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66 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Intracellular Communication:
Direct communication is transmitted through ____ _____ .
gap junctions
Intracellular Communication:
Paracrine communication is transimmed via ____ ____ . It is limited to ____ _____ .
Ex: Prostaglandins
extracellular fluid

Local area
The compounds ____ ____ & ____ have similar structures, are sometimes called catecholamines.
epinephrine (E) norepinephrine (NE)
and dopamine
compose of chains of amino acids & are structurally similar to amino acids.
Peptide hormones
The presence or absence of a hormone can affect the ____ & ____ of hormone receptor proteins in the cell membrane.
nature and number
a process in which the presence of a hormone triggers a decrease in the number of hormone receptors.
Down-regulation
More Hormone, less receptors available and vice versa.
Down-regulation
The link between the first messenger and the second messenger generally involves a ____ ____.
G protein
An enzyme complex coupled to a membrane receptor
G protein
Steroid hormones diffuse across the ___ part of the cell membrane and bind to ____ ____ in the cytoplasm or nucleus.
lipid

intracellular receptors
the highest level of endocrine control, (and most complex endocrine response)
The hypothalamus
integrates the activities of the nervous and endocrine systems
The hypothalamus
Two classes of hypothalamic regulatory hormones exist:
(1) Releasing hormones
(2) Inhibiting hormones
stimulates the synthesis and secretion of one or more hormones at the anterior lobe
releasing hormone ( RH )
prevents the synthesis and secretion of hormones from the anterior lobe.
inhibiting hormone ( IH )
Neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei manufacture ____ & ____
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

and oxytocin
The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
neurohypophysis
Antidiuretic Hormone:
A rise in the ___ ____ stimulates the secretory neurons directly.
electrolyte concentration
Antidiuretic Hormone:
Because secretory neurons respond to a change in the ____ ____ of body fluids, these neurons are called
osmotic concentration

osmoreceptors
Hormone that targets the mammary glands to produce milk
Prolactine (PRL)
Hormone that targets melanocytes to increase melanin synthesis in epidermis
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
Thyroid gland cells, which are larger than those of the follicular epithelium and do not stain as clearly, are the _____ cells, or ______ cells.
C (clear) cells, or parafollicular cells.
C cells produce the hormone _____ which aids in the regulation of concentrations in body fluids
calcitonin ( CT)
Like the C cells of the thyroid gland, the ___ cells monitor the circulating concentration of ___ ____.
chief

calcium ions
When the ____ concentration of the blood falls below normal, the chief cells secrete _____ or _____
Calcium

parathyroid hormone ( PTH ), or parathormone
The net result of PTH secretion is a/an ____ in concentration in body fluids.
increase
Zona glomerulosa:
The outer region of the adrenal cortex, produces _____, steroid hormones that affect the ____ ____of body fluids.
mineralocorticoids ( MCs )

electrolyte composition
the principal mineralocorticoid produced by the adrenal cortex.
Aldosterone
Aldosterone stimulates the ____ of sodium ions and the ____ of potassium ions.
conservation

elimination
Zona Fasciculata:
Produces steroid hormones collectively known as ___ due to their effects on glucose metabolism.
glucocorti-coids ( GCs )
Glucocorticoids: When stimulated by ACTH from the anterior lobe of the pituitary, the zona fasciculata secretes primarily ____ , along with smaller amounts of the related steroid ___ .
cor-tisol, or hydrocortisone

corticosterone
Normally produces small quantities of androgens: The sex hormones produced in large quantities by the testes in males.
The Zona Reticularis
Once in the bloodstream, some of the androgens released by the zona reticularis are converted to ____ .
estrogens, the dominant sex hormone in females.
The Adrenal Medulla
Contains two populations of secretory cells:
One produces epinephrine (adrenaline)

The other norepinephrine (noradrenaline).
Disease Due to Hyposecretion of Corticosteroids
Addison's
Disease Due to Hypersecretion of
Corticosteroids
Cushing’s
The pineal gland contains neurons, neuroglia, and special secretory cells called _____.
pinealocytes
Cells that synthesize the hormone melatonin from molecules of the neurotransmitter serotonin .
pinealocytes
The endocrine ___ consists of small groups of cells scattered among the exocrine cells.
pancreas
The endocrine clusters are known as pancreatic islets, or the islets of _____ .
Langerhans
The pancreatic islets:
Alpha cells Produce the hormone _______ .
glucagon
Glucagon raises blood glucose levels by increasing the rates of glycogen _____ and glucose released by the _____ .
breakdown and

liver
The pancreatic islets:

Beta cells Secrete ____
insulin
Insulin is a ___ __ released by beta cells when glucose levels exceed normal levels (70-110 mg/dl).
peptide hormone
The inability of the Pancreas to produce Insulin.
Diabetes mellitus
When glucose concentrations fall below normal, alpha cells release ___ and energy reserves are mobilized.
glucagon
a peptide hormone released by the kidneys in response to low oxygen levels in kidney tissues.
Erythropoietin
(EPO)
stimulates the production of red blood cells by bone marrow.
Erythropoietin
(EPO)
Renin converts ___, a plasma protein produced by the liver, to angiotensin I.
angiotensinogen
In the capillaries of the ____, angiotensin I is modified to the hormone angiotensin II
lungs
stimulates the secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex and ADH at the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
angiotensin II
the name originally given to an extract from the thymus that promotes the development and maturation of T-lymphocytes.
Thymosin
the white blood cells responsible for immunity.
T-lymphocytes
In males, the interstitial cells, ____ cells of the testes produce the male hormones known as androgens.
(Leydig Cells)
The most important androgens is ______
testosterone
____ cells in the testes support the differentiation and physical maturation of sperm.
Sustentacular cells (Sertolli Cells)
Under __ stimulation, Sertolli cells secrete the hormone ___, (which inhibits the secretion of FSH at the anterior lobe and perhaps suppresses GnRH release at the hypothalamus).
FSH

inhibin
Testes: Hormone from interstitial cells; support maturation of sperm cells, protein systhesis in skelatal muscles, male secondary sex char. & behavior.
androgens
Testes: Hormone from sustentacular cells; inhibits secretion of FSH
inhibin
Ovaries: follicular cells; support follicular maturation, feamle secondary sex char. & behavior.
estrogen
Ovaries: inhibit secretion of FSH
inhibitin
Epinephrine is the dominant hormone of the ___ phase, and its secretion accompanies a generalized ____ activation.
alarm

sympathetic
Some stresses, such as __, __, & __, can persist for hours, days, or even weeks.
starvation,
acute illness,
or severe anxiety
If a stress lasts longer than a few hours, the individual will enter the ____ ____ of the _____
resistance phase of the GAS.
the dominant
Glucocorticoids
secondary hormones of the resistance phase
Epinephrine,
GH,
and thyroid hormones