• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/1601

Click to flip

1601 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. Mayflower Compact
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
2. William Bradford
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
3. Pilgrims and Puritans contrasted
The Pilgrims were separatists who believed that the Church of England could not be reformed. Separatist groups were illegal in England, so the Pilgrims fled to America and settled in Plymouth. The Puritans were non-separatists who wished to adopt reforms to purify the Church of England. They received a right to settle in the Massachusetts Bay area from the King of England.
4. Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.
5. Cambridge Agreement
1629 - The Puritan stockholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company agreed to emigrate to New England on the condition that they would have control of the government of the colony.
6. Puritan migration
Many Puritans emigrated from England to America in the 1630s and 1640s. During this time, the population of the Massachusetts Bay colony grew to ten times its earlier population.
7. Church of England (Anglican Church)
The national church of England, founded by King Henry VIII. It included both Roman Catholic and Protestant ideas.
8. John Winthrop (1588-1649), his beliefs
1629 - He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and served in that capacity from 1630 through 1649. A Puritan with strong religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of skillful leaders. He helped organize the New England Confederation in 1643 and served as its first president.
9. Separatists, non-separatists
Non-separatists (which included the Puritans) believed that the Church of England could be purified through reforms. Separatists (which included the Pilgrims) believed that the Church of England could not be reformed, and so started their own congregations.
10. Calvinism
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.
11. Congregational Church, Cambridge Platform
The Congregational Church was founded by separatists who felt that the Church of England retained too many Roman Catholic beliefs and practices. The Pilgrims were members of the Congregational Church. The Cambridge Platform stressed morality over church dogma.
12. Contrast Puritan colonies with others
Puritan colonies were self-governed, with each town having its own government which led the people in strict accordance with Puritan beliefs. Only those members of the congregation who had achieved grace and were full church members (called the "elect," or "saints") could vote and hold public office. Other colonies had different styles of government and were more open to different beliefs.
13. Anne Hutchinson, Antinomianism
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
14. Roger Williams, Rhode Island
1635 - He left the Massachusetts colony and purchased the land from a neighboring Indian tribe to found the colony of Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the only colony at that time to offer complete religious freedom.
15. Covenant theology
Puritan teachings emphasized the biblical covenants: God’s covenants with Adam and with Noah, the covenant of grace between God and man through Christ.
16. Voting granted to church members - 1631
1631 - The Massachusetts general court passed an act to limit voting rights to church members.
17. Half-way Covenant
The Half-way Covenant applied to those members of the Puritan colonies who were the children of church members, but who hadn’t achieved grace themselves. The covenant allowed them to participate in some church affairs.
18. Brattle Street Church
1698 - Founded by Thomas Brattle. His church differed from the Puritans in that it did not require people to prove that they had achieved grace in order to become full church members.
19. Thomas Hooker
Clergyman, one of the founders of Hartford. Called "the father of American democracy" because he said that people have a right to choose their magistrates.
20. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Set up a unified government for the towns of the Connecticut area (Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield). First constitution written in America.
21. Saybrook Platform
It organized town churches into county associations which sent delegates to the annual assembly which governed the colony of Connecticut.
22. Massachusetts School Law
First public education legislation in America. It declared that towns with 50 or more families had to hire a schoolmaster and that towns with over 100 families had to found a grammar school.
23. Harvard founded
1636 - Founded by a grant form the Massachusetts general court. Followed Puritan beliefs.
24. New England Confederation
1643 - Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies.
25. King Philip’s War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
26. Dominion of New England
1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
27. Sir Edmond Andros
Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England.
28. Joint stock company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company’s profits and debts.
29. Virginia: purpose, problems, failures, successes
Virginia was formed by the Virginia Company as a profit-earning venture. Starvation was the major problem; about 90% of the colonists died the first year, many of the survivors left, and the company had trouble attracting new colonists. They offered private land ownership in the colony to attract settlers, but the Virginia Company eventually went bankrupt and the colony went to the crown. Virginia did not become a successful colony until the colonists started raising and exporting tobacco.
30. Headright system
Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
31. John Smith
Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.
32. John Rolfe, tobacco
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
33. Slavery begins
1619 - The first African slaves in America arrive in the Virginia colony.
34. House of Burgesses
1619 - The Virginia House of Burgesses formed, the first legislative body in colonial America. Later other colonies would adopt houses of burgesses.
35. Cavaliers
In the English Civil War (1642-1647), these were the troops loyal to Charles II. Their opponents were the Roundheads, loyal to Parliament and Oliver Cromwell.
36. Bacon’s Rebellion
1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.
37. Culperer’s Rebellion
Led by Culperer, the Alpemark colony rebelled against its English governor, Thomas Miller. The rebellion was crushed, but Culperer was acquitted.
38. Georgia: reasons, successes
1733 - Georgia was formed as a buffer between the Carolinas and Spanish-held Florida. It was a military-style colony, but also served as a haven for the poor, criminals, and persecuted Protestants.
39. James Oglethorpe
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist’s dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.
40. Carolinas
1665 - Charles II granted this land to pay off a debt to some supporters. They instituted headrights and a representative government to attract colonists. The southern region of the Carolinas grew rich off its ties to the sugar islands, while the poorer northern region was composed mainly of farmers. The conflicts between the regions eventually led to the colony being split into North and South Carolina.
41. John Locke, Fundamental Constitution
Locke was a British political theorist who wrote the Fundamental Constitution for the Carolinas colony, but it was never put into effect. The constitution would have set up a feudalistic government headed by an aristocracy which owned most of the land.
42. Charleston
1690 - The first permanent settlement in the Carolinas, named in honor of King Charles II. Much of the population were Huguenot (French Protestant) refugees.
43. Staple crops in the South
Tobacco was grown in Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina. Rice was grown in South Carolina and Georgia. Indigo was grown in South Carolina.
44. Pennsylvania, William Penn
1681- William Penn received a land grant from King Charles II, and used it to form a colony that would provide a haven for Quakers. His colony, Pennsylvania, allowed religious freedom.
45. Liberal land laws in Pennsylvania
William Penn allowed anyone to emigrate to Pennsylvania, in order to provide a haven for persecuted religions.
46. Holy experiment
William Penn’s term for the government of Pennsylvania, which was supposed to serve everyone and provide freedom for all.
47. Frame of government
1701 - The Charter of Liberties set up the government for the Pennsylvania colony. It established representative government and allowed counties to form their own colonies.
48. New York: Dutch, 1664 English
New York belonged to the Dutch, but King Charles II gave the land to his brother, the Duke of York in 1664. When the British came to take the colony, the Dutch, who hated their Governor Stuyvesant, quickly surrendered to them. The Dutch retook the colony in 1673, but the British regained it in 1674.
49. Patron system
Patronships were offered to individuals who managed to build a settlement of at least 50 people within 4 years. Few people were able to accomplish this.
50. Peter Stuyvesant
The governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, hated by the colonists. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
51. Five Nations
The federation of tribes occupying northern New York: the Mohawk, the Oneida, the Senecca, the Onondaga, and the Cayuga. The federation was also known as the "Iriquois," or the League of Five Nations, although in about 1720 the Tuscarora tribe was added as a sixth member. It was the most powerful and efficient North American Indian organization during the 1700s. Some of the ideas from its constitution were used in the Constitution of the United States.
52. Crops in the Middle Colonies
The middle colonies produced staple crops, primarily grain and corn.
53. New York and Philadelphia as urban centers
New York became an important urban center due to its harbor and rivers, which made it an important center for trade. Piladelphia was a center for trade and crafts, and attracted a large number of immigrants, so that by 1720 it had a population of 10,000. It was the capital of Pennsylvania from 1683-1799. As urban centers, both cities played a major role in American Independence.
54. Leisler’s Rebellion
1689 - When King James II was dethroned and replaced by King William of the Netherlands, the colonists of New York rebelled and made Jacob Leiser, a militia officer, governor of New York. Leisler was hanged for treason when royal authority was reinstated in 1691, but the representative assembly which he founded remained part of the government of New York.
55. Benjamin Franklin
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.
56. John Bartram (1699-1777)
America’s first botanist; traveled through the frontier collecting specimens.
57. Pennsylvania, Maryland, Rhode Island - founders established churches
Pennsylvania: Founded by William Penn, a Quaker, to provide protection for Quakers. Maryland: Formed as a colony where Catholics would be free from persecution. Rhode Island: Formed to provide a haven for all persecuted religions, including all Christian denominations and Jews.
