Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/204

Click to flip

204 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Blood
connective tissue that contains cells and proteins nonexistent in any other connective tissue
plasma
liquid containing dissolved substances
formed elements
cells and cell fragments in blood
granulocytes
white blood cells with grains in the cytoplasm
agranulocytes
white blood cells without grains in the cytoplasm
thrombocytes
platelets/ cell fragments in the blood
hematopoiesis
production of all of the formed elements
stem cells
indifferentiated cells that give rise to highly specialized cells
mesenchyme
group of stem cells that gives rise to all connective tissue
pluripotent stem cells
stem cells that give rise to the formed elements of blood
biconcave disc
flexible shape of a erythrocyte consisting of a disc with indentations on the top and bottom
hemoglobin
red pigmented molecule in blood
heme
iron-containing molecule attached to globins
globin
protein strand composing hemoglobin
Sickle cell anemia
genetic disorder where one amino acid in any of the globin chains is missing or different, causing the strand to collapse
thalassemia
part of a globin or a whole globin is missing in hemoglobin
erythropoiesis
production of red blood cells
reticulocyte count
count of number of reticulocytes in the blood stream to determine erythrocyte production
erythropoietin
a hormone secreted by the kidney which increases erythrocyte production
agglutinogens
proteins on the surface of erythrocytes responsible for blood type
hypoxia
deficiency of oxygen that may come as a result of anemia
anemia
disorder that produces hypoxia that is caused by too little of abnormal hemoglobin
hematocrit
the percentage of erythrocytes in whole blood
blood doping
using packaged erythrocytes to increase oxygen supply, typically in athletes
procrit
medicine providing the effects of blood doping without the risk of disease
Major histocompatibility complex proteins
also called antigens; proteins found on all cells except erythrocytes that identify an individual's own cells
phagocytosis
process that gets rid of damaged or infected cells by "eating"
chemotaxis
chemical attraction between cells
diapedesis
the process of leukocytes migrating through the blood vessel walls into the tissue space
band
immature neutrophil
macrophage
monocyte that has migrated out of blood into tissue space
fixed macrophage
macrophage specialized for one specific tissue space
wandering macrophages
macrophages that migrate to where they are needed
mast cell
basophil that has migrated into tissue spaces
heparin
chemical that prevents clots from forming
histamine
extremely chemotaxic chemical that aids with healing
inflammation
process that cleans up and protects injury site so healing may occur
anti-histamine
chemical that blocks histamine
differential count
determines the number of different leukocytes in a total of 100 leukocytes
leukopoiesis
production of leukocytes
thrombopoietin
hormone that controls the production of thrombocytes
agglutin
antibody for an agglutinogen
agglutination
clumping of erythrocytes due to the formation of an agglutinogen/agglutinin complex
antibody
protein with a 3D shape that allows attachment to form a complex with one specific antigen
RhoGAM
medication infected to prevent a mother's production of the d antigen
albumin
major plasma protein in establishing osmotic pressure
fibrinogen
soluble protein serving role in clot formation
vascular spasm
the contraction of the smooth muscle around a damaged blood vessel
serum
plasma minus the clotting proteins
coagulation
the process of blood clotting
prothrombinase
prothrombin activator
retraction
the process of shinking and tightening the clot
fibrinolysis
the process of dissolving the clot
Hemophilia
genetic disorder where an individual lacks a coagulation factor
Thrombosis
formation of a clot in an intact vessel
thrombus
unnecessary clot
embolus
thrombus that has broken loose and entered circulation
antithrombin
plasma protein that inhibits thrombin
heparin
chemical that in an anti-coagulant and prevents the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
citrate
lab-produced chemical that binds to Ca+ in blood, preventing a clot to form
streptokinase
enzyme made by strep throat capable of dissolving clots
Tissue plasminogen
tissue enzyme formed in the lab
hirudin
extremely potent anti-coagulant chemical secreted by leeches
pericardium
covering of the heart
fibrous pericardium
outermost layer of the heart
serous pericardium
inner layer of the pericardium
visceral layer of the serous pericardium
forms the outermost layer of the heart wall
parietal layer of the serous pericardium
layer of the heart that lines the fibrous pericardium
