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203 Cards in this Set

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Dutch humanist one of the greatest Christian philosophers of the renaissance.
Erasmus
Venetian merchant and traveler who lived at the court of the khans in China and later described his travels to a western audience.
Marco Polo
Moroccan diplomat and scholar who traveled throughout Asia and Africa and recorded his travels.
Ibn Battuta
Commoner who overthrew the Mongols and founded the Ming Dynasty
Hongwu
Encouraged Portuguese mariners and missionaries to take the lead in overseas exploration and expansion.
Prince Henry
Portuguese mariner who sailed down the west coast of Africa and around the Cape of Good Hope into the Indian Ocean.
Bartolomeu Dias
Genoese mariner who crossed the Atlantic Ocean and reached the Caribbean in 1492.
Christopher Columbus.
Chinese mariner who led a number of expeditions into the Indian Ocean
Zheng He.
Nestorian Christian priest sent by the ikhan of Persia as an envoy to the pope and European political leaders.
Rabban Sauma
English mariner who explored much of the Pacific ocean while seeing a northwest passage across North America
James Cook
Portuguese mariner who sailed around Cape of Good Hope, sailed up to the east coast of Africa and reached India.
Vasco de Gama
Iberian monarch who set up navigation schools and hired cartographers to create up-to-date maps
Prince Henry
Portuguese who first rounded the Cape of Good Hope and reached the Indian Ocean
Bartolomeu Dias.
Spanish mariner who crossed the Pacific Ocean and died in the Philippines but whose ships succeeded in circling the globe.
Ferdinand Magelian
Iberian monarch who sponsored a daring trans-atlantic voyage in 1492
King Fernando of Aragon.
Genoese mariner who miscalculated distance from european west to Asia and stumbled on an unknown landmass.
Christopher Columbus
Portuguese admiral who seized in rapid succession, Hormuz, Goa, and Melaka
Alfonso d'Alboquerque
In order to divorce his queen, he severed ties between England and the Catholic Church
Henry VIII
The Sun King of France was the model of an absolute monarch
Louis XIV
With a telescope, he demonstrated that the moon and the planets were made of matter and confirmed that the planets revolved around the sun.
Galileo Galilei
The Polish mathematician theorized that if the sun were placed at the center of the heavens the orbits of the earth and the planets appeared more orderly
Nicolaus Corpernicus
ruler of a vast and scattered continental kingdom, he was never able to unify his holdings into a single kingdom
Charles V
the scottish economist argued that the self-interested capitalism was ultimately the best for the society as a whole
Adam Smith
An English mathematician his laws concerning gravitation and universal motion provided the rational explanation for the solar system.
Isaac Newton
The Protestant leader, with his strict doctrines of reformed Christianity, strongly influenced with the Reformation in Switzerland, France, the Netherlands and Scotland.
John Calvin
French satirist and social critic, his attacks on the state and the Catholic Church typified the spirit of the Enlightenment
Voltaire
This German monk attacked the Catholic sale of indulgences and launched the Reformation
Martin Luther
This foraging culture of the northwest coast of North America lived in permanent settlements
Chinook
This is the site of some of the most well-known cave paintings; most of them depict animals and are believed to reflect an effort to influence the outcome of the hunt.
Lascaux
One of the most significant archaeological finds in history, this skeleton dates back about 3.5 million years.
Lucy
Earliest known hominid genus (from four to one million years ago), these creatures walk upright, used tools, and traveled purposefully.
Australopithecus
These paleolithic people adorned themselves, created works of art, and worshipped fertility figures
cro-magnon
This site originated as a neolithic village and evolved into a large town with possibly 8000 inhabitants, many of whom were in specialized occupations.
Catal Huyu
These paleolithic peoples are associated with the first evidence of reflective thought because of their careful ritualized burial practices.
Neanderthal
These species flourished from a bout 1.5 million-200,000 years go. They knew how to control fire and could communicate complex ideas.
Homo Erectus
Indo-Europeans who built an empire with he technologies of chariots and iron weapons
Hittites
Independent city-states that influenced other societies through their trade and industry
Phoenicians
The earliest urban-based society in Mesopotamia, they developed cuneiform writing
Sumerians
Northern Mesopotamians who built an empire by first conquering Sumer
Akkadians.