58. Great Awakening (1739-1744)
Puritanism had declined by the 1730s, and people were upset about the decline in religious piety. The Great Awakening was a sudden outbreak of religious fervor that swept through the colonies. One of the first events to unify the colonies.
59. Jonathan Edwards, Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, a Careful and Strict Inquiry Into...That Freedom of Will
Part of the Great Awakening, Edwards gave gripping sermons about sin and the torments of Hell.
60. George Whitefield
Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights."
61. William Tennant
A strong Presbyterian minister and leader during the Great Awakening. Founded a college for the training of Presbyterian ministers in 1726.
62. Gilbert Tennant
William Tennant’s son. Developed a theology of revivalism.
63. Old Lights, New Lights
The "New Lights" were new religious movements formed during the Great Awakening and broke away from the congregational church in New England. The "Old Lights" were the established congregational church.
64. Lord Baltimore
Founded the colony of Maryland and offered religious freedom to all Christian colonists. He did so because he knew that members of his own religion (Catholicism) would be a minority in the colony.
65. Maryland Act of Toleration (Act of Religious Toleration)
1649 - Ordered by Lord Baltimore after a Protestant was made governor of Maryland at the demand of the colony's large Protestant population. The act guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians.
66. Deism
The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.
67. Huguenots
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
68. SPG - Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (in Foreign Parts)
A group which worked to spread Christianity to other parts of the world through missionaries in the late 1800s.
69. Mercantilism: features, rationale, impact on Great Britain, impact on the colonies
Mercantilism was the economic policy of Europe in the 1500s through 1700s. The government exercised control over industry and trade with the idea that national strength and economic security comes from exporting more than is imported. Possession of colonies provided countries both with sources of raw materials and markets for their manufactured goods. Great Britain exported goods and forced the colonies to buy them.
70. Navigation Acts of 1650, 1660, 1663, and 1696
British regulations designed to protect British shipping from competition. Said that British colonies could only import goods if they were shipped on British-owned vessels and at least 3/4 of the crew of the ship were British.
71. Admiralty courts
British courts originally established to try cases involving smuggling or violations of the Navigation Acts which the British government sometimes used to try American criminals in the colonies. Trials in Admiralty Courts were heard by judges without a jury.
72. Triangular Trade
The backbone of New England’s economy during the colonial period. Ships from New England sailed first to Africa, exchanging New England rum for slaves. The slaves were shipped from Africa to the Caribbean (this was known as the Middle Passage, when many slaves died on the ships). In the Caribbean, the slaves were traded for sugar and molasses. Then the ships returned to New England, where the molasses were used to make rum.
73. Merchants / Markets
A market is the area or group of people which needs a product. Colonial merchants took goods produced in the colonies to areas of the world that needed those goods. Also, the colonies served as a market for other countries’ goods.
74. Consignment system
One company sells another company’s products, and then gives the producing company most of the profits, but keeps a percentage (a commission) for itself.
75. Molasses Act, 1733
British legislation which taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her colonies. The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of molasses from the Caribbean as part of the Triangular Trade. The British had difficulty enforcing the tax; most colonial merchants ignored it.
76. Woolens Act, 1699
Declared that wool produced in the colonies could only be exported to Britain.
77. Hat Act, 1732
Declared that hats made in the colonies could not be exported.
78. Iron Act, 1750
Declared that no new iron forges or mills could be created in the colonies.
79. Currency Act, 1751
This act applied only to Massachusetts. It was an attempt to ban the production of paper money in Massachusetts, but it was defeated in Parliament.
80. Currency Act, 1764
This act applied to all of the colonies. It banned the production of paper money in the colonies in an effort to combat the inflation caused by Virginia’s decision to get itself out of debt by issuing more paper money.
81. Salem witch trials
Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem, Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18 people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.
82. Primogeniture, entail
These were the two British legal doctrines governing the inheritance of property. Primogeniture requried that a man’s real property pass in its entirety to his oldest son. Entail requried that property could only be left to direct descendants (usually sons), and not to persons outside of the family.
83. Quitrents
Nominal taxes collected by the crown in crown colonies, or by the proprietor(s) of proprietary colonies.
84. Indentured servants
People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free.
85. Poor Richard’s Almanack, first published 1732
Written by Benjamin Franklin, it was filled with witty, insightful, and funny bits of observation and common sense advice (the saying, "Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise," first appeared in this almanac). It was the most popular almanac in the colonies.
86. Phillis Wheatly (1754-1784)
An African domestic in the colonies, and a well-known colonial poet. Her poetry was ornate and elaborate.
87. Ann Bradstreet (1612-1692)
A Puritan and the first colonial poet to be published. The main subjects of her poetry were family, home, and religion.
88. Magna Carta, 1215
An English document draw up by nobles under King John which limited the power of the king. It has influenced later constitutional documents in Britain and America.
89. Petition of Right, 1628
A document drawn up by Parliament’s House of Commons listing grievances against King Charles I and extending Parliament’s powers while limiting the king’s. It gave Parliament authority over taxation, declared that free citizens could not be arrested without cause, declared that soldiers could not be quartered in private homes without compensation, and said that martial law cannot be declared during peacetime.
90. Habeas Corpus Act, 1679
British law had traditionally provided a procedure that allowed a person who had been arrested to challenge the legality of his arrest or confinement, called the Writ of Habeus Corpus, or the Great Writ. The Act imposed strict penalties on judges who refused to issue a writ of habeus corpus when there was good cause, and on officers who refused to comply with the writ.
91. Bill of Rights, 1689
Drawn up by Parliament and presented to King William II and Queen Mary, it listed certain rights of the British people. It also limited the king’s powers in taxing and prohibitted the maintenance of a standing army in peacetime.
92. Board of Trade (of the Privy Council)
Advisors to the king who regulated British trade during the 1600s and 1700s.
93. Robert Walpole
Prime minister of Great Britain in the first half of the 1700s. His position towards the colonies was salutary neglect.
94. "Salutary neglect"
Prime Minister Robert Walpole’s policy in dealing with the American colonies. He was primarily concerned with British affairs and believed that unrestricted trade in the colonies would be more profitable for England than would taxation of the colonies.
95. The Enlightenment
A philosophical movement which started in Europe in the 1700's and spread to the colonies. It emphasized reason and the scientific method. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. Many members of the Enlightenment rejected traditional religious beliefs in favor of Deism, which holds that the world is run by natural laws without the direct intervention of God.
96. Theories of representative government in legislatures: virtual representation, actual representation
Virtual representation means that a representative is not elected by his constituents, but he resembles them in his political beliefs and goals. Actual representation mean that a representative is elected by his constituents. The colonies only had virtual representation in the British government.
97. Rise of the Lower House
Most of the colonial legislatures had two houses: a lower house elected by the people of the colony and an upper house appointed by the governor. Over time, the lower house became more powerful because it reflected the needs and desires of the people, while the upper house was merely a figurehead.
98. Proprietary, charter, and royal colonies
Proprietary colonies were founded by a proprietary company or individual and were controlled by the proprietor. Charter colonies were founded by a government charter granted to a company or a group of people. The British government had some control over charter colonies. Royal (or crown) colonies were formed by the king, so the government had total control over them.
99. Colonial agents
These were representatives sent to England by the colonies during the 1600s and 1700s. They served as a link between England and the colonies.
100. Town meetings
A purely democratic form of government common in the colonies, and the most prevalent form of local government in New England. In general, the town’s voting population would meet once a year to elect officers, levy taxes, and pass laws.
101. John Peter Zenger trial
Zenger published articles critical of British governor William Cosby. He was taken to trial, but found not guilty. The trial set a precedent for freedom of the press in the colonies.
102. Glorious Revolution, 1688
King James II’s policies, such as converting to catholicism, conducting a series of repressive trials known as the "Bloody Assizes," and maintianing a standing army, so outraged the people of England that Parliament asked him to resign and invited King William of the Netherlands (who became known as William II in England), to take over the throne. King James II left peacefully (after his troops deserted him) and King William II and his wife Queen Mary II took the throne without any war or bloodshed, hence the revolution was termed "glorious."
103. John Locke (1632-1704), his theories
Locke was an English political philosopher whose ideas inspired the American revolution. He wrote that all human beings have a right to life, liberty, and property, and that governments exist to protect those rights. He believed that government was based upon an unwritten "social contract" between the rulers and their people, and if the government failed to uphold its end of the contract, the people had a right to rebel and institute a new government.
