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69 Cards in this Set

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reconquista
Christians' reconquest of Spain from Muslim control; lasted from the 1060s to 1492.
chivalry
Informal but widely recognized code of ethics and behavior considered appropriate for feudal nobles of Europe; substantially influenced by Christian faith and romantic love cultivated by troubadours.
troubadours
Traveling poets, minstrels, and entertainers patronized by aristocratic women; most active in southern France and northern Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries; drew inspiration from the long tradition of love poetry produced in nearby Muslim Spain, and promoted refined behavior and tender, respectful relations between the sexes.
Lamaist Buddhism
Sect of Buddhism developed in Tibet; emphasized magic and supernatural powers; became attractive to Mongol rulers in China.
Investiture Contest
Controversy between emperors of the Holy Roman Empire and the popes over appointments of Roman Catholic church officials in the late 11th and early 12th century; the papacy won out over the imperial authorities.
Cathars
Also known as Albigensians; adopted the teachings of heretical groups in eastern Europe who viewed the world as a site of an unrelenting, cosmic struggle between the forces of good and evil; followers rejected the Roman Catholic church, sought spiritual perfection, renounced wealth and marriage, and led a strict vegetarian life.
Teutonic Knights
One of several Christian military-religious orders active in the Baltic region during the 12th and 13th centuries; aided by German missionaries and the Roman Catholic church, became crusaders who fought against the pagan Slavic peoples of Prussia, Livonia, and Lithuania; responsible for bringing the Baltic region into the larger society of Christian Europe.
first crusade
Military expedition organized by French and Norman nobles in 1096; captured Edessa, Antioch, and Jerusalem in the following years; Muslim leader Saladin recaptured Jerusalem in 1187.
fourth crusade
Fourth military expedition attempting to recapture the Holy Land of Palestine; took place between 1202 and 1204; instead of capturing Palestine, crusaders conquered Constantinople and subjected the city to a ruthless sack.
bubonic plague
Devastating epidemic that first erupted in the 1330s in southwestern China; spread throughout China and central Asia and by the late 1340s reached southwest Asia and Europe, where it became known as the Black Death.
scholasticism
Influential theology of medieval Europe during the 13th century; sought to synthesize the beliefs and values of Christianity with the logical rigor of Greek philosophy.
ilkhanate
One of the four Mongol regional empires after Chinggis Khan's death; established in Persia in 1258.
Eric the Red
Leader of Scandinavian seafarers; responsible for discovering and colonizing Greenland in North Atlantic Ocean at the end of the 10th century.
mendicants ("beggars")
Followers of St. Dominic and St. Francis; also known as the Dominican and Franciscan friars; active in towns and cities of Europe during the high middle ages; worked within the Roman Catholic church, but strongly emphasized spiritual over materialistic values.
Tughril Beg
Leader of Saljuq Turks; controlled the Abbasid capital at Baghdad and was recognized as sultan ("chieftain") by the Abbasid caliph in 1055; extended Turkish rule to Syria, Palestine, and other parts of the Abbasid empire.
fourth crusade
Fourth military expedition attempting to recapture the Holy Land of Palestine; took place between 1202 and 1204; instead of capturing Palestine, crusaders conquered Constantinople and subjected the city to a ruthless sack.
Pope Gregory VII
Active during the 1070s and 1080s; known for his victory over Emperor Henry IV of the Holy Roman Empire during the Investiture Contest.
high middle ages
Period of European history from about 1000 to 1300 C.E.
Mehmed II
Also known as Mehmed the Conqueror; sultan of the Ottomans; responsible for capture of Constantinople in 1453 and changing its name to Istanbul.
Hanseatic League
Also known as the Hansa; association of trading cities stretching from Novgorod to London and embracing all the significant commercial centers of Poland, northern Germany, and Scandinavia; dominated trade of northern Europe during the high middle ages.
Koumbi-Saleh
Capital city of Ghana kingdom, also a thriving commercial center with population of some fifteen thousand to twenty thousand people from the 11-th- to the early 13-th- century.
three estates
Conventional classification of European society during the middle ages, referring to "those who pray, those who fight, and those who work."
Great Zimbabwe
Capital city of Zimbabwe; a magnificent stone complex situated between the Zambesi and the Limpopo Rivers; up to eighteen thousand residents lived in the city during the late 15-th- century.
sacraments
Holy rituals for bringing spiritual blessings to the observants; during the middle ages, the Roman Catholic church recognized seven sacraments, and the most popular one was the Eucharist.
kingdom of Kongo
Early Bantu kingdom, established during the 14-th- century in the valley of the Congo River (also known as the Zaire River), which embraced much of modern-day Republic of Congo and Angola; maintained effective authority until the mid-17-th- century.