Semitic patroral polytheists who settled the region of Palestine about 1850 BC
Hebrews
Empire under King Nebuchadnezzar who lavished wealth and resources on his capital
Chaldeans
Wave of Indo-Europeans who migrated into India and built powerful states
Aryans.
Group exiled by New Babylonian conquerors eventually returned to Judea
Jews
Powerful and intimidating army that built far-flung empire including Mesopotamia, Palestine and much of Egypt
Assyrians.
Religious cult of the central Andes. Followers built large temple complexes and created elaborate stone carvings
Chav'n
Large city of Mesoamerica that contained huge pyramids of the sun and the moon
Teotihuacan
Well-inegrated society of the south Pacific islands
Lapita
Mesoamerican culture responsible for sophisticated calendar and writings on the creation of humans
Maya
City that flourished in Mesoamerica from 300-900 CE. It contained the Temple of the Jaguar
Tikal
Early andean state noted for tis paintings on pottery
Mochica
People who used navigational and agricultural skills to establish settlements on Pacific islands
Austronesians.
Earliest known society with ceremonial centers in Mesopotamia
Olmec.
Jainist principle meaning nonviolence toward other living things or their souls
ahimsa
political handbook containing advice from Kautalya and others to the Gupta dynasty regarding principles fo government
Arthashastra
Song of the Lord, a short poetic work of India that clearly illustrated both the expectation and promise of Hinduism for its believers
Bhagavad Gita
The englightened being, a buddhist concept referring to inspirational individuals who had reached spiritual perfection but who intentionally delayed their salvation to help others
Boddhisatva
Basic Buddhist doctrine that including the teachings of the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path
Dharma
One of the great Indian epics ti was originally a love and adventure story and alter revised by scholars to bear Hindu values.
Ramayand
Subcastes that evolved out of occupational guilds. They assumed much of the responsibility for maintaining social order.
Jati
Highest, priestly caste that was increasingly challenged by popular new religious beliefs
Brahmans
The greater vehicle, branch of Buddhism that included the worship of the Buddha as a god
Mahayana
the state of perfect spiritual independence achieved through the escape from the cycle of incarnation
Nirvana
Female Pharaoh during the New Kingdom
Matshepsut
Imperialistic pharaoh of the New Kingdom
tuthmosis III
Ancient Greek historian who traveled to egypt and wrote about the culture
Herodotus
King of Kush who conquered Egypt
Kashta G
Promoted first monotheistic religion on record
Amenhotep IV
Name associated with legendary conqueror and unifier of Egypt
Narmer
Royal official and governor of Upper egypt who wrote autobiography
Harkhuf
Pharaoh who had largest pyramid in Egypt built for his tomb
Khufu
State in the Sichuan province that existed at the same time as the Shang
Sanxingdui
Capital of Zhou dynasty after royal court was forced to move further east because of nomadic invasions from the west
Luoyang
Legendary sage-king who brought harmony to his family and all states of China
Yao
Imporant archelogical excavation of neolithic village in Yellow River
Banpo
Traditional consider the first of the Chinese dynasties it established the precedent for hereditary monarchies
Xia
Legendary sage-king who was believed responsible for teachint flood control techniques int he earliest dynasty
Yu
Dynasty most associated with the production of oracle bones and bronze metallurgy
Shang
Dynasty that contributed some of the earliest works to Chinese
Zhou
First great conqueror fo the Achaemenid Dynasty, he expanded his holdings until they stretched from Egypt to India
Cyrus
This supreme god and benevolent creator was described in the zoroastrian religion
Ahura Mazda
This lydian king's defeat at the hands of the Persians was predicted by the oracle at Delphi
Coresus
This Sasanid ruler consolidated the empire's holdings and created buffer states between the Persians and the Romans
Shapur I
This prophet of the Zoroastrian religion had a series of visions that included a revelation about the cosmic conflict between good and evil
Zarathustra
Former commander for Alexander of Macedon, this an founded the dynasty that created the second Persian Empire
Seleucis
This intolerant Achaemenid emperor spent years trying to subjugate the Greek city-states but to no avail
Xerxes
This emperor ruled over an empire larger than the world had ever known and had the great classical city of Persepolis completed
Darius
Sage who contributed to the Daodejing
LaoZi