104. A democratic society or not?
The Founding Fathers were not sure that democracy was the right form of government for America. They feared anarchy and the rise of factions whose policies would not represent the true will of the people. Hence, the government which they designed contains many aspects of a republic; that is, an indirect democracy in which the people do not vote directly on the laws, but instead elect representatives who vote for them.
105. Land claims and squabbles in North America
The British controlled the colonies on the east coast, and the French held the land around the Mississippi and west of it. Both the British and the French laid claim to Canada and the Ohio Valley region.
106. Differences between French and British colonization
The British settled mainly along the coast, where they started farms, towns, and governments. As a general rule, whole families emigrated. The British colonies had little interaction with the local Indians (aside from occasional fighting). The French colonized the interior, where they controlled the fur trade. Most of the French immigrants were single men, and there were few towns and only loose governmental authority. The French lived closely with the Indians, trading with them for furs and sometimes taking Indian wives.
107. Queen Anne’s War, 1702-1713
The second of the four wars known generally as the French and Indian Wars, it arose out of issues left unresolved by King Williams' War (1689-1697) and was part of a larger European conflict known as the War of the Spanish Succession. Britain, allied with the Netherlands, defeated France and Spain to gain territory in Canada, even though the British had suffered defeats in most of their military operations in North America.
108. Peace of Utrecht, 1713
Ended Queen Anne’s War. Undermined France’s power in North America by giving Britain the Hudson Bay, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia.
109. War of Jenkin’s Ear (1739-1743)
Land squabble between Britain and Spain over Georgia and trading rights. Battles took place in the Caribbean and on the Florida/Georgia border. The name comes from a British captain named Jenkin, whose ear was cut off by the Spanish.
110. King George’s War (1744-1748)
Land squabble between France and Britain. France tried to retake Nova Scotia (which it had lost to Britain in Queen Anne’s War). The war ended with a treaty restoring the status quo, so that Britain kept Nova Scotia).
111. French and Indian War (1756-1763)
Part of the Seven Years’ War in Europe. Britain and France fought for control of the Ohio Valley and Canada. The Algonquins, who feared British expansion into the Ohio Valley, allied with the French. The Mohawks also fought for the French while the rest of the Iroquois Nation allied with the British. The colonies fought under British commanders. Britain eventually won, and gained control of all of the remaining French possessions in Canada, as well as India. Spain, which had allied with France, ceeded Florida to Britain, but received Louisana in return.
112. Francis Parkman (1823-1893)
An historian who wrote about the struggle between France and Britain for North America.
113. Albany Plan of Union, Benjamin Franklin
During the French and Indian War, Franklin wrote this proposal for a unified colonial government, which would operate under the authority of the British government.
114. General Braddock
British commander in the French and Indian War. He was killed and his army defeated in a battle at the intersection of the Ohio, Allegheny, and Monongahela Rivers, known as the Battle of Fallen Timbers. After his death, his colonial second-in-command, Col. George Washington, temporarily lead the British forces.
115. William Pitt (1708-1778)
British secretary of state during the French and Indian War. He brought the British/colonial army under tight British control and started drafting colonists, which led to riots.
116. Fort Pitt, Fort Duquesne
Fort Duquesne became one of the principal French outposts in the northern Ohio Valley, and, in 1754 the French troops in Fort Dusquesne destroyed nearby British Fort Necessity, after Washington and the colonial army surrendered it to them. The British rebuilt Fort Necessity as Fort Pitt in 1758.
117. Wolfe, Montcalm, Quebec
1759 - British general James Wolfe led an attack on Quebec. The French, under Marquis de Montcalm, fought off the initial attack, but the British recovered and took Quebec in a surprise night attack in September, 1759.
118. Treaty of Paris, 1763
Treaty between Britain, France, and Spain, which ended the Seven Years War (and the French and Indian War). France lost Canada, the land east of the Mississippi, some Caribbean islands and India to Britain. France also gave New Orleans and the land west of the Mississippi to Spain, to compensate it for ceeding Florida to the British.
119. Pontiac’s Rebellion
1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
120. Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
121. Writs of Assistance
Search warrants issued by the British government. They allowed officials to search houses and ships for smuggled goods, and to enlist colonials to help them search. The writs could be used anywhere, anytime, as often as desired. The officials did not need to prove that there was reasonable cause to believe that the person subject to the search had committed a crime or might have possession of contraband before getting a writ or searching a house. The writs were protested by the colonies.
122. James Otis
A colonial lawyer who defended (usually for free) colonial merchants who were accused of smuggling. Argued against the writs of assistance and the Stamp Act.
123. Paxton Boys
A mob of Pennsylvania frontiersmen led by the Paxtons who massacred a group of non-hostile Indians.
124. Navigation Acts
A series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade. Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues. The Navigation Acts were reinstated after the French and Indian War because Britain needed to pay off debts incurred during the war, and to pay the costs of maintaining a standing army in the colonies.
125. Grenville’s Program
As Prime Minister, he passed the Sugar Act in 1764 and the Stamp Act in 1765 to help finance the cost of maintaining a standing force of British troops in the colonies. He believed in reducing the financial burden on the British by enacting new taxes in the colonies.
126. Sugar Act, 1764
Part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue program, the act replaced the Molasses Act of 1733, and actually lowered the tax on sugar and molasses (which the New England colonies imported to make rum as part of the triangular trade) from 6 cents to 3 cents a barrel, but for the first time adopted provisions that would insure that the tax was strictly enforced; created the vice-admiralty courts; and made it illegal for the colonies to buy goods from non-British Caribbean colonies.
127. Molasses Act, 1733
British legislation which had taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her colonies. The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of molasses from the Caribbean as part of the Triangular Trade. The British had difficulty enforcing the tax; most colonial merchants did not pay it.
128. Currency Act, 1764
British legislation which banned the production of paper money in the colonies in an effort to combat the inflation caused by Virginia’s decision to get itself out of debt by issuing more paper money.
129. Vice-admiralty courts
In these courts, British judges tried colonials in trials with no juries.
130. Non-importation
A movement under which the colonies agreed to stop importing goods from Britain in order to protest the Stamp Act.
131. Virtual, actual representation
Virtual representation means that a representative is not elected by his constituents, but he resembles them in his political beliefs and goals. Actual representation mean that a representative is elected by his constituents. The colonies only had virtual representation in the British government.
132. Stamp Act
March 22, 1765 - British legislation passed as part of Prime Minister Grenville's revenue measures which required that all legal or official documents used in the colonies, such as wills, deeds and contracts, had to be written on special, stamped British paper. It was so unpopular in the colonies that it caused riots, and most of the stamped paper sent to the colonies from Britain was burned by angry mobs. Because of this opposition, and the decline in British imports caused by the non- importation movement, London merchants convinced Parliament to repeal the Stamp Act in 1766.
133. Virginia Resolves
May 30, 1765 - Patrick Henry’s speech which condemned the British government for its taxes and other policies. He proposed 7 "resolves" to show Virginia's resisitence to the British policies, 5 of which were adopted by the Virginia legislature. 8 other colonies followed suit and had adopted similar resolves by the end of 1765.
134. Stamp Act Congress, 1765
27 delegates from 9 colonies met from October 7-24, 1765, and drew up a list of declarations and petitions against the new taxes imposed on the colonies.
135. Patrick Henry (1736-1799)
An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence. In connection with a petition to declare a "state of defense" in virginia in 1775, he gave his most famous speech which ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me death." Henry served as Governor of Virginia from 1776-1779 and 1784-1786, and was instrumental in causing the Bill of Rights to be adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution.
136. Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
137. Internal taxes
Taxes which arose out of activities that occurred "internally" within the colonies. The Stamp Act was considered an internal tax, because it taxed the colonists on legal transactions they undertook locally. Many colonists and Englishmen felt that Parliament did not have the authority to levy internal taxes on the colonies.
138. External taxes
Taxes arose out of activities that originated outside of the colonies, such as cusotms duties. The Sugar Act was considered an external tax, because it only operated on goods imported into the colonies from overseas. Many colonists who objected to Parliament's "internal" taxes on the colonies felt that Parliament had the authority to levy external taxes on imported goods.
139. Declatory Act, 1766
Passed at the same time that the Stamp Act was repealed, the Act declared that Parliament had the power to tax the colonies both internally and externally, and had absolute power over the colonial legislatures.
140. Quartering Act
March 24, 1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
141. Townshend Acts, reaction
Another series of revenue measures, passed by Townshend as Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1767, they taxed quasi-luxury items imported into the colonies, including paper, lead, tea, and paint. The colonial reaction was outrage and they instutited another movement to stop importing British goods.
