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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
we must maintain a normal volume of ______________ ______ and _____________ _______ to survive
extracellular fluid (ECF, and the intracellular fluid (ICF)
the intestinal fluid, plasma, and other body fluids
intracellular fluids
ions in ECF
sodium, chloride, bicarbonate,
ions in ICF
potassium, magnesium, phosphate, large numbers of negative charged proteins
increased ADH release
1- stimulates water conservation at hte kidneys, reducing urine loss and concentrating the urine; 2- stimulates thirst center, promoting intake of fluids
high plasma concentration of aldosterone
more effectively the kidneys conserve because "water follows salt"
loss of body water is associated with:
1- sever thirst; 2- dryness of the skin, 3- fall in plasma volume or blood pressure
if u lose water than:
you retain eletrolytes, and the osmotic concentration of ECF rises
Osmosis --> isotonic
osmosis moves water out of the ICF and into the ECF until the two solutions are isotonic
large amount of salt consumtion without fluid consumption
plasma concentration will rise temporarily
increase in aldosterone:
increase Sodium absorbtion and Potassium secretion
aldosterone effects
the rate at which potassium is lost from the urine
ion pumps are sensitive to:
potassium, and reabsorb from filtrate in exchange for peritubular fluid
reflects an interplay between the reserves in the bone, rate of reabsorbtions along the digestive trast, and rate of loss in the kidneys
calcium homeostasis
maintain calcium homeostasis in the ECF
PTH and calcitonin
raise the concentration fo calcium
PTH, calcitrol
decrease the concentration of calcium
important factor affecting pH in body tissues
the carboxylate ion and amine group act as a weak pH
if pH drops
teh weak pH functions to:
accept H ions, forming a carboxyl groups and amino group
prevent pH changes caused by organic acids and fixed acids in ECF
carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system
Hypoventilation causes pH to...
chronic respiratory acidosis
emphysema, CHF, pneumonia
1- individuals adapting to high altitudes, where low PCO2 hyperventilation
respiratory alkalosis
starvation causes...
ketoacidosis is a complication of ...
diabetes mellitus
an impaired ability to excrete at the kidneys
metabolic acidosis
severe kidney damage
person who vomits replaces stomach acid therefore...
HCO3 concentratio of ECF will rise
increase amount of anti-acids causes...
metabolic alkalosis