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47 Cards in this Set

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British Economic interests in India
-Beginning in the early 1600s, Mogul emperors granted concessions to allow the British to trade in India
-Trading posts were set up along the coast in places such as Madras and Bombay
-The British East India comp any established forts to protect its commercial interest and controlled trade in India throughout the 1600s and early 1700s
-In the mid 1700s, following the Sepoy Rebellion, the British government took control of trade and replaced the Moguls as the ruling authority in India
Russian Empire: rise and expansion
-After breaking free of Mongol control in the late 1400s, Muscovite princes began to take control over much of Russia, eliminating the authority of local princes
-Ivan III, a grand prince of Moscow, developed a policy that encouraged Cossacks (peasants) to settle in the lands that he had conquered
-Ivan centralized his authority, claimed divine right to rule, and named himself czar
-Moscow was established as the capital of the new Russian Empire
Ivan the Terrible
-Russian czar(r. 1533-1584) who continued to expand the empire and to consolidate the czar's absolute authority
-Sought to eliminate opposition to his authority by killing boyars (Russian nobles) he suspected of disloyalty and confiscated their lands
-His actions, while harsh and cruel, ensured that there would be a few challenges to the Russian autocracy
The Romanovs
Following a period of civil unrest in Russia, Mikhail Romanov's election as czar established the Romanovs as the new royal family
-They ruled Russia from the early 1600s until 1917
-They continued the tradition of autocratic rule established by previous czars
-Encouraged Russification and allegiance to the Eastern Orthodox Church
Westernization
-Occurs as societies are influenced by Western culture and assimilate and/or adopt western ideas
-In this time period, the West(western Europe) impacted numerous societies around the world.
-Some regions responded by isolating themselves, as was the case in Japan and to a lesser degree in Russia (although during its Meiji Restoration, Japan borrowed many Western ideas
Peter the Great
-Russian czar (r. 1682-1725) best known for centralizing his authority and bringing Western ideas to the Russian Empire
-In an attempt to modernize the empire, he traveled to the West and brought back new ideas about science and technology
-Russians were sent abroad to learn modern military and industrial techniques
-He introduced many reforms that changed Russia economically and socially, yet he remained committed to autocracy and divine right
-He modernized the army and navy
-Socially, women were extended freedoms and society in general was encouraged to look more Western- laws required men to shave their beards and wear Western clothing
St. Petersburg
-Located on the Baltic Sea, was established as the capital of the Russian empire by Peter the Great
-Served as a visible symbol of Russia's efforts to modernize, as well as of the absolute authority of the czar
-Also known as the "window to the west," the city welcomed western Europeans and their knowledge of science and technology
Catherine the Great
- A Russian czarina(r. 1763-1796), she continued Peter the Great's policy of modernization while ensuring the absolute authority of the monarch
-Continued to expand the empire, she gained land from the Ottoman Empire and took control of Alaska
-Gained access to a warm-water port, a goal never realized by Peter, and took control of Poland
-Known as an Enlightened despot, she built schools and hospitals and was tolerant of the different religions throughout her empire, yet remained an autocratic ruler
Serfdom in Russia
-As a result of the unpaid debts, many peasants were forced into serfdom
-Serfdom provided a labor force for the agrarian-based economy
-Serfs were laborers who were tied to the land, and although not slaves, they could be sold
-Czars passed laws limiting the rights of serfs, in large part to gain the favor of the nobility
Origins of the Industrial Revolution
-Technological innovations in the 1700s led to industrialization, the mass production of goods using machine power (rather than hand power)
-Began in England thanks to the availability of workers, numerous natural resources(most notably coal and iron ore), an expensive canal network and easily navigable rivers, a large number of wealthy individuals willing to invest capital in new businesses, and a government that encouraged capitalistic efforts
-Key inventions included the flying shuttle and the spinning jenny-designed to make cotton spinning quicker and more efficient
-At first machines were powered by wind and water but by the late 1700s, the steam engine was powering machines, as well as making changes in the transportation industry. (The first steamshipp wa sbuilt just after the turn of the 19th century, soon followed by the first steam-powered trains)
-Within a century, industrialization had spread throughout western Europe to Russia, the United States, and Japan. For the first time in history nations shifted from their agricultural based societies to ones based on manufacturing
Industrial Revolution: new machines
-The advent of mechanization revolutionized the production of goods
-The textile industry was the first to industrialize
-Key inventions included the flying shuttle and the spinning jenny - designed to make cotton spinning quicker and more efficient
-At first machines were powered by wind and water(thus most early factories were located along rivers), but by the late 1700s, the steam enginer was powering machines, as well as making changes in the transportation industry.