142. John Dickinson
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.
143. Massachusetts Circular Letter
A letter written in Boston and circulated through the colonies in February, 1768, which urged the colonies not to import goods taxed by the Townshend Acts. Boston, New York, and Philadelphia agreed to non-importation. It was followed by the Virginia Circular Letter in May, 1768. Parliament ordered all colonial legislatures which did not rescind the circular letters dissolved.
144. Sam Adams (1722-1803)
A Massachusetts politician who was a radical fighter for colonial independence. Helped organize the Sons of Liberty and the Non-Importation Commission, which protested the Townshend Acts, and is believed to have lead the Boston Tea Party. He served in the Continental Congress throughout the Revolution, and served as Governor of Massachusetts from 1794-1797.
145. The Association
A military organization formed by Benjamin Franklin which formed fighting units in Pennsylvania and erected two batteries on the Delaware River.
146. Repeal of the Townshend Acts, except tax on tea
1770 - Prime Minister Lord North repealed the Townshend Acts, except for the tax on tea.
147. Boston Massacre, 1770
The colonials hated the British soldiers in the colonies because the worked for very low wages and took jobs away from colonists. On March 4, 1770, a group of colonials started throwing rocks and snowballs at some British soldiers; the soldiers panicked and fired their muskets, killing a few colonials. This outraged the colonies and increased anti-British sentiment.
148. Crispus Attucks (1723-1770)
He was one of the colonials involved in the Boston Massacre, and when the shooting started, he was the first to die. He became a martyr.
149. John Adams
A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the second President of the United States.
150. Carolina Regulators
Western frontiersmen who in 1768 rebelled in protest against the high taxes imposed by the Eastern colonial government of North Carolina, and whose organization was crushed by military force by Governor Tryon in 1771. In South Carolina, groups of vigilantes who organized to fignt outlaw bands along the Western frontier in 1767-1769, and who disbanded when regular courts were established in those areas.
151. Battle of the Alamance
May 1771 - An army recruited by the North Carolina government put down the rebellion of the Carolina Regulators at Alamance Creek. The leaders of the Regulators were executed.
152. Gaspée Incident
In June, 1772, the British customs ship Gaspée ran around off the colonial coast. When the British went ashore for help, colonials boarded the ship and burned it. They were sent to Britain for trial. Colonial outrage led to the widespread formation of Committees of Correspondence.
153. Governor Thomas Hutchinson of Massachusetts
A Boston-born merchant who served as the Royal Governor of Massachusetts from 1771 to 1774. Even before becoming Governor, Hutchinson had been a supporter of Parliament's right to tax the colonies, and his home had been burned by a mob during the Stamp Acts riots in 1765. In 1773 his refusal to comply with demands to prohibit an East India Company ship from unloading its cargo percipitated the Boston Tea Party. He fled to England in 1774, where he spent the remainder of his life.
154. Committees of Correspondence
These started as groups of private citizens in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New York who, in 1763, began circulating information about opposition to British trade measures. The first government-organized committee appeared in Massachusetts in 1764. Other colonies created their own committtees in order to exchange information and organize protests to British trade regulations. The Committees became particularly active following the Gaspee Incident.
155. Lord North
Prime Minister of England from 1770 to 1782. Although he repealed the Townshend Acts, he generally went along with King George III's repressive policies towards the colonies even though he personally considered them wrong. He hoped for an early peace during the Revolutionary War and resigned after Cornwallis’ surrender in 1781.
156. Tea Act, East India Company
The Tea Act gave the East India Company a monopoly on the trade in tea, made it illegal for the colonies to buy non-British tea, and forced the colonies to pay the tea tax of 3 cents/pound.
157. Boston Tea Party, 1773
British ships carrying tea sailed into Boston Harbor and refused to leave until the colonials took their tea. Boston was boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. Finally, on the night of December 16, 1773, colonials disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard. They did so because they were afraid that Governor Hutchinson would secretly unload the tea because he owned a share in the cargo.
158. Coercive Acts / Intolerable Acts / Repressive Acts
All of these names refer to the same acts, passed in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party, and which included the Boston Port Act, which shut down Boston Harbor; the Massachusetts Government Act, which disbanded the Boston Assembly (but it soon reinstated itself); the Quartering Act, which required the colony to provide provisions for British soldiers; and the Administration of Justice Act, which removed the power of colonial courts to arrest royal officers.
159. Boston Port Act
This was one of the Coercive Acts, which shut down Boston Harbor until Boston repaid the East India Company for the lost tea.
160. Massachusetts Government Act
This was another of the Coercive Acts, which said that members of the Massachusetts assembly would no longer be elected, but instead would be appointed by the king. In response, the colonists elected a their own legislature which met in the interior of the colony.
161. Quebec Act, First Continental Congress, 1774
The Quebec Act, passed by Parliament, alarmed the colonies because it recognized the Roman- Catholic Church in Quebec. Some colonials took it as a sign that Britain was planning to impose Catholicism upon the colonies. The First Continental Congress met to discuss their concerns over Parliament's dissoltions of the New York (for refusing to pay to quarter troops), Massachusetts (for the Boston Tea Party), and Virginia Assemblies. The First Continental Congress rejected the plan for a unified colonial government, stated grievances against the crown called the Declaration of Rights, resolved to prepare militias, and created the Continental Association to enforce a new non-importation agreement through Committees of Vigilence. In response, in February, 1775, Parliament declared the colonies to be in rebellion.
162. Suffolk Resolves
Agreed to by delegates from Suffolk county, Massachusetts, and approved by the First Continental Congress on October 8, 1774. Nullified the Coercive Acts, closed royal courts, ordered taxes to be paid to colonial governments instead of the royal government, and prepared local militias.
163. Galloway Plan
A plan proposed at the First Continental Congress which would have created an American parliament appointed by colonial legislatures. It was defeated by one vote.
164. Continental Association
Created by the First Continental Congress, it enforced the non-importation of British goods by empowering local Committees of Vigilence in each colony to fine or arrest violators. It was meant to pressure Britain to repeal the Coercive Acts.
165. Lexington and Concord, April 19, 1774
General Gage, stationed in Boston, was ordered by King George III to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock. The British marched on Lexington, where they believed the colonials had a cache of weapons. The colonial militias, warned beforehand by Paul Revere and William Dawes, attempeted to block the progress of the troops and were fired on by the British at Lexington. The British continued to Concord, where they believed Adams and Hancock were hiding, and they were again attacked by the colonial militia. As the British retreated to Boston, the colonials continued to shoot at them from behind cover on the sides of the road. This was the start of the Revolutionary War.
166. Paul Revere, William Dawes
They rode through the countryside warning local militias of the approach of the British troops prior to the Battles of Lexington and Concord, although Revere was detained by the British shortly after setting out, and never completed his portion of the planned ride. Thanks to the advance warning, the militias were able to take the British by surprise.
167. Second Continental Congress
It met in 1776 and drafted and signed the Declaration of Independence, which justified the Revolutionary War and declared that the colonies should be independent of Britain.
168. George Washington
He had led troops (rather unsuccessfully) during the French and Indian War, and had surrendered Fort Necessity to the French. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more successful in this second command.
169. Battle of Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill)
At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, the British troops were based in Boston. The British army had begun to fortify the Dorchester Heights near Boston, and so the Continental Army fortified Breed’s Hill, north of Boston, to counter the British plan. British general Gage led two unsuccessful attempts to take this hill, before he finally seized it with the third assault. The British suffered heavy losses and lost any hope for a quick victory against the colonies. Although the battle centered around Breed’s Hill, it was mistakenly named for nearby Bunker Hill.
170. Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
171. Thomas Paine: Common Sense
A British citizen, he wrote Common Sense, published on January 1, 1776, to encourage the colonies to seek independence. It spoke out against the unfair treatment of the colonies by the British government and was instrumental in turning public opinion in favor of the Revolution.
172. Natural Rights Philosophy
Proposed by John Locke, it said that human beings had by nature certain rights, such as the rights to life, liberty, and property.
173. John Locke, Second Treatise of Government
He wrote that all human beings have a right to life, liberty, and property and that governments exist to protect those rights. He rejected the theory of the Divine Right of the monarchy, and believed that government was based upon a "social contract" that existed between a government and its people. If the government failed to uphold its end of the contract by protecting those rights, the people could rebel and institute a new government.