Waldensians
Popular heresy of 12th and 13th-century Europe; protested the increasing materialism of European society; despised the Roman Catholic clergy as immoral and corrupt, and advocated modest and simple lives.
khanates
Four regional Mongol empires that arose following the death of Chinggis Khan.
fourth crusade
Fourth military expedition attempting to recapture the Holy Land of Palestine; took place between 1202 and 1204; instead of capturing Palestine, crusaders conquered Constantinople and subjected the city to a ruthless sack.
Tamerlane
Turkish conqueror; born in 1336 and came to power in the 1360s in central Asia; launched series of attacks on Persia, Afghanistan, the Golden Horde in southern Russia, and northern India; empire disintegrated after his death in 1405.
Kilwa
One of the Swahili city-states that emerged on the east African coast during the 11-th- or 12-th- century; actively participated in trade of the Indian Ocean basin and enjoyed tremendous prosperity; suffered a devastating sack by Portuguese mariners in 1505.
St. Thomas Aquinas
Professor of the University of Paris; most famous scholastic theologian; lived from 1225 to 1274. His teachings combined Aristotle's rational power with Christianity; sought to formulate the most truthful and persuasive system of thought possible.
Swahili
Peoples of the east African coast; spoke Swahili, a Bantu language supplemented with words and ideas borrowed from Arabic; established a number of powerful city-states along the coast by the 11-th- and 12-th- centuries.
Ottomans
Followers of Osman, also known as Osmanlis; expansion from the Balkans to Byzantine empire was halted by Tamerlane's army; after dissolution of Tamerlane's empire, resumed their expansion into the Byzantine empire; captured Byzantine capital at Constantinople in 1453 and changed its name to Istanbul. Controlled all of Greece and the Balkan region by 1480; continued to extend their rule to southwest Asia, southeastern Europe, Egypt, and north Africa during the 16"th" century.
The great khans
Title for Mongol khans who ruled China after Chinggis Khan's death; nominally superior to the khans of the other three Mongol empires, but rarely able to enforce their claims to superiority.
kingdom of Axum
Christian kingdom of northeast Africa, located in the highland of modern Ethiopia; converted to Christian faith in mid-4-th- century C.E.; developed Christianity largely in isolation from the 8-th- century, and reestablished relations with Christians of other lands from the 16-th- century.
Osman
Turkish leader in Anatolia; declared independence from the Saljuq sultan in 1299; led his followers, known as Osmanlis or Ottomans, to extend control in the Balkan peninsula.
Sundiata
Founder of the Mali empire, known as the lion prince, reigned 1230-1255 as a Muslim king; hero in the oral tradition of west Africa.
The Golden Horde
Group of Mongols who overran Russia between 1237 and 1241; also mounted expeditions into Poland, Hungary, and eastern Germany; maintained Mongol hegemony in Russia until the mid-15th century.
Mansa Musa
Ruler of Mali empire, grand-nephew of Sundiata; reigned from 1312 to 1337; well known in Islamic world for his grand pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324-1325; policies greatly promoted Islamic faith in his empire.
Bantu
Peoples of sub-Saharan Africa; originated in the region around modern Nigeria during the second millennium B.C.E. and spread throughout almost all sub-Saharan Africa by about 1000 C.E.; established divergent societies, but all spoke tongues belonging to the Bantu family of languages.
Hülegü
Chinggis Khan's grandson and Khubilai Khan's brother; established the Mongol ilkhanate in Persia; responsible for toppling the Abbasid empire and sacking Baghdad in 1258.
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Most celebrated noblewoman of her day; known for her enthusiastic patronage of troubadours and encouragement of the cultivation of good manners, refinement, and romantic love.
Roger Guiscard
Norman adventurer; responsible for reconquering Muslim Sicily in 1090 and returning it to Christian hands.
age grades
Age groups of sub-Saharan Africa, also called "age sets;"in communal life, members of different age grades assumed different responsibilities or tasks appropriate their levels of strength, energy, maturity, and experience.
William the Conqueror
Duke William of Normandy; invaded England in 1066 and introduced Norman-style feudalism to England.
Chabi
One of Khubilai Khan's four wives, a Nestorian Christian.
Marco Polo
Venetian merchant who traveled extensively through central Asia and China in the late 13"th" century, when Mongol empires dominated Asia; likely served as an administrator in the city of Yangzhou in southern China during the reign of Khubilai Khan. His book of travel is an especially valuable source of information about the Mongol age.