endocardium
innermost layer of the heart
myocardium
middle layer of the heart wall
epicardium
outermost layer of the heart wall
Atria
uppermost chambers of the heart
ventricles
lower chambers of the heart
auricles
appendages attached to the uppermost surface of the heart
interatrial septum
separation between the two atria
interventricular septum
separation between the two ventricle
fossa ovalis
remnant of the foramen ovale in the interatrial septum
coronary sulcus
groove that divides the atria and ventricles
anterior interventricular sulcus
groove on the anterior surface of the heart dividing left and right
posterior interventricular sulcus
groove on the posterior surface of the heart dividing left and right
aorta
very large artery that travels from the heart through the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities
cardiac cycle
the alternating, rhythmic contractions of the atria and ventricles
atrioventricular valve
valve located between the atria and ventricles that prevents the backflow of blood into the atria
semilunar valve
valve between the ventricles and veins to prevent backflow of blood into the ventricles
tricuspid valve
valve formed by three flaps of tissue
chordae tendineae
chords of connective tissue that exted between cusps and papillary muscles found in the wall of the ventricle
Atria
uppermost chambers of the heart
ventricles
lower chambers of the heart
auricles
appendages attached to the uppermost surface of the heart
interatrial septum
separation between the two atria
interventricular septum
separation between the two ventricle
fossa ovalis
remnant of the foramen ovale in the interatrial septum
coronary sulcus
groove that divides the atria and ventricles
anterior interventricular sulcus
groove on the anterior surface of the heart dividing left and right
posterior interventricular sulcus
groove on the posterior surface of the heart dividing left and right
aorta
very large artery that travels from the heart through the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities
cardiac cycle
the alternating, rhythmic contractions of the atria and ventricles
atrioventricular valve
valve located between the atria and ventricles that prevents the backflow of blood into the atria
semilunar valve
valve between the ventricles and veins to prevent backflow of blood into the ventricles
tricuspid valve
valve formed by three flaps of tissue
chordae tendineae
chords of connective tissue that exted between cusps and papillary muscles found in the wall of the ventricle
bicuspid valve
valve composed of two flaps of connective tissue
cardiac muscle fiber
short, fat, branched, striated, involuntary muscle that makes up the myocardium
gap junction
opening between adjacent cell fibers
sinoatrial node
component of the conduction system which sets the rate of the heart
electrocardiogram
the recording of the waves of depolarization and repolarization from the surface of the heart
P wave
small upward curve on an electrocardiogram
QRS complex
curve that begins downward, travels very high, and then returns downward on an electrocardiogram
T wave
small dome-shaped wave on an electrocardiogram
arrhythmias
variations in the normal heartbeat
first-degree heart block
heart problem involving slowing of the heart beat
second-degree heart block
heart problem when the ventricles miss a beat
third degree heart beat
heart problem involvin a complete separation of atrial and ventricular activity
systole
contraction
diastole
relaxation
cardiac output
the volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle to the aorta per minute
stroke volume
amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle to the aorta per contraction
Starling's law of the heart
the length of a cardiac muscle fiber determines its force of contraction
heart murmur
abnormal heart sound
anastomoses
blood vessels that communicate between arteries
ischemia
a blockage in the coronary blood vessel
infarction
the tissue beyond the blockage is dying
angina
the pain associated with reduced blood flow to the myocardium
vagal tone
the fact that the heart beats stightly slower at rest
carotid sinus reflex
sensory info that helps to maintain blood pressure in the brain
aortic reflex
sensory info that helps to maintain systemic blood pressure
right heart reflex
sensory info that controls venous blood pressure
epinephrine
hormone that mimics the sympathetic nervous system but also increases the rate and force of contraction
thyroxin
hormone that has the aility to increase rate and force of contraction
hypocalcemia
not enough calcium ions
hypercalcemia
too much calcium ions
hypokalemia
not enough potassium ions
hyperkalemia
too many potassium ions
hypernatremia
too much sodium ions
tunica interna