-The first steamship was buil just after hte turn of the 19th century, soon followed by the first steam-powered trains
-Advances in steam power and steel production (for example, the Bessemer process) revolutionized the transportation industry. Steamships and railroads were used to transport cargo. Rail lines connected industrial centers to mines and ports.
Effects of Industrial Revolution on Society
-Mass production of goods drove down the price of consumer items, and the resulting increase in demand encouraged the development of quicker and more efficient methods of production. The standard of living rose
-The development of the working class, the large group of people who worked in factories and mines
-Rapid urbanization occurred as people moved from the countryside to the cities in search of work
-Urbanization led to the building of tenements to accommodate a growing workforce; overcrowded conditions led to the spread of disease
-Women, who in agrarian societies worked on the farm, saw their roles change, as men became the wage earners. Although many women did work in factories, a large number now stayed at home, especially as the size of the middle class increased
-A new middle class emerged
Political and Economic Effects of Industrialization
-Governments passed legislation protecting workers (for example, the establishment of a minimum wage)
-Unions were formed to protect workers' rights
-Industrialization caused many to reconsider the ownership of production and of products. Adam Smith articulated his laissez-faire policy in The Wealth of Nations, while Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels condemned capitalism and promoted socialism
Factory System: Economic Impact
-Developed as a way to house large and expensive machines in a single location, near a source of power, in order to mass-produce goods
-Mass production saw a significant increase in the development of interchangeable parts (parts that were uniformly produced and thus could be easily replaced and fixed) and the creation of the assembly line
-Competition among factories encouraged the development of quicker and more efficient methods of production
Factory System: Social Impact
-Prior to industrialization, societies were agriculturally based. Although in some places in Europe the domestic system existed, in which individuals worked on one part of production (for example, making cloth from wool), most people still worked on farms
-As the mass production of goods drove down the price of consumer items, demand increased. Cheaper goods were more affordable, as a result, the standard of living rose for most Europeans
-COnditions in the factories in the early years were harsh and dangerous. Workers received little pay, worked long hours, and faced unsafe working conditions. Overtime, governments stepped in to pass laws to protect workers (such as minimum-wage legislation)
-Labor unions also emerged as workers organized to protect their rights and gain fair treatment in the workplace.
