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73 Cards in this Set

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Who dominates the American colony first?
Spain
Giovanni de Verezzano
Discovers NY Harbor, 1524
Samuel de Champlain
Settles in Quebec, 1608
Jacques Cartier
Settles at Montreal, 1673
'New France'
Towns were built around a thriving FUR TRADE with Native Americans
England comes into America
Defeat Spanish
Set up colony of 'New England'
Settle at Jamestown, Virginia
Jamestown
Jamestown Virginia (Chesapeake Bay)
Settled by the English in 1607
Many indentured servants
7/10 of people die
Reasons for settling at Jamestown
Economic gain
Tobacco farming- by indentured servants and slaves
Indentured Servants
7 year service in exchange for ride to America and 'Freedom Dues' (money).
Nathaniel Bacon
BACON'S REBELLION- 1676
Tobacco farmers were discontent with the rich.
Native Americans take side of rich fur traders.
Bacon leads a revolt against the rich (Gov. Berkely) & Native Americans
Reasons for settling at Plymouth
Pilgrims seek religious freedom and emigrate from England
John Winthrop
wants "city on a hill"
Puritans seek religious freedom and settle in New England at the Massachusetts Bay Area.
Puritans believe in PREDESTINATION.
Anne Hutchinson
Challenges the Churchs authority by declaring that a holy life doesn't mean salvation. Accused of antinominianism (going against the law). Banished & scalped.
Salem Witch Trials
1692
Women accused of being witches are tortured and hung in New England
"Witch Hunts" common in Europe, take on new meaning in America
The Great Awakening
1740s
Massive religious revival
Backlash to less religious times
Old Lights vs. New Lights
Old Lights
Skeptical of religious emotionalism and theatrics
New Lights
Said theatrics were necessary for revitalizing the role of religion in the colonies
Results of the Great Awakening
Increase in Presbyterians and Baptists
First mass movement in America
Reasons for settling outside of Massachusetts Bay (North East)
/
Religion
William Penn
King owes his father money, gives William Penn Pennsylvania instead.
Roger Williams
1636
Settles Rhode Island for religious freedom
Henry Hudson
Explores NY Ewaterwas
Diversity
Diverse population of religions, nationalities attracted to fur trade
c1621
New Amsterdam
Colony of the dutch
Dutch Gov. Peter Stuyvesant surrenders it to England
--> Calls it New York
Mayflower Compact
1620
Pledged justice, equality, majority rule and direct democracy
Faneuil Hall
New England town meetings
Direct democract of propertied churchgoing freemen.
Colonial assembly.
House of Burgesses
1619
Virginia company gave rights to elect representative to legislature
First representative gov in the world.
Fundamental Orders of Conneticut
1st constitution
Electing representatives who would choose a governer
Salutory Neglect
1700
England kept loose control of colonies
Let them prosper
Causes of the French and Indian War/ 7 Years War
Territorial disputes (Ohio River Valley)
Virginians assemble, led by Washington, with guns
Capture empty Ft. Duquesne
French surround Washington at Fort Necessity
General Braddock dies before capture
French and Indian War (action of the french)
French & Native Americans ally (fur trade)
French troops are concentrated in Europe (frederick the great)
William Pitt
The "Great Commoner"
Organizes key victory in the Battle of Quebec
Brittish retake Ft. Duquesne and name it Pittsburg
Significance of French and Indian War
End of Salutory Neglect
King George III
Gives massive aid to defend colonies from French & Indians
Albany Plan of Union
1754
Benjamen Franklin & Thomas Hutchinson
representation of all colonies in grand council
president general
union of all the colonies
king george & colonies reject it
Mercantlism
Object: More exports than imports to increase wealth of mother country
Direct Vs. Indirect Tax
Direct tax- Added to total
Indirect Tax- Tax part of total
Stamp Act
1765
Direct tax levied on special stamped paper for all doc's
Protests lead to parliament repealing the aft
Townshend Acts
1767
indirect tax on imports, such as paper and tea
leads to protests and Boston Massacre
Boston Massacre
1770
Colonist protests against townshend acts
British fire on crowd
Anti-British sentiment
Proclamation of 1773
England passes the Tea Act, which gives cheap to to the Colonies from England.
Boston Tea party
Response to Proclomation of 1773
dump 1500 lbs of tea into the boston harbor in protest
Intolerable Acts, 1774
(coercive acts)
series of laws punishing colonists.
1) closed Boston Harbor
2) made colonists pay for damaged tea
3) quartering acts
30 Quebec acts
Continental Congress
1774
Sam Adams, John Adams, George Washington
Lexington and Concord
'The shot heard round the world'
1775- Colonial minutemen vs. British troops

William Dawes & Paul Revere

War begins!
Patriots vs. Tories, advantages and disadvantages
Patriots- poorly equipt, no allies, no one is taking them seriously.. however, has something to fight for
Common Sense
Thomas Paine
A pamphlet that says it is common sense for a large Americca to be independant from the small, distant island of England.
The Decleration of Independence
1776
15 copies were written
Washington Crosses the Delaware
Crosses deleware river to suprise hessian mercenaries in Trenton, NJ on Dec. 26, 1776
Battle of Saratoga
1777
Burgoyne surrenders Albany
Valley Forge
1777-1778
Washington holds army together while British encounter problems
Yorktown
1781
US victory
Why the Colonists won
Fighting a defensive war
Their own wilderness
England has weak generals
End of The War
Treaty of Paris, 1783
Britain recognizes the 13 colonies as independant
End of revolutionary war.
Critical Post-Revolutionary Period
1781- 1789
Confederation
States without central government
John Hanson
Leader of Confederation
Articles of Confederation
Accepts treaty of paris- wat ends
Land Ordinance
NorthWest Ordinance
Land Ordinance
1787
Establishes terms for applying for statehood
Northwest Ordinance
Bans slavery, promotes education
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
1. No Centralized Power
2. Taxes paid only at request
3. Interstate commerce NOT regulated
4. Every state has own currency
5. 9/13 colonies must agree to pass laws; 13/13 colonies must agree to ammend laws
6. No central court system for interstate crimes
7. No standing army
Depression
US is bankrupt--> Debtors & Creditors
Daniel Shays
Shays Rebellion- Daniel Shays leads farmes & local militia against creditors.

Rebellions break out everywhere
First Convention
Annapolis, Pennsylvania
Only 9 states
Meet to discuss interstate commerce but decide they want to ammend Articles of Confederation
Philidelphia Convention
1787
55 delegates, James Madison
Federalists & Antifederalists
FEDERALISTS: Washington, John Jay, Masison, Hamilton, Franklin
Virginia Plan
Proposed by JAMES MADISON
Bicameral legislature
representation based on population
NJ Plan
Proposed by WILLIAM PATTERSON
Equal representation (benefits smaller states)
The Great Compromise/ Conneticut Compromise
Proposed by ROGER SHERMAN
House of reps- based on population
Senate- equal representation
3/5 compromise
South wants slaves to count towards population to gain influence- North compromises that 3/5 of slaves may count towards population
Commercial Compromise
Taxation of imports not exports
Advantage for the south
Ratification of the Constitution
The Federalist ( by Hamilton, Jay & Madison) sways public opinion and convinces NY to ratify constitution if Bill of Rights is passed
Bill of Rights
States agree to ratify constitution if Bill of Rights is ratified.

Amendment 10: All power not delegated to US is reserved to the states.
Significance of Battle of Saratoga
Turning pt for French & Indian war (??)