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80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The human reproductive system does what 4 things?
Produces
Stores
Nourishes
Transports
Functional male and female reproductive cells.
Gametes
Reproductive organs that produce gametes and hormones.
Gonads
receives and transports the gametes.
Ducts
They secrete fluids into the ducts of the reproductive system or into other excretory ducts.
Accessory glands and organs
collectively known as the external genitalia.
Perineal structures
Reproductive system includes:(4)structures
Gonads, Ducts, Accessory glands and organs, Perineal structures
They are paired structures extending between the abdominopelvic cavity and the testes.
The Spermatic Cords
Ductus deferens & Blood vessels are contained within the ___ ___
The Spermatic Cords
Structures include: The deferential artery,
A testicular artery,
Pampiniform plexus of a testicular vein.
The Spermatic Cords
large interstitial cells responsible for the production of androgens, the dominant sex hormones in males.
cells of Leydig
the most important male androgen
Testosterone
begins at the outermost layer of cells in the seminiferous tubules and proceeds toward the lumen.
Spermatogenesis
stem cells called ____ divide by mitosis to produce daughter cells
spermatogonia
spermatogonia divide by mitosis to produce daughter cells, some of which differentiate into ___ ___
primary spermatocytes
___ ____ are the cells that begin meiosis
Primary spermatocytes
For each primary spermatocyte that enters meiosis, four _____ are produced.
spermatids
In the last step of spermatogenesis, each spermatid matures into a single _____, or ______
spermatozoon, or sperm.
Functions of Sustentacular Cells (Sertolli Cells): (6)
1. Maint.Blood-Testis Barrier
2. Support Mitosis & Meiosis
3. Support of Spermiogenesis
4. Secretion of Inhibin
Functions of Sustentacular Cells (Sertolli Cells): (6)
....CONTINUED.....
5. Secretion of Androgen-Binding Protein.
6. Secretion of Müllerian-Inhibiting Factor (MIF).
3 functions of the epididymis:
1. It Monitors and Adjusts the Composition of the Fluid Produced By the Seminiferous Tubules.
3 functions of the epididymis:
....CONTINUED.....
2. It Acts as a Recycling Center for Damaged Spermatozoa.
3.Stores Protects Spermatozoa
It carries sperm from the epididymis to the urtethra.
Ductus deferens AKA vas deferens
The wall of the ___ ___ contains a thick layer of smooth muscle.
ductus deferens
What propels spermatozoa and fluid along the ductus deferens?
Peristaltic contractions
The ___ glands are situated at the base of the penis, covered by the fascia of the urogenital diaphragm.
paired bulbourethral glands, or Cowper's glands
They secrete a thick mucus that neutralizes urinary acids & lubricates the glans.
The Bulbourethral Glands, or Cowper's glands
A typical ejaculation releases ___ of semen
2-5 ml
The male external organ of copulation
The penis
The expanded distal end that surrounds the external urethral meatus.
The glans
Surrounds the tip of the penis
Prepuce or foreskin
Gland in the skin of the neck and inner surface of the prepuce that secretes smegma
Preputial glands
Surrounds the penile urethra
The corpus spongiosum
causes the secretion of testosterone and other androgens by the testes
LH
The ovaries, uterine tubes, and uterus are enclosed within an extensive mesentery known as the __ __
broad ligament

(like a blanket)
Oocyte transport involves a combination of __ & __ in the walls of the uterine tube.
ciliary movement and peristaltic contractions
The uterine tubes transport a secondary oocyte for ___ & ___
final maturation and fertilization
Provides mech. protection; nut. support; and waste removal for the developing embryo and fetus
The uterus
term used for zygote from week 1 to week 8
embryo
term used for zygote from week 9 to delivery
fetus
Arise on the lateral margins of the uterus posterior and inferior to the attachments of the uterine tubes.
The round ligaments
These ligaments extend through the inguinal canal and end in the connective tissues of the external genitalia.
The round ligaments
The tubular cervix projects about ____ into the vagina
1.25 cm (0.5 in.)
What are the 3 layers of the Uterine Wall?
Myometrium
Endometrium
Perimetrium
Uterine wall: Serous membrane that is continuous with the peritoneal lining
Perimetrium
Muscular wall of the uterus
Myometrium
A thin, inner, glandular or mucosa wall of the uterus
Endometrium
The uterine cycle averages __in length, but it can range from __ to__in healthy women of reproductive age.
28 days

21 to 35 days
TERM: The gradual sloughing off of tissue; repairs begin almost at once
Menses
The process of endometrial sloughing, called menstruation, generally lasts from __ to ___ days.
one to seven
During menses the entire ____ zone has been lost.
functional
PHASE: The endometrial glands enlarge, and the arteries elongate and spiral through the functional zone.
The Secretory Phase
caused by severe physical/emotional stresses or the reproductive system geting "switched off."
Transient secondary amenorrhea
Factors that cause amenorrhea include:
drastic weight loss,
anorexia nervosa,
severe depression or grief
observed in marathoners & women in programs that sustain exertion & reduce body lipid reserves
amenorrhea
An elastic, muscular tube extending between the cervix and the vestibule
the vagina
The area containing the female external genitalia
The vulva or pudendum
The vagina opens into the vestibule, a central space bounded by small folds
Labia minora
Prominent folds of skin that encircle and partially conceal the labia minora and adjacent structures
Labia majora
Discharge into the urethra near the external urethral opening.
The paraurethral glands, or Skene's glands
Contains erectile tissue comparable to the corpora cavernosa of the penis.
The clitoris
Female: engorges with blood during sexual arousal
The clitoris
Reddish-brown skin around each nipple.
Areola
Follicular development begins under __ stimulation
FSH
Follicular development and maturation is supported by the combination of what 3 hormones?
estrogens, FSH, and LH
LH is released from the ___ ___ gland.
anterior pituitary
This sudden surge in LH concentration triggers:
1-The completion of meiosis I by the primary oocyte
2-rupture of the follicular wall
This sudden surge in LH concentration triggers:
---continued------
3-Ovulation
Typically, ovulation occurs __-__hrs after the LH surge begins, roughly 9 hours after the LH peak.
34-38 hours
_____ is the main hormone of the luteal phase.
progesterone
In the luteal phase, estrogens are secreted by the ___ ___
corpus luteum
Declines in progesterone & estrogen levels r/t the degeneration of the corpus luteum result in ____.
menses
Emissions occur under ___ stimulation
sympathetic
peristaltic contractions of the ___ push fluid and spermatozoa into the prostatic urethra
ampulla
Ejaculation occurs as a powerful, rhythmic contractions of what 2 muscles?
ischiocavernosus and bulbospongiosus muscles
(superficial skel. muscles of the pelvic floor)
Almost _____ potential oocytes are in fetal ovaries after five months of development
7 million
Oocytes present drops to about ____ at birth and to about _____ at puberty
2 million

four hundred thousand
The period of change in males is known as the male ___
climacteric
Males: Levels of circulating testosterone begin to decline between the ages of __&__
50 and 60
The male climacteric: levels of circulating ___ & ___ increase
FSH and LH