American Revolution:Causes
-The 13 British colonies in North America resented legislation passed by the British Parliament levying taxes and infringing on their rights
-Under the banner "no taxation without representation" they sought the right to govern themselves
-In 1774, the Continental Congress was formed to oversee the colonists' anti-British actions, and on July 4, 1776, the congress adopted the Declaration of Independence
-The declaration, greatly influenced by Enlightenment thinking, provided the colonists with a justification for seeking independence from the crown, arguing that government is based on the consent of the governed and that purpose of government is to protect and secure the rights of its citizens
American Revolution:Impact
-War began, and with the aid of France, the colonists forced the British to surrender in 1781
-Following the end of the war, the newly formed United States of America emerged as a federal republic with a government based on popular sovereignty
-This revolution had an enormous influence on subsequent revolutions around the world, most notably the French and Haitian revolutions
French Revolution:causes
-In 1789, King Louis XVI summoned representatives to a meeting of the Estates General to convince them of the necessity of raising taxes
-France was deeply in debt as a result of excessive domestic and foreign spending
-Representatives from the Third Estate, which equaled over 95 percent of the population, met with the king to convince him to approve extensive social, economic, and political reforms that would accord them more rights and protections. With each of the three estates receiving one vote, a favorable outcome was unlikely
-In June 1789, the Third Estate broke away from the Estates General and declared themselves the National Assembly. The following month, with the storming of the Bastille, revolution spread from the streets of Paris to the peasants in the country
-Under the banner "life, liberty, and fraternity," the National Assembly wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Man, which identified the natural rights of citizens, stated the equality of all men, and the belief that sovereignty belonged to the people
National Assembly
-In June 1789, the Third Estates broke away from the Estates General and declared themselves the National Assembly
-Greatly influenced by Enlightenment thinkers and the success of the American Revolution
-Under the banner "life, liberty, and fraternity," they wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Man, which identified the natural rights of citizens, and stated the equality of all men and the belief that sovereignty belonged to the people
-A new constitution adopted in 1791 established a constitutional monarchy, allowing the king to retain some power
-Unhappiness with this new form of government led to the creation of a new constitution and the end of the National Assembly
French Revolution: convention to Napoleon
-A new constitution gave the convention power to govern; the convention abolished the monarchy
-A group of radicals seized control, and the Committee on Public Safety was created; led by Maximilien Robespierre, it jailed and killed anyone suspected of anti revolutionary thought or action
-A new constitution, drawn up in 1795, ended this phase of the revolution and led to the creation of a five-man Directory
-The Directory lost power in a coup d'etat led by General Napoleon Bonaparte, who named himself emperor in 1804 and began to conquer France's neighbors
-Napoleon ruled until 1814; the following year the Congress of Vienna met and restored the monarchy to France
Napoleon Bonaparte
-A general in the French army who gained control of France in a coup d'etat in 1799, seizing control from the Directory, a small group of governing aristocrats
-He instituted a new constitution and crowned himself emperor in 1804
-His political and social reforms brought much needed stability to a country that had been in the midst of revolution since 1789
-His Civil Code extended political and legal equality to all adult men, and religious toleration was promoted
-His armies conquered much of Europe, and monarchs across the continent were replaced with Napoleon's familt members
-His invasion of Russia in 1812 ended in disaster when his troops were unable to continue fighting in the harsh conditions of a bitter cold Russian winter
-Following his failure in Russia, Napoleon's enemies, led by the British, forced him into exile
Congress of Vienna
-A meeting held from 1814 to 1815 in Vienna and attended by representatives of the nations that had defeated Napoleon Bonaparte
- The goal of the congress was to restore Europe to the what it was prior to the French Revolution
-Led by Prince Metternich of Austria, the representatives wanted to reestablishing boundaries, restore legitimate monarchs, and negotiate a balance of power in the hopes of preventing any one nation in Europe from ever gaining too much power
-An unstated goal. of the congress was to limit growing nationalistic desires, which had emerged as a strong new force after the French Revolution
-Although the balance of power would be subsequently tested, it was not until World War I that Europe would again be faced with a war that would have a lasting effect upon the entire continent
Latin American independence movements
-The American and French revolutions and the ideals of the Enlightenment inspired independence movements in Latin America
-Beginning with a successful slave revolt, Haiti was the first nation in Latin America to declare its independence (1803)
-Creole leaders resentful of the power and privilege of the peninsulares, spread revolutionary ideas throughout Spanish Portuguese colonies
