Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/27

Click to flip

27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
CONSERVATISM
• supporting traditional values or an established social order
CONGRESS OF VIENNA: SETTLEMENTS
• France given its boundaries in 1792
• formidable barriers against renewed French aggression
• Prussia got French eastern border “Rhine”

work of conservatives
CofV: PROBLEMS THAT AROSE
• Alex I wanted Poland, Prussia agreed if they get Saxony. Too much for Castlereagh (GB) and Metternich (AUSTRIA) because they saw unbalanced forces in euro so they turned to Talleyrand (FRANCE) and secured secret alliance. War seemed imminent.
CofV: results
• “congress system”
• France regained great power status & ended diplomatic isolation
LIBERALISM: BELIEFS/supporters
• demanded rep. govt as opposed to autocratic monarchy, equality before the law as opposed to separate classes
• people had right to est its own ind. Govt & seek fulfill its own destiny

SUPPORTERS
economic liberalism: Adam smith
RADICALISM: beliefs/supporters
BELIEFS
• favouring or trying to produce thoroughgoing or extreme political reforms which can include changes to the social order to a greater or lesser extent.
SUPPORTERS
• chartists, working class
SOCIALISM: FRENCH UTOPIAN SOCIALISM
• believed in economic planning
• govt should own private property or abolished and replace with state/community ownership
• Count henri de saint-simon: state control of society and economy = “age of gold”
• Charles fourier: society should comprise small, sufficient communities. Emancipation of women and abolition of marriage
SOCIALISM: MARXIAN (SCIENTIFIC) SOCIALISM
• Middle class/working class interests were opposite
• Eco. Relationships btwn classes was the driving force
PROLETARIAT (modern working class) VS. BOURGEOISIE (middle class)
 said that the proletariats would eventually conquer the bour in a violent revolution because they were growing in size and class consciousness
DUAL REVOLUTION DEFINITION
• economic and political changes fused, reinforcing each other
• i.e. growth of indust. Mid. Class = drive for rep. govt
BISMARCK
used war w/ denmark so silence domestic opposition
• war of 1866 w/ Austria and 1870 w/ france made Prussia the unquestioned leader of new german empire
KAISER WILHELM
• middle class members of Prussian parliament refused to ratify his military budget
FRANKFURT ASSEMBLY
• first attempt to create a unified Germany
“BLOOD AND IRON”
• Bismarck said govt can rule w/o parliamentary consent
• Great questions answered w/ blood and iron
KULTURKAMPF
• refers to German policies enacted from 1871 to 1878 by the Chancellor of the German Empire, Otto von Bismarck, which are generally accepted amongst historians to have targeted the Catholic Church under Pope Pius IX with discriminatory sanctions
REALPOLITIK
• It focuses on the balance of power among nation-states
Nation Spain: 1820-23
Revolutionaries were successful at forcing spain to grant liberal constitutions, but spanish regime restored by the french armies
Two siclies: 1820-23
Revolutionaries succeeded in forcing the monarchs of Two sicilies to grant liberal constitutions. However, austrian forces restored ferdinand to the throne of 2S. Nationalism
Greece: 1821-32
greeks revolt against ottoman empire. B,F,R directed turks to accept an armistice, but refused, leading to destruction of turkish fleet.
France: 1830
liberals wanted a rep. govt so they overthrew charles X and replaced with louis phillipe
France: 1848
Wanted to be more democratic. louis napoleon was elected pres and luois phillpe overthrown
Hungary: 1848
wanted to break w/ austria, but A, R troops crushed revolt
Pruissia: 1848
wanted fredrick william IV to grant liberal const. but once const came, it was abol. failure
Communism
conjectured future classless, stateless social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production, and can be classified as a branch of the broader socialist movement.
ITALIAN UNIFICATION:CAVOUR
o allied with napoleon II to fight Austria, who possessed Lombardy and Venetia in the north. However, napoleon abandoned Sardinia b/c not popular with his people.
o Didn’t want southern to be part of italy
ITALIAN UNIFICATION:MAZZINI
o offered 2nd goal toward unifying Italy: preached a centralized democratic republic based on universal suffrage and the will of the people
ITALIAN UNIFICATION:VICTOR EMMANUEL II
o monarch of Sardinia who retained the moderate liberal constitution
ITALIAN UNIFICATION:GUISEPPE GARIBALDI
o wanted to liberate kingdom of the two sicilies
o success in sicily and naples forced cavour to include south in new italy nation