Confucian who emphasized the virtue of ren
Mencius
Unifier and founder of the Han dynasty
Liu Bang
Powerful first emperor who built a lavish tomb
Qin Shihuangdi
Radical minister who seized the throne and attempted a program of land reform
Wang Mang
Successful military leader of the Xiongnu
Maodun
Powerful administrator who based his policies on Legalist philosophy
Shang Yang
Important philosopher who wrote the Analects
Mencius
Semi-free agricultural laborers for Sparta
Helots
Hellenistic philosophy that argued for the pursuit of pleasure as the greatest good
Epicurean
Greek colony on the southern coast of what is present-day France
Massalia
Marble temple dedicated to the goddess Athena
Panthenon
Greek city that was destroyed during the volcanic eruption of 1628 BCE
Akrotiri
Plato's work in which he advocates states ruled by philosopher-kings
The republic
Greek epic that recounts the war between Greek warriors and the city of Troy
Iliad
Commercial cities and their surrounding regions that were the principle centers of Greek society
Poleis
Legendary founder of Rome along with his twin brother Remus
Romulus
Led most seriosu salve uprising in Roman History in 73 BCE
Spartacus
Ruthless general who seized Rome in 83 BCE slaughtered thousands of his enemies and strengthened the political power of the wealthy at the expense of the lower classes
Sulla
General who conquered Gaul, then went on to march on Rome and make himself dictator for life until he was assassinated in the forum
Julius Caesar
Follower of Jesus who was largely responsibly for the rapid spread of Christianity through the Roman Empire
Paul of Tarsus
Important god in Zoroastrian mythology who was popular among the Roman soldiers because he became associated with military virtues such as strength, discipine and courage
Mithras
Popular Roman tribune who advocated limiting the amount of conquered land that anyone could hold
Tiberius Gracchus
Persuasive orator and writer who contributed to making Stoicism one of the most prominent philosophies of Rome
Cicero
Took goods from Palmyra to the Mediterranean Basin
Jews
Contributed pepper, cotton, and exotic items like pearls
India
Contributed spices and mariners active in the sea trade
Southeast Asia
controlled sea trade int he Persian Gulf and overland trade within the empire
Parthia
Contributed manufactured goods like glass, art, olive oil, and wine and dominated the Mediterranean
Rome
Contributed fine silk and spices and was the easternmost extent of the trade route
China
Contributed horses and jade and dominated overland trade routes
Central Asia
Contributed ivory, tortoise shell, and slaves and dominated East African trade
Rhapta
Portion of the Malay peninsula dominated by wealthy Funan state
Isthmus of kra
Independent Hindu empire of southern India founded in 14th century
Vijayangar
Christian kingdom in region of africa now known as Ethiopia that maintained its independence while still being actively involved in Indian Ocean Trade
Axum
Centrally located island off the southern coast of India and a center of maritime trade
Ceylon
Northwest region of India first invaded by Islamic armies
Sind
Buddhist university city destryed by Muslim invaders
Nalanda
Capital city in southeast Asia built by the kings of the Khmers
Angkor
Took goods from Palmyra to the Mediterranean Basin
Jews
Contributed pepper, cotton, and exotic items like pearls
India
Contributed spices and mariners active in the sea trade
Southeast Asia
controlled sea trade int he Persian Gulf and overland trade within the empire
Parthia
Contributed manufactured goods like glass, art, olive oil, and wine and dominated the Mediterranean
Rome
Contributed fine silk and spices and was the easternmost extent of the trade route
China
Contributed horses and jade and dominated overland trade routes
Central Asia
Contributed ivory, tortoise shell, and slaves and dominated East African trade
Rhapta
Portion of the Malay peninsula dominated by wealthy Funan state
Isthmus of kra
Independent Hindu empire of southern India founded in 14th century
Vijayangar
Christian kingdom in region of africa now known as Ethiopia that maintained its independence while still being actively involved in Indian Ocean Trade
Axum
Centrally located island off the southern coast of India and a center of maritime trade
Ceylon
Northwest region of India first invaded by Islamic armies
Sind
Buddhist university city destryed by Muslim invaders
Nalanda
Capital city in southeast Asia built by the kings of the Khmers
Angkor
Powerful state that sponsored the spread of Islam throughout southeast
Melaka
Salijuq leader recognized by caliph of abbasid empire as sultan
Teghril Beg