most internal layer of a blood vessel wall
tunica media
middle layer of a blood vessel wall
tunica externa/adventitia
outermost layer of a blood vessel
vasovasorum
blood vessels that serve other blood vessels
arteries
blood vessels that transport blood away from the heart
elastic arteries
the largest, thickest arteries that are closest to the heart
muscular arteries
medium sized arteries
arterioles
smallest arteries
capillary
blood vessel that permits the exchange of materials
capillary bed
group of capillaries arising in one particular region
precapillary sphincter
valve-like structure capable of regulating blood flow through the capillary
fenestration
slit-like openings in the capillary wall
sinusoids
highly modified capillaries with large, irregularly-shaped lumen
veins
blood vessels that transport blood to the heart
venule
smallest vein
vascular/venous sinuses
vein with a thin layer of endothelium, no smooth muscle, and a layer of connective tissue composing the tunica media and externa
skeletal muscle pumps
bundles of muscle surrounding the vessel that squeezes the vein and pushes blood
respiratory muscle pumps
the process of the diaphragm moving blood while relaxing
arterial pulse
alternating expansion and recoil of arteries caused by contraction and relaxation of the ventricles
arteriosclerosis
thickening of the arterial wall, creating loss of elasticity
atherosclerosis
plaque deposits, thickening the wall of the artery
anneurism
soft/weak spot in a blood vessel wall
varicose veins
occur when the valves in veins fail to work
blood distribution
where blood is located in blood vessels
venoconstriction
the process of veins getting smaller in sympathetic reactions
capillary dynamics
how the exchange between blood and tissue occurs
diffusion
movement based on a concentration gradient
transcytosis
moves small amounts of materials and large insoluble lipids across the capillary wall
bulk process
passive process involving moving water, ions, and other solutes across a capillary wall
filtration
moves material out of the capillary
reabsorption
moves material into the capillary
blood hydrostatic pressure
pressure inside a vessel walls
interstitial hydrostatic pressure
pressure against the outside of a vessel wall
blood osmotic pressure
pulls water into cell
interstital osmotic pressure
pulls water out of the cell
blood flow
volume of blood that flows through any tissue in a given period of time
velocity
speed of blood flow
resistance
opposition to blood flow
blood pressure
hydrostatic pressure exerted on the wall of the vessel
systolic pressure
pressure peak occurring during ventricular contraction
diastolic pressure
pressure low occurring rest prior to ventricular contraction
systemic vascular resistance
refers to all the vascular resistance produced in systemic blood vessels
peripheral resistance
resistance to blood flow primarily in the limbs
vasomotor center
controls tonic contractions in smooth muscle of blood vessel wall
hypercapnia
too much carbon dioxide
acidosis
too many hydrogen ions
hypoxia
too much oxygen
Antidiuretic hormone
hormone that causes vasoconstriction and secreted during hemorrhaging
renin
enzyme secreted by the kidney in response to a drop in blood pressure
angiotensin
plasma protein made by the liver
aldosterone
hormone made by the adrenal cortex
atrial-natriuretic peptide
hormone secreted by certain cells in the wall of the atria
anaphalaxis
the disorder when histamine is released body wide
autoregulation
local automatic adjustment of blood flow to a specific region
shock
the failure of the cardiovascular system to diliver enough oxygen and nutrients to meet body demand
hypovolemic shock
too little volume of blood
cardiogenic shock
poor heart function
vascular shock
inappropriate vasodilation
anaphylactic shock
type of vascular shock where histamine is released body-wide
obstructive shock
blockage prevents blood flow through a tissue or region
hepatic artery
branch of the abdominal aorta that brings oxygenated blood to the liver
hepatic portal vein
formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein that drains CO2 rich blood from the digestive tube into the liver
hepatic vein
drains all the blood from the liver into the inferior vena cava
placenta
disc-shaped structure embedded in the wall of the uterus that contains thousands of baby capillaries
umbilical cord
extends between the placenta and fetus and contains blood vessels
umbilical vein
runs from placenta to fetus and is high in oxygen
umbilical arteries
run fetus to placenta
foramen ovale
opening in the interarterial sulcus
ductus arteriosus
blood vessel between pulmonary trunk and aorta
internal and external iliac arteries
vessels that branch from the common iliac arteries