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101 Cards in this Set

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Herodotus
Greek scholar, nickname was the "father of history", wrote "The Histories" (about Persian War vs. Greek city states)
Who were the two main gods of Zorostrianism?
1)Ahura 2)devil
Homosapien
"thinking human being"
Ziggurat
The name for a temple in ancient Sumer
Two main rivers in Mesopotamia
1) Tigris River 2)Euphrates River
Cuneiform
earliest known forms of writing in ancient Sumer
Hieroglyphics
earliest known forms of writing in ancient Egypt
Significance of the writing systems
They helped codify laws, keep records, transmit knowledge
Name for an Egyptian King
Pharoah
Maat
right order and justice established by the gods
(Maat=goddess of communication)
Which society etablished the first formal alphabet?
Phoenicians
Hammurabi's Code
Set of laws that had serios punishments for crimes committed, does not provide opportunity for explanation or excuses
Yahweh
Hebrew name for God
prophet
someone who is an interpreter of the will of God
Homer
poet who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey
Sapphos of Lesbos
a female lyrical poet
Plato
wrote The Republic, pupil of Socrates; teacher of Aristotle
Thales of Miletus
a philosopher who taught that everything was made of water
Aristophanes
a comedic writer, was the author of The Clouds
Zeno
the founder of Stoicism on the island of Cyprus
Euripides
the author of Medea and other tragedies
Linear B
a system of writing used to record an early form of Greek
Darius
Persian King who led first invasion of Greece, expanded Persia and built a canal from the Red Sea to the Meditteranian
Pericles
Leader of Athens during its Golden Age
Knossos
site of the most majestic Cretan palace
Trojan War
fought between Greece and Troy, the Greeks sailed to Troy to recover Helen of Troy
Delian League
military alliance led by Athens to resist Persian Imperialism
Sophocles
Wrote the plays Oedipus the King and Antigone, he introduced the third actor into his plays
Thucydides
historian writer, wrote about the Peloponnesian Wars
Aristotle
established The Lyceum, pupil of Plato, wrote The Politics
Zero of Cybrus
founded Stoicism
Socrates
founded the Socratic Method where he would engage the pupils in a series of questions and answers to correct and guide them
Pythagoras
discovered the harmonic intervals within the musical scale and states the Pythagorean Theorum
Alexander the Great
Macodenian king, founded Alexandria, defeated the Persians and Egypt
Philip 2
Father of Alexander the Great, conquered Greece
The Romans were influenced by what two major groups?
1) Greeks 2) Etruscans
Two main oponnents during the Punic Wars?
1)Rome 2)Carthage
imperium
consuls could take military power and authority
Supreme Roman God
Jupiter
Battle of Zama
When Marcipial beat Hannabal in Africa
latifundia
vast plantations
publican
tax collector
Cicero
historian, wrote On The Republic
plebians
the common people (lower classes)
patricians
the upper classes
Augustine
wrote City of God, it showed there was order in history
Where was Hadrian's wall located?
Britian
What was the dominant language of the Roman Empire?
Greek
Ovid
wrote The Art of Love
Pax Romana
the long period of relative peace experienced by the Roman Empire
Mithraism
religion, centered around the Iranian god Mithras-central tenets were courage,loyalty,self-disipline, and victory
Virgil
most famous Latin poet
mosaic
artwork, images made with small pieces of glass
What was the concept of wergeld?
the amount of compensation defined in money for loss of a persons life
Hagia Sophia
church rebuilt by Justinian. The model for churches all over the empire
Justinian
leader of the Byzantine Empire
Theodora
Justinians wife, shared power with him
Battle of Manzikert
Celtic Turks defeated the Byzantines, the Byzantine Empire was lost
Scriptoria
writing rooms in monestary
iconoclasm
"image-breaking"
guild
skilled craftsmen
What were the 3 holiest cities of Islam?
1)Mecca 2)Medina 3)Jerusalem
Missi Dominici
travel inspectors who reported their findings to the empire. They made sure rules were followed
Alhambra Palace
The palace was in Granada, Spain and it reflects Islamic-Spanish civilization
Two main branches of Islam:
1)Sunni 2)Shiites
Hijra
Muhammad's emigration from Mecca to Yathrib
theology
the study of religion
Five prophets of Islam
1)Noah 2)Abraham 3)Moses 4)Jesus 5)Mohammad(last and greatest prophet)
feudalism
a patron/client relationship between two free me (lord and his vassal)
investiture
ceremony where the lord gave his vassal a clod of earth or sprig of leaves as a symbol of the land the vassal was receiving
subinfeudation
when the lords regranted protions of their fiefs to other vassals
Battle of Hastings
When William the Conqueror of Normandy takes the English Crown
Domesday Book
a comprehensive survey of the lands of england
Fourth Lateran Council
Identified the 7 sacraments and reaffirmed that they are essential to salvation
Magna Carta
It obligated the king to respect certian rights of his subjects, John 1 was kind during this time
constitutionalism
the limitation of government by law
Stephen Langton
archbishop of Canterbury during late 1100s
Two main architectural styles of this era:
1)Romanesque 2)Gothic
scholasticism
A way of reasoning and a body of writings
trabadour
a composer and performer of songs; traveling ballad singer
Reconquista
War in Spain; the military reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula by Christian rulers
Dante Alighieri
wrote Divine Comedy (1313-1321), it describes the poets journey through hell, purgatory, and heaven
tithe
taxes (money) given to the church
simony
The selling of church offices to the highest bidder
Edward 1
English monarch, issued the Statues of Realm (1301), it set a precedent for changing law by legislation rather than administrative decision
Medici's
A succesful family who owned Medici bank in Florence (like Fuggers in England)
The Blck Death
the great plague, it killed 1/3 of Europeans (1347)
Balkanization
dividing up of territory into different states
Giovanni Boccacio
wrote the Decameron, recounts how a group of young Florentines fled during the Black Death
Hundred Years War
(1337-1453) France vs. England, France won, lasted 116 yrs-a series of conflicts
What event signified the formal end of the Byzantine Empire?
The Ottomons attacked the city of Constantinople (shocked the Christian world)
Mesopotamia
"land between the rivers", located in between Tigris and Euphrates rivers
Gilgamesh
legendary king who was half man and half god. He went on a journey to find eternal youth with his friend Eucles. He died in the end.
papyrus
The main Egyptian writing material
Neolithic Age
aka The New Stone Age, lasted about 1,000 yrs. People began to produce food instead of hunt for it.
Paleolithic Era
aka the Old Stone Age, humans relied on hunting and fishing to survive
Mesolithic Era
aka Middle Stone Age, humans would hunt and gather for food
Punic Wars
Greece vs. Persia, three took place, Greece won
Ovid
major author during his time, wrote The Art of Love
Gaul
the modern day nation of France
Asia Minor
the modern day nation of Turkey, a war with the Byzantines took place there