Venetian merchant who served in adminstrative position during Yuan dynasty
Marco Polo
Reorganized army and began conquest of China and Persia
Chinggis Khan
Favorite wife of Mongol emperor she was Nestorian Christian
Chabi
Spent most of his adult life in conquest, sacked the city of Delhi
Tamerland
Charismatic leader who carved out a state in Anatolia and founded Ottoman empire
Osman
Founder of Yuan dynasty and ruler of China
Khubilai Khan
He led the Turks of Afghanistan on raids of northern India
Mahmud of Ghazni
Early kingdom in western Nigeria
Benin
Fictional work tracing lineage of Ethiopian kings to King DAvid
Kebra Negast
Sub-Saharan African slaves who staged revolt against slaveholders in Mesopotamia
Zanj
One of the busiest and most prosperous city-states on east African coast
Kilwa
Originally referred to wooden residences of chiefs in central Africa
Zimbabwe
Coasters or those who engage in sea trade along the east African coast
Swahili
Professional singer or storyteller who orally transmitted sub-Saharan African history
Griots
Ancient established trade center that served as terminus for caravan routes
Gao
Saliju8q Turk ruler who was true source of authority over later Abbasid emperors
sultan
independent Islamic power in Iberian Peninsula
al-Andalus
People with religious authority who set moral standards in local communities
Utama
House of Islam, referring to the entire Islamic Realm
dar al-islam
Islamic schools of higher education
Madrasas
One of the Five Pillars of Islam, Muslims that make a pilgrimage to Mecca
Hajj
The tax that the Umayyad dynasty levied on non-Muslims
Jizya
A letter of credit that facilitated long-distance trade
Bakk
The community of the faithful
Umma
Islamic holy law detailing the proper behavior of the faithful
Sharia
migration, Muhammad's move to Medina and the start of the Islamic calendar
Hijra
Muslim judges who helped resolve disputes in local communities
quadis
He began work on the Grand Canal to facilitate trade between the north and the south
Sui Yangdi
Considered one of the greatest poets in Chinese history
Du Fu
Author of the fictitious Tale of Genji
Nurasaki Shikibu
Ambitious and ruthless emperor of china in the seventh century
Tang Taizong
Military leader who led a rebellion that left the Tang in a permanently weakened state
Au Lushan
Buddhist monk who was responsible for popularizing his faith in China
Xuanzang
Philosopher who blended Confucian values with Buddhist thought
Zhu Xi
Emperor who consciously weakened the military and built up the bureaucracy
Song Taizu
King who defeated the Magyars, ending their threat to Europe
Otto I
Led forces to eliminate the vestiges of Roman authority in Gaul
Clovis
Pope who crowned an emperor on Christmas Day
Leo III
Albino elephant that was gift from Abbasid emperor
Abu al-Abbas
built a navy and constructed fortresses to protect his people from the Vikings
Alfred
Wrote a set of guidelines for monastic life
Benedict
Mobilized local resources and organized defense of Rome against the Lombards
Gregory the Great
consolidated the largest empire of early medieval Europe
Charlemagne
Led disastrous first campaign to reclaim the holy land from the Muslims
Peter the Hermit
King and founder of dynasty in France that gradually expanded its political influence
Hugh Capet
Led successful invasion of England and established new dynasty there
William of Normandy
Founder of highly successful mendicant religious order
Francis of Assisi
Muslim leader who defeated crusaders and recaptured Jerusalem
Saladin
Pope who excommunicated Henry IV during the investiture conflict
Gregory VII
Teacher at the university of Paris who attempted to reconcile reason and faith
Thomas Aquinas
Powerful patron of the arts, especially the troubadours
Eleanor of Aquitaine
They dominated the central valley of Mexico between the 10th and 12th century
Toltec
They built large earthen mounds for ceremonies and burials
iroquois
these settled cultivators lived in stone and adobe villages in the southwest of North America
Pueblo
These were the the traditional chieftains of Hawaii
Ali'l nui
this Mexica god of war required the sacrifice of human blood
Huit Zilopochtli
By the 15th century their Yucatan empire had faded into obscurity
Maya
The Feathered Serpent was a Mexica deity who protected arts, crafts and farming
Quetzalc-atl
Navigating only by winds and stars, these maritime people successfully negotiated thousands of miles of open water
Polynesians
This warrior society established control over a vast Andes Mountains empire
Inca
These invaders from the north seized control of central Mexico in the 14th century and built there a wealthy and powerful empire
Mexica