-The majority of Spanish and Portuguese colonies gained their independence in the early 1800s, taking advantage of Napoleon's invasion of Europe
-Notable independence leaders included Miguel Hidalgo, who gathered together the indigenous and mestizo populations of Mexico, and Simon Bolivar, a Creole who fought against Spanish rule in South America
-Although most of Latin America had independence by 1825, power continued to be concentrated in the hands of the elite, a combination of Creoles, Caudillos, and military leaders, a trend that continued through the 20th century
Simon Bolivar
-A creole form South America, he led a successful revolutionary movement against Spanish rule
-Inspired by Enlightenment ideals of the American and French revolutions
-For over a decade he led military campaigns against the Spanish, ultimately winning independence fro Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia
-Together with Jose de San Martin, he gained independence for Argentina and Chile
-Hoped to unify the independent nations into a single state, Gran Colombia, but was unsuccessful
Haitian Revolution
-The French colony of Saint Domingue was the first colony in Latin America to gain its independence
-Begun as a slave revolt in which enslaved Africans rebelled against French settlers
-Leaders such as Toussiant-Loverture, a slave himself, organized the rebellious Africans into an army
-Although slaves were granted their freedom in 1798, the rebellion continued as they demanded rights
-Fearful that the slaves might succeed in overthrowing the white leaders, Napoleon sent French troops to the island to put down the revolt
-When Touissant was captured and imprisoned, the rebellion continued under the leadership of Jacques Dessalines
-In 1804, Saint Domingue declared its independence; renamed Haiti, it became the first republic in Latin America
-The United States refused to recognize this republic
Touissant-Louverture
-A slave who helped lead a revolt in Haiti against white settlers
-He was educated and had knowledge of Enlightenment principles, as well as of the success of the American Revolution
-He organized an effective army made up mostly of the rebelling slaves
-In 1798, the slaves were granted their independence, but Touissant continued his fight, calling for Saint Domingue's independence from France
-In 1802, French troops were ordered to put down the rebellion and Touissant was captured and eventually died in a French prison
-The rebellion continued after his death, and in 1803, Haiti declared its independence
Conservatism in Europe
A political philosophy that sought to return things to the way they were prior to the political revolution that spread across Europe in the 19th century and to maintain traditional ways
-Developed in response to the changes that resulted from successful revolutions in North America and France
-Conservatives, such as Edmund Burke, held that change takes place and that when it occurs, it should be a natural occurrence, not the result of a revolution
-Conservatives argue that, since change naturally occurs over time, the existing social order should be respected
Liberalism in Europe
-A political ideology asserting that individuals possess certain rights such as liberty and equality and that the purpose of government is to protect these rights
-Developed in response to Enlightenment ideas and the changes brought about by the American and French Revolutions
-Liberals, unlike conservatives, believed that change was necessary and normal
-Following the Industrial Revolution, many liberal thinkers gave their support to capitalism and laissez-faire economics, abandoning mercantalist politics
Nationalism
-Feeling of pride in one's nation
-The sense of pride in one's national identity played a significant role in political movements throughout the late 18th and 19th centuries, including during the French Revolution and the unification movements in Germany and Italy
-Nationalism was also a force outside of Europe, as evidence by the Zionist movement, aimed at building a Jewish state, and the creation of the Indian National Congress in India, aimed at gaining self-rule for the nation
Socialism
-Utopian socialists believed that people should work toward the creation of a perfect society in which everyone was equal
-Over time, utopian socialism was abandoned for what was seen as a more practical application of socialist ideals, encouraging workers to take control and create a classless society; this theory of socialism was best articulated by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
-Marx and Engels sought to put the means of production in the hands of the people
-According to Marx's Communist Manifesto, following a struggle between a bourgeoisie and the proletariat, the proletariat would gain power and create a classless society
-Marx's socialist theory was adopted by the Bolsheviks in Russia, and the Soviet Union would become the world's first communist nation
Karl Marx
- A 19th century philosopher, he developed a socialist theory with Friedrich Engels in response to the changing nature of the workplace that resulted from the industrial revolution
-He and Engels outlined their theory in The Communist Manifesto
-His ideas on class struggle and the evils of capitalism influenced reform movements throughout Europe and in the 20th century would form the backbone of numerous political parties, including the Bolsheviks in Russia
-Defined class struggle as the proletariat working to make money while the bourgeoisie obtained their income from the work of the proletariat, i.e., the bourgeoisie exploited the working class