174. George III
Became King of England in 1760, and reigned during the American Revolution.
175. Richard Henry Lee’s Resolution of June 7, 1776
Stated that the colonies should be independent and sever all political ties with Britain. It was adopted by Congress and was the first step towards independence.
176. Thomas Jefferson
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
177. Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, Robert Livington
These men, along with John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, made up the committee which drafted the Declaration of Independence.
178. July 4, 1776 and the Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence was signed by the Second Continental Congress on July 4. It dissolved the colonies’ ties with Britain, listed grievances against King George III, and declared the colonies to be an independent nation.
179. Somerset Case (in Great Britain)
A slave named James Somerset was purchased in Virginia, then taken to London by his master. In London, he tried to escape. Judge Mansfield ruled that a slave who escaped in England couldn’t be extradited to the colonies for trial.
180. Quock Walker case, Massachusetts
1783 - Helped end slavery in Massachusetts.
181. Abigail Adams
Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America’s women in the new government he was helping to create.
182. Mercy Otis Warren
A 19th century American historian who wrote a 3-volume history of the American Revolution.
183. Edmund Burke (1729-1797)
A conservative British politician who was generally sympathetic to the colonists' greivances, and who felt that Britain's colonial policies were misguided. He also opposed the early feminist movements. He once said, "A woman is but an animal, and not an animal of the highest order."
184. Lafayette
Marquis de Lafayette was a French major general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War. He and Baron von Steuben (a Prussian general) were the two major foreign military experts who helped train the colonial armies.
185. George Rogers Clark (1752-1818)
Frontiersman who helped remove the Indians from the Illinois territory in May, 1798.
186. Benedict Arnold
He had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.
187. Robert Morris (1734-1806)
A delegate to the Second Continental Congress. He agreed that Britain had treated the colonies unfairly, but he didn’t believe that the colonies should dissolve ties with Britain. He argued against the Declaration of Independence.
188. John Paul Jones (1747-1792)
Revolutionary War naval officer. His ship, the Bonhomme Richard, was sunk in a battle with the British ship Serapis, but he managed to board and gain control of the Serapis.
189. Bonhomme Richard and the Serapis
The Bonhomme Richard was John Paul Jones’ ship, which was named for Benjamin Franklin's pseudonym, Poor Richard. The Serapis was the British ship he captured.
190. Conway Cabal
The name given to the New England delegates in the Continental Congress who tried to wrest control of the Continental Army and the Revolution away from George Washington. Named after Major General Thomas Conway.
191. French Alliance of 1778, reasons for it
The colonies needed help from Europe in their war against Britain. France was Britain’s rival and hoped to weaken Britain by causing her to lose the American colonies. The French were persuaded to support the colonists by news of the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga.
192. Major battles: Saratoga, Valley Forge
In 1777, British General John Burgoyne attacked southward from Canada along the Hudson Valley in New York, hoping to link up with General Howe in New York City, thereby cutting the colonies in half. Burgoyne was defeated by American General Horatio Gates on October 17, 1777, at the Battle of Saratoga, surrendering the entire British Army of the North. Valley Forge was not a battle; it was the site where the Continental Army camped during the winter of 1777- ’78, after its defeats at the Battles of the Brandywine and Germantown. The Continental Army suffered further casualties at Valley Forge due to cold and disease. Washington chose the site because it allowed him to defend the Continental Congress if necessary, which was then meeting in York, Pennsylvania after the British capture of Philadelphia.
193. Yorktown, Lord Cornwallis
Because of their lack of success in suppressing the Revolution in the nothern colonies, in early 1780 the British switched their strategy and undertook a series of campaigns through the southern colonies. This strategy was equally unsuccessful, and the British decided to return to their main headquarters in New York City. While marching from Virginia to New York, British commander Lord Cornwallis became trapped in Yorktown on the Chesapeake Bay. His troops fortified the town and waited for reinforcements. The French navy, led by DeGrasse, blocked their escape. After a series of battles, Cornwallis surrendered to the Continental Army on October 19, 1781, which ended all major fighting in the Revolutionary War.
194. League of Armed Neutrality
Catherine I of Russia declared that the Russian navy would defend neutral trade throughout the world. They were not successful.
195. Treaty of Paris, 1783
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.
196. Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, John Jay
They were the American delegates who signed the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
197. French and British Intrigue over U.S. boundaries
The Treaty of Paris set the colonial boundaries as being the southern border of Canada, the northern border of Florida, the Atlantic coast, and the Mississippi River.
198. Social impact of the war
The Revolutionary War saw the emergence of the first anti-slavery groups, and many of the northern states abolished slavery after the war. Women gained a small status increase for their efforts in the war, but they were primarily valued as mothers of future patriots.
199. Disestablishment, Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom
1779 - Written by Thomas Jefferson, this statute outlawed an established church and called for separation of Church and State.
200. New state constitutions (Massachusetts adopted by popular vote)
The first set of constitutions drafted by the individual states placed most of the government’s power in the legislature, and almost none in the executive in order to promote democracy and avoid tyranny. However, without the strong leadership of the executive, the state legislatures argued among themselves and couldn’t get anything done. After the Constitution was written, the states abandoned these old constitutions and wrote new ones that better balanced the power between the legislative and the executive.
201. Newburgh Conspiracy
The officers of the Continental Army had long gone without pay, and they met in Newburgh, New York to address Congress about their pay. Unfortunately, the American government had little money after the Revolutionary War. They also considered staging a coup and seizing control of the new government, but the plotting ceased when George Washington refused to support the plan.
202. Articles of Confederation: powers, weaknesses, successes
The Articles of Confederation delegated most of the powers (the power to tax, to regulate trade, and to draft troops) to the individual states, but left the federal government power over war, foreign policy, and issuing money. The Articles’ weakness was that they gave the federal government so little power that it couldn’t keep the country united. The Articles’ only major success was that they settled western land claims with the Northwest Ordinance. The Articles were abandoned for the Constitution.
203. Constitution
The document which established the present federal government of the United States and outlined its powers. It can be changed through amendments.
204. Constitution: Preamble
We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
205. Constitution: Legislature
One of the three branches of government, the legislature makes laws. There are two parts to the legislature: the House of Representatives and the Senate.
206. Constitution: Logrolling
This refers to the practice of representatives or senators exchanging votes for each others' pet bills.
207. Constitution: Riders
Separate, unrelated clauses added to a bill in the legislature, either in order to ensure that the bill passes or to ensure that it fails.
208. Constitution: Quorum
The minimum number of members of Congress who must be present in order to hold a session. In Congress, this number is more than half of the members.
209. Constitution: Seniority
Part of the committee system. A member of Congress in a committee moves up in rank in that committee as long as he is reelected.
210. Constitution: Committee system
After a bill is introduced in Congress, it is assigned to a small group of legislators for review and consideration, and the committee must vote to approve the bill before it is returned to the Senate or the House for a vote.
211. Constitution: Majority leader
The person elected, by the majority party of Congress, to be leader of the majority party in Congress.
212. Constitution: Majority whip
The person who tells members of the majority party in Congress how they should vote.
213. Constitution: Minority leader
The person elected, by the minority party of Congress, to be leader of the minority party in Congress.
214. Constitution: Minority whip
The person who tells members of the minority party in Congress how they should vote.
215. Constitution: Gerrymander
The practice of drawing the boundary lines of Congressional voting districts to give a particular political party an advantage when electing representatives. First used during Eldbridge Gerry’s second term as governor of Massachusetts, the term comes from a combination of Gerry's name and a refernce that the shape of the distict boundary resembled a salamander.
216. Constitution: Bills become law
In order for a bill to become a law, it must be introduced to committee and be approved. Then it must be voted on by the House of Representatives, and then voted on by the Senate, or vice versa, depending on the branch in which the bill was first introduced. Finally, it must be signed by the President.
217. Constitution: House of Representatives
One of the two parts of Congress, considered the "lower house." Representatives are elected directly by the people, with the number of representatives for each state determined by the state’s population.
218. Constitution: Senate
The other of the two parts of Congress, considered the "upper house." Senators were originally appointed by state legislatures, but now they are elected directly by the people. Each state has two senators.
219. Constitution: Executive branch
One of the three branches of government, the executive enforces laws. It is headed by the president, who has the power to veto legislation passed by Congress.
220. Constitution: Judiciary branch
One of the three branches of government, the judiciary interprets laws. The highest authority in the judiciary is the Supreme Court, which determines the constitutionality of laws.
