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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name four products that are transported by blood:
dissolved gases,
metabolic wastes
Blood also Regulates __ and ___ composition in interstitial fluids
pH & ion
Blood Defends the body against _____ & ______
toxins and pathogens
Blood is a fluid connective tissue with a matrix called
Name three types of formed elements that exist in blood
Red Blood Cells,
White Blood Cells,
(cell fragments also)
Together, the plasma and the formed elements constitute _____ ______
whole blood
The components of whole blood can be _________, or separated, for analytical or clinical purposes.
Blood volume in liters can be estimated (male/female) by calculating __ percent of the body weight in kilograms
Fresh whole blood is generally collected from a superficial vein, such as the ___ ___ vein on the anterior surface of the elbow
median cubital
An ___ ___, can be used for checking the efficiency of gas exchange at the lungs.
arterial puncture or "stick"
Constitutes roughly 60 percent of the plasma proteins
The most abundant plasma proteins, they are major contributors to the osmotic pressure of plasma
Antibodies that attack foreign proteins and pathogens
Functions in clotting.
In other words: ____ minus _____= Serum
Plasma, Fibrinogen
The percentage of whole blood occupied by cellular elements
The hematocrit
The normal hematocrit in adult males averages
46 (range: 40-54)
The normal hematocrit for adult females
42 (range: 37-47)
circulating mammalian RBCs cannot divide or synthesize structural proteins or enzymes. Why ?
Because they lack nuclei and ribosomes
RBCs cannot perform repairs. Their life span is relatively short-normally less than ___ days.
The Hb molecule has two alpha chains and two beta chains of ___ ; forming 4 Hemes
Each Hb chain is a ___ ___ ___ that resembles the myoglobin in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells.
globular protein subunit
Like myoglobin, each Hb chain contains a single molecule of ___ , a pigment complex.
Normal activity levels can be sustained only when tissue ___ levels are kept within normal limits
What is the condition of anemia ?
If the hematocrit is low or the Hb content of the RBCs is reduced
Each heme unit is stripped of its iron and converted to ____
An organic blood compound with a green color.
(Bad bruises commonly develop a green tint due to biliverdin formation in the blood-filled tissues
Biliverdin is converted to ____
What is erythropoiesis ?
The Production/formation of Red blood cells
Where does erythopoisis occur ?
only in red bone marrow, or myeloid tissue (myelos , marrow).
This tissue is located in portions of the vertebrae, sternum, ribs, skull, scapulae, pelvis, and proximal limb bones
red bone marrow, or myeloid tissue (myelos , marrow).
After roughly four days of differentiation, the __, now called a normoblast, sheds its nucleus and becomes a __.
erythroblast, reticulocyte
If vitamin B12 is not obtained from the diet, normal stem cell divisions cannot occur resuling in ?
pernicious anemia
pernicious anemia is caused by ____,_____, or _____
-Vitamin deficiency
-Intrinsic prod. problem
-Vitamin absorption bound to
intrinsic factor
What is erythropoietin ?
EPO or erythropoiesis-stimulating hormone
EPO is a glycoprotein that appears in the plasma when peripheral tissues are exposed to __ ___ ______
low oxygen concentrations
What are EPO's two major effects ?
-stimulates cell div. rates in e.blasts & stem cells that produce e.blasts
-Speeds maturation of RBCs
Your ____ ___ is a classification determined by the presence or absence of specific surface antigens in the RBC cell membranes.
blood type
Type __ blood contains anti-B antibodies, which will attack Type B surface antigens.
If you have Type __ blood, your plasma contains anti-A antibodies.
Type __ blood have neither A nor B surface antigens, The plasma contains both anti-A and anti-B antibodies.
Type __ blood has both A and B surface antigens, and the plasma does not contain anti-A or anti-B antibodies.
Changes in blood volume have direct effects on ___ ___ ___
other body systems
Define: hypovolemic, normovolemic, & hypervolemic
low, normal, and excessive blood volumes, respectively
Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes contribute to the body's _______ _____.
nonspecific defenses
What WBCs are responsible for specific defenses.
Fifty to seventy percent of the circulating WBCs are ______ (most common).
sensitive to circulating allergens, ____ increase in number during allergic reactions
The granules contain histamine, which dilates blood vessels, and heparin, a compound that prevents blood from clotting
enhances the local inflammation initiated by mast cells
Stem cells responsible for the production of WBCs originate in __ __, with the divisions of _________
bone marrow

Stimulates the production of monocytes
Stimulates the production of granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils)
What is thrombocytopoiesis & where does it occur ?
Platelet production, occurs in the bone marrow
A mature megakaryocyte gradually loses all of its ___, producing about 4000 _____ before the nucleus is engulfed by phagocytes and broken down for recycling.

Coagulation involves steps leading to the conversion of circulating fibrinogen into the insoluble protein ______
The __ pathway begins with the release of Factor III, also known as tissue factor (TF), by damaged endothelial cells or peripheral tissues.
The extrinsic pathway begins _______ the bloodstream.
The __ pathway begins with the activation of proenzymes (usually Factor XII) exposed to collagen fibers at the injury site (or a glass surface on a slide or collection tube).
The intrinsic pathway begins ____ the bloodstream
A drifting blood clot, an abnormal mass within the bloodstream
embolus (plug)
The blockage caused by the abnormal mass within the blood stream
The tissue damage caused by circulatory interruption
an infarct
Infarct within the brain
Stroke, or CVA (cerebral-vascular accident)
Infarct at the heart
Myocardial infaction (MI) or heart attack
What is a thrombus ?
blood clot attached to a vessel wall, begins to form when platelets stick to the wall of an intact blood vessel
platelets are attracted to areas called ____, where endothelial and smooth muscle cells contain large quantities of lipids
Adequate amounts of ___ must be present for the liver to be able to synthesize four of the clotting factors, including prothrombin.
vitamin K
Clot gradually dissolves through action of ______
Plasmin is an activated form of _______, which digests the fibrin strand and erodes the foundation of clot.