-In 1917, the Bolshevik Party, led by VI Lenin, a Marxist, took control of Russia and made it the world's first communist state
-After World War II, a number of nations adopted Marxist ideology, including China and Vietnam
Unification of Germany
-Independent German-speaking states in Germany united to form a single nation
-Otto von Bismarck, the chancellor of Prussia, the most powerful German state, led the drive for unification
-Under Bismarck's leadership, Prussia won a series of wars against Denmark, Austria, and France; Bismarck used these victories to bolster German nationalism
-By 1871, the independent states were united and the Prussian king, William, was named the first leader of the newly united German states
Otto von Bismarck
-Chancellor of the German state of Prussia, he worked to united the German-speaking states into a single nation
-Unified the states through his policy of Blood and Iron
-He successfully waged war against Denmark, Austria, and France and with each success feelings of German nationalism surged
-It was largely due to his efforts that a Prussian king was named the new ruler of the unified German state
Italian Unification
-Independent states in Italy united to form a single nation
-A nationalist movement dedicated to unification was led by Giuseppe Mazzini, Count Camilo di Cavour, and Giuseppe Garibaldi
-Through a combination of war and diplomacy, Italy was unified by 1861
Zionism
- A nationalist movement that emerged in the late 1800s with the stated goal of establishing a Jewish state in Palestine; led in part by Theodore Herzl
-Jews began to settle in Palestine, especially after World War I, when the land became a mandate of the British; migration had significantly increased after the British issued the Balfour Declaration, expressing their support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine
-After World War II, Zionist goals were realized. After years of conflict between the Arabs of Palestine and the more recently arrived Jews, the United Nations took control of the region, and in May 1948 the state of Israel was proclaimed a Jewish state
-The creation of the state of Israel led to the Arab-Israeli conflict, a conflict that continues to this day; since 1948, Zionists have continued to support the country and the efforts of its Jewish population to maintain Israel's security
Emancipation of Serfs in Russia(1861)
-Following a humiliating defeat by Western powers in the Crimean War, Russian czars sought to reform society
-Following years of social unrest and demands to end serfdom on moral grounds, Czar Alexander II abolished serfdom in 1861
-Some emancipated serfs remained on the land, but their lives barely improved; many others moved to cities and became a new urban workforce in Russia's push to industrialize
-Although it was hoped that in setting the serfs free, agricultural productivity would be improved, there was little change; additionally, new social problems arose as a result of industrialization
-Emancipation of the serfs led to new problems, and by the turn of the twentieth century, the nation was on the brink of revolution
New Imperialism: Causes
-Beginning in the late 1800s, modern industrial nations sought economic control (and sometimes political and social control) over weaker nations
-Nationalism led to an increased sense of competition as strong nations sought to expand their empires
-Colonies in distant lands allowed nations to establish military bases across the globe
-Industrialization had led to an increased need for raw materials and marketplaces
-Social Darwinism and the so-called White Man's Burden provided justification for the efforts of the imperialists
-Christian missionaries sought to spread the Gospel
Crimean War (1853-1856)
-In the mid 19th century, war between Russian and an alliance of British, French, and Ottoman troops broke out after Russia had threatened the stability of the Ottoman Empire by seeking to take Ottoman-controlled territory in the Balkans
-Britain and France allied themselves with the Ottomans because they feared a powerful russian empire(i.e., a disruption of the balance of power)
-Russia was easily defeated; the defeat was humiliating and evidence of the West's superior military and industrial strength
-In response to the defeat, Russian czar's sought to reform the Russian military and economy
-Reform was selective and ultimately led to new problems for the Russian Empire
White Man's Burden
-Poem by Rudyard Kipling, that explained why white Europeans (and Americans) had a moral responsibility to take control of weaker nations
-Christian missionaries in particular were supportive of this moral duty, as they often sought not only to bring Christianity to newly acquired lands but to "civilize" the native peoples
Social Darwinism
-A theory based in part on Charles Darwin's theories of evolution and natural selection
-According to Darwin, man evolved from apes over a period of millions of years and all species compete in order to survive
-Social Darwinists, such as Herbert Spencer, used this concept -- the survival of the fittest- to explain why some businessmen are more successful than others; it later served as justification for European capitalist powers to control other nations
Direct vs. Indirect Control (of colonial possessions)
-As European nations sought to extend their authority over weaker lands, they needed to determine if rule was to be direct or indirect
-Direct: the colony, normally the result of conquest, was under the express control of the mother country
-Indirect: the colony was given a degree of autonomy
-In Africa, the French needed to employ direct rule, while the British preferred indirect rule.