Chinggis Khan
Title for Temüjin, meaning "universal ruler"; born in 1167; united all the Mongol tribes into a single confederation in 1206; established Mongol supremacy in central Asia, and extended Mongol control to Northern China in the east and Persia in the west; died in 1227.
kamikaze
Japanese term meaning "divine winds"; used by the Japanese to describe typhoons in 1274 and 1281 that helped them hold off Khubilai Khan's attempted invasions.
Frederick Barbarossa
Frederick I, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire; policy sought to absorb the wealthy urban region of Lombardy in north Italy; attempt was defeated by a papal coalition with other European states.
"stateless societies"
One form of social organization adopted by the Bantu in sub-Saharan Africa; governed mostly through family and kinship groups without elaborate hierarchy of officials or a bureaucracy.
kingdom of Ghana
Islamic state of west Africa, situated between the Senegal and Niger Rivers in a region straddling the border between the modern states of Mali and Mauritania; emerged probably as early as the 5-th- or 6-th- century C.E.; kings converted to Islam by about the 10-th- century; became the most important commercial site of west Africa, trading gold, ivory, and slaves with Muslim merchants during later centuries; collapsed during the early 13-th- century.
Khubilai Khan
Chinggis Khan's grandson, one of the great khans who ruled China; extended Mongol rule to all China by toppling the southern Song dynasty and establishing the Yuan dynasty in 1279. His conquests of other east Asian regions beyond China were not successful; died in 1294.
Karakorum
Capital of the Mongol empire under Chinggis Khan; present-day Har Horin, located about 186 miles west of the modern Mongolian capital of Ulaanbaatar; symbolized a source of Mongol authority superior to the clan or tribe.
Ghaznavids
Group of Turkish people in Afghanistan; in the early 11th century, led by Mahmud of Ghazni to raid northern India; by the late 12th century, the Ghaznavid sultanate of Delhi claimed authority over all of northern India.
Henry IV
Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire; known for his challenge to the pope's policy of appointing church officials by church authorities (the Investiture Contest); upon being excommunicated, Henry IV had great trouble dealing with rebellious German princes; regained imperial control only after beseeching the pope's mercy while standing barefoot in the snow.
Mali empire
Large Bantu empire of west Africa, established by the lion prince Sundiata on the ruins of the Ghana state during the early 13-th- century; probably the wealthiest land in sub-Saharan Africa; known for its gold trade; overcome by Songhay empire by the late 15-th- century.
Capetian France
Term for France during the high middle ages after Hugh Capet, the first Capetian king who reigned beginning in 987; during the following three centuries, Capetian kings gradually gained power and resources to establish centralized authority in France.
Zimbabwe
Interior kingdom of south-central Africa, emerged from a chiefdom to a state by the early 12-th- century; actively participated in trade of gold, ivory, and slaves.
Yuan dynasty
Sinicized Mongol dynasty in China established by Khubilai Khan in 1279; collapsed in 1368.
Khanate of Chaghatai
One of the four Mongol regional empires after Chinggis Khan's death; territory covered much of central Asia.
St. Dominic and St. Francis
Founders of orders of mendicants known as the Dominican and Franciscan friars; lived in late 12th and early 13th centuries.
Battle of Manzikert
Fought between Saljuq Turks and the Byzantine empire in eastern Anatolia in 1071; victorious Saljuqs took the Byzantine emperor captive.
Khwarazm shah
Leader of Saljuq Turks in Persia; rejected Chinggis Khan's demand for opening diplomatic and commercial relations in 1218; chastised by Mongol army, fled to an island in the Caspian Sea and died there.
Albigensian crusade
Military campaign against the Cathars; called for by Pope Innocent III; feudal warriors from northern France undertook the crusade and ruthlessly crushed Cathar communities in southern France, 13th century.
Ilkhan Ghazan
Ruler of the Mongol ilkhanate of Persia; publicly converted to Islam in 1295.
Leif Ericsson
Son of Eric the Red; led a group of Scandinavian seafarers and sailed to what they called Vinland (modern Newfoundland in Canada) by about 1000 C.E.; founded a small colony and maintained it for several decades.
cathedral schools
Schools established by bishops and archbishops in cathedrals of Europe; curricula emphasized the liberal arts; some also offered advanced instruction in law, medicine, and theology; become common during the 11th and 12th centuries.
Urban II
Pope of the 11th century; responsible for launching a crusade; called for Christian knights to take up arms and seize the holy land of Palestine in 1095.