221. Constitution: Interstate relations
No state is allowed to form a compact with another state or with a foreign power without the consent of Congress.
222. Constitution: The amendment process
An amendment to the Constitution may be proposed if 2/3 of the members of Congress or 2/3 of state legislatures vote for it. The amendment may then be added to the Constitution by a 3/4 vote of state legislatures, or special state conventions elected for that purpose.
223. Constitution: Supremacy clause
Article VI of the Constitution, which declares the Constitution, all federal laws passed pursuant to its provisions, and all federal treaties, to be the "supreme law of the land," which override any state laws or state constitutional provisions to the contrary.
224. Constitution: Ratification
The Constitution had to be ratified (approved) by at least 9 of the 13 original states in order to be put into effect.
225. Constitution: Checks and balances
Each of the three branches of government "checks" (ie, blocks) the power of the other two, so no one branch can become too powerful. The president (executive) can veto laws passed by Congress (legislative), and also chooses the judges in the Supreme Court (judiciary). Congress can overturn a presidential veto if 2/3 of the members vote to do so. The Supreme Court can declare laws passed by Congress and the president unconstitutional, and hence invalid.
226. Constitution: Separation of power
The powers of the government are divided between three branches: the executive, the legislative, and the judiciary.
227. Maryland, cession of western land claims
After the Revolutionary War, many states claimed all of the western land between their northernmost and southernmost borders, which meant that many strips of land were claimed by more than one state. The Continental Congress was trying to get the states to ratify the Articles of Confederation, but Maryland refused to ratify it until all the states gave their western land claims. Maryland held out, and the western land claims were abandoned.
228. New state constitutions during the Revolutionary War and after
The first set of constitutions drafted by the individual states placed most of the government’s power in the legislature, and almost none in the executive in order to promote democracy and avoid tyranny. However, without the strong leadership of the executive, the state legislatures argued among themselves and couldn’t get anything done. After the Constitution was written, the states abandoned these old constitutions and wrote new ones that better balanced the power between the legislative and the executive.
229. Pennsylvania militia routs Congress, 1783
Unpaid Revolutionary War veterans staged a protest outside Congress’ meeting hall, forcing Congress to move to Princeton, New Jersey.
230. Northwest posts
British fur-trading posts in the Northwest Territory. Their presence in the U.S. led to continued British-American conflicts.
231. Land Ordinance of 1785
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.
232. Northwest Ordinance, 1787
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Set up the framework of a government for the Northwest territory. The Ordinance provided that the Territory would be divided into 3 to 5 states, outlawed slavery in the Territory, and set 60,000 as the minimum population for statehood.
233. Proposed Jay-Gardoqui Treaty, 1785
This treaty between the U.S. and Spain would have given the U.S. special privileges at Spanish ports in exchange for giving Spain exclusive rights to the Mississippi River. The U.S. needed access to the Mississippi more than they needed privileged trade with Spain, so this treaty was never signed.
234. Shay’s Rebellion
Occurred in the winter of 1786-7 under the Articles of Confederation. Poor, indebted landowners in Massachusetts blocked access to courts and prevented the government from arresting or repossessing the property of those in debt. The federal government was too weak to help Boston remove the rebels, a sign that the Articles of Confederation weren’t working effectively.
235. Annapolis Convention, 1786
A precursor to the Constitutional Convention of 1787. A dozen commissioners form New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Virginia met to discuss reform of interstate commerce regulations, to design a U.S. currency standard, and to find a way to repay the federal government’s debts to Revolutionary War veterans. Little was accomplished, except for the delegates to recommend that a further convention be held to discuss changes to the form of the federal government; the idea was endorsed by the Confederation Congress in February, 1878, which called for another convention to be held in May that year in Philadelphia.
236. 1780's Depression
Caused by a post-war decrease in production and increase in unemployment, and also caused by tough interstate commerce rules which decreased trade.
237. Noah Webster (1758-1843)
Wrote some of the first dictionaries and spellers in the U.S. His books, which became the standard for the U.S., promoted American spellings and pronunciations, rather than British.
238. Philadelphia Convention for the Constitution (Constitutional Convention)
Beginning on May 25, 1787, the convention recommended by the Annapolis Convention was held in Philadelphia. All of the states except Rhode Island sent delegates, and George Washington served as president of the convention. The convention lasted 16 weeks, and on September 17, 1787, produced the present Constitution of the United States, which was drafted largely by James Madison.
239. Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws
He believed that the government’s power should be divided into separate branches, that the government should be close to the people, and that laws should reflect the will of the people.
240. John Locke, Second Treatise of Government
He wrote that all human beings have a right to life, liberty, and property and that governments exist to protect those rights. He believed that a contract existed between a government and its people, and if the government failed to uphold its end of the contract, the people could rebel and institute a new government.
241. Hobbes (1588-1679)
English philosopher who believed that people are motivated mainly by greed and fear, and need a strong government to keep them under control. He developed the theory that kings are given their position by divine right, and thus should have absolute power.
242. James Madison, "Father of the Constitution"
His proposals for an effective government became the Virginia Plan, which was the basis for the Constitution. He was responsible for drafting most of the language of the Constitution.
243. Great Compromise
At the Constitutional Convention, larger states wanted to follow the Virginia Plan, which based each state’s representation in Congress on state population. Smaller states wanted to follow the New Jersey Plan, which gave every state the same number of representatives. The convention compromised by creating the House and the Senate, and using both of the two separate plans as the method for electing members of each.
244. Virginia Plan, New Jersey Plan, Connecticut Plan
The Virginia Plan called for a two-house Congress with each state’s representation based on state population. The New Jersey Plan called for a one-house Congress in which each state had equal representation. The Connecticut Plan called for a two-house Congress in which both types of representation would be applied, and is also known as the Compromise Plan.
245. North-South Compromises
The North was given full federal protection of trade and commerce. The South was given permanent relief from export taxes and a guarantee that the importation of slaves would not be halted for at least 20 years, plus the national capitol was placed in the South. Slaves were also deemed to be counted as 3/5 of a person when determining the state population, thus giving the Southern states a greater number of representatives in the House.
246. Slavery and the Constitution: slave trade, 3/5 Clause
The South’s slave trade was guaranteed for at least 20 years after the ratification of the Constitution. Slaves were considered 3/5 of a person when determining the state population.
247. Procedures for amendments
An amendment to the Constitution may be proposed if 2/3 of Congress or 2/3 of state legislatures vote for it. The amendment may then be added to the Constitution by a 3/4 vote of state legislatures or state conventions.
248. Beard thesis, his critics
Charles Austin Beard wrote in 1913 that the Constitution was written not to ensure a democratic government for the people, but to protect the economic interests of its writers (most of the men at the Constitutional Convention were very rich), and specifically to benefit wealthy financial speculators who had purchased Revolutionary War government bonds through the creation of a strong national government that could insure the bonds repayment. Beard’s thesis has met with much criticism.
249. Fiske, The Critical Period of American History
He called the introduction of the Constitution the "critical period" because the Constitution saved the nation from certain disaster under the Articles of Confederation.
250. Antifederalists
They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply Republican) party.
251. Supporters of the Constitution
Known as Federalists, they were mostly wealthy and opposed anarchy. Their leaders included Jay, Hamilton, and Madison, who wrote the Federalist Papers in support of the Constitution.
252. Opponents of the Constitution
Known as Antifederalists, they were mostly commoners who were afraid of strong central government and being taken advantage of. They included Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams.
253. Patrick Henry (1736-1799)
One of the main opponents of the Constitution, he worked against its ratification in Virginia.
254. Sam Adams
He was opposed to the Constitution until the Bill of Rights was added, and then he supported it.
255. George Mason, Bill of Rights
He opposed the Constitution because it didn’t protect individual rights. His opposition led to the inclusion of the Bill of Rights.
256. The ratification fights, especially in Massachusetts, New York, and Virginia
Massachusetts farmers opposed the Constitution because they felt it protected trade more than agriculture, but Massachusetts became the 6th state to ratify. New York was opposed to the Constitution; the Federalist Papers were published there to gain support for it. Virginia and New York would not ratify until the Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution.
257. The Federalist Papers, Jay, Hamilton, Madison
This collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution.
258. "The Federalist, # 10"
This essay from the Federalist Papers proposed setting up a republic to solve the problems of a large democracy (anarchy, rise of factions which disregard public good).
259. Bill of Rights adopted, 1791
The first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guarantee basic individual rights.
