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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Spermatozoa cannot perform ___ until they have been exposed to conditions in the female reproductive tract
Fertilization typically occurs near the junction between __ & ___, generally within a day after ovulation.
the ampulla and isthmus of the uterine tube
Fertilization by more than one sperm
Creates a zygote that is incapable of normal development
Trimester: The period of embryological and early fetal development.
The first trimester
Trimester: During this period, the rudiments of all the major organ systems appear
The first trimester
Trimester of development of organs and organ systems; nears completion by the end of the sixth month.
The second trimester
by the end of this trimester, the fetus looks distinctively human; body proportions change
The second trimester
Trimester characterized by rapid fetal growth and deposition of adipose tissue.
The third trimester
Trimester when most of the major organ systems become fully functional
Early in the third trimester
Sequence of cell divisions: Begins immediately after fertil. & ends at contact with the uterine wall
Begins with the attachment of blastocyst to endometrium.
The first cleavage produces a pre-embryo consisting of two identical cells.
Blastomeres (Days 1-2)
Identical cells produced by cleavage divisions are called ____
After three days of cleavage, the pre-embryo is a solid ball of cells resembling a mulberry.
Morula (mulberry) (Days 3-4)
The morula typically reaches the uterus on day ___
Over the next two days, the blastomeres form a ____
Blastocyst (Days 5- 6)
A hollow ball with an inner cavity
They lie clustered at one end of the blastocyst.
The inner cell mass
These cells are exposed to the blastocoele, but are insulated from contact by the trophoblast.
The inner cell mass
In time, the inner cell mass will form the ____
The syncytial trophoblast erodes a path through the uterine epithelium by secreting _____
Implantation: ___ extensions grow around endometrial capillaries
Implantation: maternal blood begins to percolate through trophoblastic channels known as _____.
When is the Amniotic Cavity formed?
(Days 10-12)
The trophoblast will later separate from the amniotic cavity by layers of cells that line the amniotic cavity called ____
The amnion
Cells in specific areas of the surface move toward a central line known as the primitive streak.
Blood vessels soon appear within the mesoderm, and the yolk sac becomes an important site of __ __ ___
blood cell formation
surrounds and cushions the developing embryo or fetus in the ammniotic cavity
Amniotic fluid
Sac of endoderm and mesoderm; the base of which later gives rise to the urinary bladder
the allantois
3rd week of development; the mesoderm extends along the core of each trophoblastic villus, forming ___ ___.
chorionic villi
Blood flows thru chorionic vessels early in the ___ week of development
Hormones are synthesized by the ___ ___ and released into the maternal bloodstream
syncytial trophoblast
The hormones produced include:
1.Human chorionic gonadotropin
2.Human placental lactogen
3.Placental prolactin
The hormones produced include:
Hormone appearing in the maternal bloodstream soon after implantation has occurred.
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)
The presence of hCG in blood or urine samples provides a reliable indication of ____
Hormone secreted by the placenta, as well as by the corpus luteum, during pregnancy.
Increases the flexibility of the pubic symphysis, permitting the pelvis to expand during delivery
Causes the dilation of the cervix, making it easier for the fetus to enter the vaginal canal
Suppresses the release of oxytocin by the hypothalamus and delays the onset of labor contractions
2nd-3rd Trimester: Major changes that occur in maternal systems are:
(resp & blood)
-The Maternal RR and Tidal Volume Increases.
-The Maternal Blood Volume Increases
2nd-3rd Trimester: Major changes that occur in maternal systems are:
(nut. & kidneys)
-Maternal Requirements for Nut. & Vit. climb 10-30%
-Maternal GFR Increases by roughly 50%
____has an inhibitory effect on the uter. smooth muscle, preventing more extensive & more powerful contractions
Progesterone, released by the placenta
1st Stage of Labor
The Dilation Stage
Stage of labor that continues until the fetus has emerged from the vagina.
The Expulsion Stage
APGAR: A score of ___ is considered normal, while ___ might require some resuscitative measures

a baby with apgars of ______ requires immediate resuscitation.
3 and below
Effects of aging:
1-loss of elasticity in skin
2-reducion pro./sec. hormones
3-red. sensitivity immune sys
4-red. lung elasticity
Every somatic cell contains ___ pairs of chromosomes
The two members of each pair ( from Mom & Dad)
Homologous chromosomes
Twenty-two of those pairs are called ___ chromosomes.
The autosomal chromosomes affect __ characteristics, such as hair color and skin pigmentation
The various form of any gene
If the 2 chromosomes of a __ pair carry the same allele, you are homozygous for the trait affected by that gene.
When you have two different alleles of the same gene, you are ___ for the trait determined by that gene.