction
-intestinal contents
-feces
LI fxns 2
The _____ of important _____ liberated by bacterial action
-absorption
-vitamins
LI fxns 3
The _____ of ____ ____ prior to defacation
-storage
-fecal material
The three separate longitudinal bands of smooth muscle are called...
taeniae coli
(singular, taenia)
The taeniae coli are on the ____ ____ of the ____ just deep to the serosa.
outer surfaces
colon
In the Ascending colon, the colon bends sharply to the left at the ___ ____ ___ or ___ ___
right colic flexure
hepatic flexure
This turn at the hepatic flexure marks the end of the ascending colon and the beginning of the ____ ____
transverse colon
The last part of the digestive tract, an expandable organ for the temporary storage of fecal material.
The rectum
The rectum is about ___cm (__in) long
15cm
6in
______ _____ begins in the ____ during mastication.
carbohydrate digestion
mouth
Digestion begins by the action of salivary ____ from the _____ and _____ salivary glands.
amylase
parotid and submandibular