260. President George Washington
He established many of the presidential traditions, including limiting a president's tenure to two terms. He was against political parties and strove for political balance in government by appointing political adversaries to government positions.
261. Vice-president John Adams
A Federalist, he had little say in Washington’s administration.
262. Judiciary Act, 1789
Created the federal court system, allowed the president to create federal courts and to appoint judges.
263. Sec. of the Treasury Hamilton
A leading Federalist, he supported industry and strong central government. He created the National Bank and managed to pay off the U.S.’s early debts through tariffs and the excise tax on whiskey.
264. Sec. of State Jefferson
A leading Democratic-Republican, he opposed Hamilton’s ideas. Washington tended to side with Hamilton, so Jefferson resigned.
265. Sec. of War Knox
A Revolutionary War hero, Henry Knox had served as Secretary of War under the Articles of Confederation, and stayed on in that capacity as part of Washington’s cabinet.
266. Attorney General Randolph
Edmund Randolph had been General Washington's aide-de-camp at the outbreak of the Revolution, and served both as a Virginia delegate to the Continental Congressand as Governor of Virginia from 1786-1788. He submitted the virginia Plan at the Constitutional Convention. From 1789-1794 he served as U.S. Attorney General, and then succeeded Jefferson as Sec. of State. In 1795 he resigned form office after being falsely accused of receiving money from France to influence Washington’s administration against Great Britain, although his name was eventually cleared by the french government.
267. Hamilton’s Program: ideas, proposals, reasons for it
Designed to pay off the U.S.’s war debts and stabilize the economy, he believed that the United States should become a leading international commercial power. His programs included the creation of the National Bank, the establishment of the U.S.’s credit rate, increased tariffs, and an excise tax on whiskey. Also, he insisted that the federal government assume debts incurred by the states during the war.
268. Tariff of 1789
Designed to raise revenue for the federal government, resulted in a government surplus.
269. Bank of the U.S.
Part of Hamilton’s Plan, it would save the government’s surplus money until it was needed.
270. National debt, state debt, foreign debt
The U.S.’s national debt included domestic debt owed to soldiers and others who had not yet been paid for their Revolutionary War services, plus foreign debt to other countries which had helped the U.S. The federal government also assumed all the debts incurred by the states during the war. Hamilton’s program paid off these debts.
271. Excise taxes
Taxes placed on manufactured products. The excise tax on whiskey helped raise revenue for Hamilton’s program.
272. Report on Manufactures
A document submitted to Congress, which set up an economic policy to encourage industry.
273. Implied powers, elastic clause, necessary and proper clause
Section 8 of Article I contains a long list of powers specifically granted to Congress, and ends with the statement that Congress shall also have the power "to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the forfegoing powers." These unspecified powers are known as Congress' "implied" powers. There has long been a debate as to how much power this clause grants to Congress, which is sometimes referred to as the "elastic" clause because it can be "stretched" to include almost any other power that Congress might try to assert.
274. Loose, strict interpretation of the Constitution
Loose interpretation allows the government to do anything which the Constitution does not specifically forbid it from doing. Strict interpretation forbids the government from doing anything except what the Constitution specifically empowers it to do.
275. Location of the capitol: Washington D.C., circumstances surrounding it
The South was angry that the whole country was assuming state debts incurred primarily in the North, and that slaves were not being counted as full persons for purposes of assigning the number of representatives that each state would have in the House. As part of the Compromise Plan adopted at the Constitutional Convention, it was agreed that the nation’s capitol would be located in the South.
276. Residence Act
Set the length of time which immigrants must live in the U.S. in order to become legal citizens.
277. Major L’Enfant, Benjamin Banneker
Architects of Washington, D.C.
278. Whiskey Rebellion
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay’s Rebellion.
279. Washington’s Farewell Address
He warned against the dangers of political parties and foreign alliances.
280. Election of 1796: President Adams, Vice-president Jefferson
The first true election (when Washington ran, there was never any question that he would be elected). Adams was a Federalist, but Jefferson was a Democratic-Republican.
281. New states: Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee
After the western land claims were settled, Vermont, Kentucky, and Tennessee (in that order) were added to the United States under the Constitution.
282. Federalists and Democratic-Republicans
The first two political parties. Many of the Democratic-Republicans had earlier been members of the Antifederalists, which had never organized into a formal political party.
283. Federalists / Democratic-Republicans: Party leaders and supporters
The leading Federalists were Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The leading Democratic- Republicans were Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.
284. Federalists / Democratic-Republicans: Programs
Federalist programs were the National Bank and taxes to support the growth of industry. The Democratic-Republicans opposed these programs, favoring state banks and little industry.
285. Federalists / Democratic-Republicans: Philosophies
Federalists believed in a strong central government, a strong army, industry, and loose interpretation of the Constitution. Democratic-Republicans believed in a weak central government, state and individual rights, and strict interpretation of the Constitution.
286. Federalists / Democratic-Republicans: Foreign proclivities
Federalists supported Britain, while the Democratic-Republicans felt that France was the U.S.’s most important ally.
287. Society of the Cincinnati
A secret society formed by officers of the Continental Army. The group was named for George Washington, whose nickname was Cincinnatus, although Washington himself had no involvement in the society.
288. Democratic societies
Clubs which met for discussion, designed to keep alive the philosophies of the American Revolution. They were sometimes called Jacobean clubs because they also supported the French Revolution.
289. Alien and Sedition Acts
These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.
290. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
291. Doctrine of Nullification
Expressed in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, it said that states could nullify federal laws.
292. Election of 1800, tie, Jefferson and Burr
The two Democratic-Republicans Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr defeated Federalist John Adams, but tied with each other. The final decision went the House of Representatives, where there was another tie. After a long series of ties in the House, Jefferson was finally chosen as president. Burr became vice-president. This led to the 12th Amendment, which requires the president and vice-president of the same party to run on the same ticket.
293. Revolution of 1800
Jefferson’s election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution."
294. Jefferson’s Inaugural Address
Declared that he would avoid foreign alliances.
295. 12th Amendment
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
296. Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
297. Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828)
American painter, most famous for painting the portrait of Washington which was copied for the one dollar bill.
298. Charles Wilson Peale (1741-1827)
An American naturalist painter.
299. French Alliance of 1778
France aided the U.S. in the American Revolution, and the U.S. agreed to aid France if the need ever arose. Although France could have used American aid during the French Revolution, the U.S. didn’t do anything to help. The U.S. didn’t fulfill their part of the agreement until World War I.
300. French Revolution
The second great democratic revolution, taking place in the 1790s, after the American Revolution had been proven to be a success. The U.S. did nothing to aid either side. The French people overthrew the king and his government, and then instituted a series of unsuccessful democratic governments until Napoleon took over as dictator in 1799.
301. Citizen Genêt
Edmond Charles Genêt. A French diplomat who came to the U.S. 1793 to ask the American government to send money and troops to aid the revolutionaries in the French Revolution. President Washington asked France to recall Genêt after Genêt began recruiting men and arming ships in U.S. ports. However, Washington later relented and allowed Genêt U.S. citizenship upon learning that the new French government planned to arrest Genêt.
302. Neutrality Proclamation
Washington’s declaration that the U.S. would not take sides after the French Revolution touched off a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria and Prussia. Washington's Proclamation was technically a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778.
303. XYZ Affair, Talleyrand
1798 - A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand’s three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters "X, Y and Z" for the names of the three French agents in his report to Congress.
304. Undeclared naval war with France
Late 1790s - Beginning in 1794, the French had began seizing American vessels in retaliation for Jay's Treaty, so Congress responded by ordering the navy to attack any French ships on the American coast. The conflict became especially violent after the X,Y, Z Affair. A peace convention in 1800 with the newly installed dictator, Napoleon, ended the conflict.
305. Convention of 1800
A conference between the U.S. and France which ended the naval hostilities.
306. British seizure of American ships
France blocked English ports during the Napoleonic Wars of the early 1800s; England responded by blocking French ports. The British seized neutral American merchant ships which tried to trade at French ports.
307. "Rule of 1756"
A British proclamation that said that neutral countries could not trade with both of two warring nations; they had to chose sides and only trade with one of the nations. This justified Britain’s seizure of neutral American ships during the war between Britain and France in the early 1800s.
308. Northwest posts
British fur-trading posts in the Northwest territory. Their presence in the U.S. led to continued British-American conflicts.
309. Jay’s Treaty
1794 - It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain. It dealt with the Northwest posts and trade on the Mississippi River. It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain for the attacks on neutral American ships. It was particularly unpopular with France, because the U.S. also accepted the British restrictions on the rights of neutrals.