Sepoy Rebellion
-A revolt led by Indian soldiers against the British Eats India Company (BEIC) in protest of rules that threatened their religious traditions
-The BEIC had trading rights in the nation and employed sepoys, Indian soldiers, to protect their interests
-The sepoys' gun cartridges were greased in pig and cow fat, an insult to both Muslim and Hindu Indians
-Rebellion broke out, and although it was quickly put down, the British government took direct political control of India
-The Indian colony was the most profitable, the "jewel in the crown," of the British Empire
Indian National Congress (INC): Origins
-A nationalist group formed in British India in 1885 by upper-class Hindus
-Although most members were middle- and upper-class Hindus, the INC sought to serve all Indians
-Although initially a forum to express concerns to colonial officials on taxes and other such subjects, by the turn of century, the INC was calling for Indian self-rule
-Fearful that Hindus did not have Muslim best interests at heart, Muslim leaders created the Muslim league
-In 1906, joined forces with the All India Muslim League, and together the two groups gained limited rights for the Indian colonists
-The IN and the Muslim League partnered to lead a mass movement to gain self-rule for the subcontinent
King Leopold
-King of Belgium who established a colony known as the Congo Free State in Africa
-Not under the political control of Belgium, the colony provided great wealth for Leopold personally
-Leopold used forced labor to ensure the profitability of extensive rubber plantations
-Working conditions in the Congo Free State were harsh, and following public protests, the colony was put under direct control of the Belgium government in 1908
-Leopold's economic success propelled other European nations to seek colonies of their own and led in part to the Berlin conference
Berlin Conference(1884-1885)
- A meeting of European powers in which the rules for colonizing Africa were established: European powers had to notify one another of their intentions to take control of an area
-Occurred in response to the establishment of British and Belgian colonies in Africa as European nations scrambled to get a piece of the continent
-Africa's indigenous population was not represented at the conference
-The entire continent was completely divided up by 1885 with the exception of Liberia and Ethiopia
-The drawing of new boundaries with no regard for the natives who lived there eventually led to numerous problems
Opium War:Causes
- A conflict fought between Britain and China (1839-1842) over British sale of opium in China
-China maintained a favorable balance of trade; Europeans demanded Chinese goods, including silk and tea, and paid for these products in silver
-In the late 1700s, the British East India Company began importing opium into China where they traded it for silver and thus threatened the trade balance
-In 1839, Lin Zexu, a Chinese government official, ordered the confiscation and destruction of opium
-In response, the British took military action against the Chinese
Opium War: Results
-Britain's superior military led to a decisive victory over the Chinese and the signing of a series of unequal treaties
-The Treaty of Nanjing required China to pay for the cost of the war as well as the cost of the destroyed opium; China was forced to open additional ports to foreign trade, give up control of Hong Kong to Britain, and grant British citizens extraterritoriality
-These treaties weakened China economically, and other foreign countries took advantage of China's weakened state and established their own spheres of influence there
-The sustained presence of foreigners in the nation led to conflict within China; Chinese nationalists blamed the government for the presence of foreigners in the country
-In the second half of the 19th century, Chinese nationalism increased as groups worked to rid the country of foreign influence