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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What caused separation of "have" and "have not" countries?
The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution began in
Why was there an Agricultural Revolution in Britain and how did this contribute to the Industrial Revolution?
-there were experiments with new techniques in farming, which led to new machines
- less agricultural laborers were needed, so they could work in the cities and contribute to the Industrial Revolution
Josiah Wedgewood
developed a mold for pottery; led to mass production of dishes (key invention of Industial Revolution)
How did Britain's political stability affect the Industrial Revolution?
no major internal upheavals allowed a concentration to new machines,
John Kay
invented the flying shuttle: increased a weaver's productivity
James Hargreaves
invented the spinning jenny: allowed spinners to keep up with weavers
Richard Arkwright
invented a water-powered spinning jenny
Samuel Crompton
invented machine to use water frame to make thread
Britain's demand for _____ was first met by India in 1700s, then met by the American south
James Watt
perfected the steam engine
_____ revolutionized Britain because it was a cheap way to transport goods, created new jobs, led to new inventions, and transported people
Industrialization later spread to: Europe, the US, Russia and _______, even though British officials forbade the export of machinery
The Japanese and Russian governments both pushed for Industrialization, including railroads.
Less industrialized countries provided ______, which were necessary to industrialized countries that produced manufactured products
raw materials
What was built by the British and French and connected Mediterranean and Red Seas
Suez Canal, built in 1850s
What was built to connect Atlantic and Pacific, and when was it completed?
Panama Canal, completed 1913
What caused an increase in population of the Western Hemisphere while the population in Eastern Hemisphere did not decrease
migration of people from Europe and Asia to the Americas
Why did wage labor become cheaper than slave labor
sugar became less profitable, while the prices of slaves remained high
Toussain L'Overture
Leader in liberation of Haiti's slaves
Social Darwinism
idea that because of natural selection, the "inferior" individuals were those in poverty
For the US middle class, what was a symbol of success?
stay-at-home wives
What lead to political change and revolutions by the late 19th century?
Ideals of the Enlightenment, and the frustrations of the bourgeoisie, who had economic power, but little political power
Was the American Revolution or the French Revolution a civil war?
The French Revolution was a civil war.

The bourgeoisie led a rebellion against the First and Second Estates, or the upper class.
Why did King Louis XVI call the Estates-General for the first time in 160 years?
The country was in economic crisis because of many wars and unhappiness in the lower classes
Why was the National Assembly created?
So the bourgeoisie could reform France and write the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Who were the Jacobins?
They were a radical group that wanted to execute those who disagreed with the new government of France. The time period that they guillotined thousands is known as the Reign of Terror.
Who took control of France in this time of chaos?
Napoleon Bonaparte
Why was Napoleon's invasion of Russia unsuccessful?
The invasion was done in winter and Tsar Alexander I burned the cities before the French armies could arrive, leaving them without food.
A European alliance defeated ______ at Waterloo in 1815
Napoleon Bonaparte