310. Washington’s Farewell Address
He warned against the dangers of political parties and foreign alliances.
311. Pickney’s Treaty
1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans.
312. Spanish intrigue in the Southwest
During the late 1700s/early 1800s Spain was exploring and settling the region which is now the Southwest U.S. The Spanish used the Indians of Florida and Georgia as spies and encouraged the tribes to raid U.S. settlements, which contributed to the outbreak of the War of 1812 . Zebulon Pike used his expedition to the West as an opportunity to spy on the Spanish and map out their land.
313. James Wilkinson (1759-1825)
Wilkinson had been an officer in the Continental Army, and later held several positions relating to the Army, such as secretary of the board of war and clothier general to the army. He was one of the Commissioners appointed to receive the Purchase Louisiana from the French, and served as Governor of Louisiana from 1805-1806. He informed Pres. Jefferson of Burr's conspiracy to take over Louisiana, and was the primary witness against Burr at his treason trial, even though Wilkinson was himself implicated in the plot.
314. "Mad" Anthony Wayne, Battle of Fallen Timbers
Wayne had been one of the leading generals of the Continental Army, and had played a crucial role in the defeat of Cornwallis at Yorktown. In the early 1790's, the British held trading posts in the Ohio Valley and encouraged the local Indian tribes to attack the Americans. Led by Wayne, the Americans defeated the Miami Indians in the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794 near what is today Toledo, Ohio. This paved the way for American settlement of the Ohio Valley.
315. Treaty of Greenville, 1795
Drawn up after the Battle of Fallen Timbers. The 12 local Indian tribes gave the Americans the Ohio Valley territory in exchange for a reservation and $10,000.
316. Barbary pirates
The name given to several renegade countries on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa who demanded tribute in exchange for refraining from attacking ships in the Mediterranean. From 1795-1801, the U.S. paid the Barbary states for protection against the pirates. Jefferson stopped paying the tribute, and the U.S. fought the Barbary Wars (1801-1805) against the countries of Tripoli and Algeria. The war was inconclusive and the U.S. went back to paying the tribute.
317. Rutgers v. Waddington, 1784
In 1783, the New York State Legislature passed the Trespass Act, which allowed land owners whose property had been occupied by the British during the Revolution to sue for damages. Rutgers sued in the Mayor’s Court over the seizure of her brewery, and the Mayor, James Duane, declared the Act void because it conflicted with a provision of the Treaty of Paris. It was the first time a U.S. court had declared a law unconstitutional, and was an important precedent for the later U.S. Supreme Court decision in Marbury v. Madison.
318. Trevett v. Weeden, 1786-1787
Occurred under the Articles of Confederation, when each state had a different type of currency. Acts passed by the Rhode Island Legislature imposed heavy fines on those who refused to accept the state’s depreciated currency at face value. Weeden was acquitted on the grounds that the acts were unconstitutional.
319. Bayard v. Singleton
1787 - First court decision in which a law was found unconstitutional based on a written constitution.
320. Supreme Court: Chisholm v. Georgia
The heirs of Alexander Chisholm (a citizen of South Carolina) sued the state of Georgia. The Supreme Court upheld the right of citizens of one state to sue another state, and decided against Georgia.
321. Supreme Court: Ware v. Hylton, 1796
A treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain required that all debts owed by the U.S. to Britain had to be paid in full. However, a Virginia statute said that American debts to Britain could be paid in depreciated currency. The Supreme Court upheld the treaty, proving that federal laws take precedence over state laws.
322. War of 1812 (1812-1814)
A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain’s ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson’s troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
323. Clay’s American System
Proposed after the War of 1812, it included using federal money for internal improvements (roads, bridges, industrial improvements, etc.), enacting a protective tariff to foster the growth of American industries, and strengthening the national bank.
324. Was Jacksonianism an attack on privilege?
To some extent, it was. Jackson opposed monopolies and the privileged class of society; he attacked the national bank for this reason. He advocated increased popular participation in government and greater opportunity for the common man.
325. Bank war: its enemies and defenders
During Jackson’s presidency, this was a struggle between those who wanted to keep the national bank in operation and those who wanted to abolish it. Jackson and states’ rights advocates opposed the national bank, which they felt imposed discriminatory credit restrictions on local banks, making it more difficult for farmers and small businessmen to obtain loans. The bank was defended by Nicholas Biddle and Henry Clay, the National Republicans, the wealthy, and larger merchants, who felt that local banks credit policies were irresponsible and would lead to a depression.
326. Bank war: Veto message by Andrew Jackson
1832 - President Jackson vetoed the bill to recharter the national bank.
327. Bank war: laws from 1800 to 1865 on banking
These laws moved away from favoring the national bank towards favoring state banks.
328. Changes in federal land laws and policies
The Land Acts of 1800 and 1820, and the Preemptive Acts of the 1830s and 1840s lowered the price of land and made it easier for prospective settlers to acquire it. This encouraged people to move west.
329. Changes and improvements in transportation and its effect
These included canals in the Great Lakes region, toll roads, steamboats, and clipper ships. The result was faster trade and easier access to the western frontier. It aided the growth of the nation.
330. Revolution of 1800
Jefferson’s election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution."
331. President Jefferson
He believed in a less aristocratic presidency. He wanted to reduce federal spending and government interference in everyday life. He was a Democratic-Republican (originally an Anti- Federalist), so he believed in strict interpretation of the Constitution.
332. Vice-President Burr
Aaron Burr was one of the leading Democratic-Republicans of New york, and served as a U.S. Senator from New York from 1791-1797. He was the principal opponent of Alexander Hamilton’s Federalist policies. In the election of 1800, Burr tied with Jefferson in the Electoral College. The House of Representatives awarded the Presidency to Jefferson and made Burr Vice- President.
333. Sec. of Treasury Gallatin
Albert Gallatin was a Swiss immigrant who was a financial genius and served as U.S. Secretary of the Treasury from 1801 - 1814 under Presidents Jefferson and Madison. He advocated free trade and opposed the Federalists’ economic policies. Gallatin was a member of the U.S. delegation that negotiated the Treaty of Ghent, and later served as Ambassador to France and to Britain.
334. Jefferson’s Inaugural Address, "We are all Federalists, we are all Republicans"
Jefferson (a Republican) declared that he wanted to keep the nation unified and avoid partisan conflicts.
335. Federalist control of courts and judges, midnight judges
On his last day in office, President Adams appointed a large number of Federalist judges to the federal courts in an effort to maintain Federalist control of the government. (The Federalists had lost the presidency and much of Congress to the Republicans.) These newly-appointed Federalist judges were called midnight judges because John Adams had stayed up until midnight signing the appointments.
336. Justice Samuel Chase
A Federalist judge appointed by Washington to the Supreme Court. Chase had been a Revolutionary War hero, and was a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson disagreed with his rulings and had him impeached for publicly criticizing the Jefferson administration to the Maryland grand jury. Chase was acquited by the Senate, and the impeachment failed. (This is the only attempt in history to impeach a U.S. Supreme Court Justice.)
337. Tripolitan War (1801-1805)
Also called the Barbary Wars, this was a series of naval engagements launched by President Jefferson in an effort to stop the attacks on American merchant ships by the Barbary pirates. The war was inconclusive, afterwards, the U.S. paid a tribute to the Barbary states to protect their ships from pirate attacks.
338. Treaty of Sam Ildefonso
1800 - In this treaty, Spain gave the Louisiana territory back to France (France had lost it to Spain in the Seven Years War).
339. Louisiana Purchase: reasons, Jefferson, loose construction
1803 - The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleon for $15 million. Jefferson was interested in the territory because it would give the U.S. the Mississippi River and New Orleans (both were valuable for trade and shipping) and also room to expand. Napoleon wanted to sell because he needed money for his European campaigns and because a rebellion against the French in Haiti had soured him on the idea of New World colonies. The Constitution did not give the federal government the power to buy land, so Jefferson used loose construction to justify the purchase.
340. Toussaint L’Overture
1803 - Led a slave rebellion which took control of Haiti, the most important island of France’s Caribbean possessions. The rebellion led Napoleon to feel that New World colonies were more trouble than they were worth, and encouraged him to sell Louisiana to the U.S.
341. Federalist opposition to the Louisiana Purchase
Federalists opposed it because they felt Jefferson overstepped his Constitutional powers by making the purchase.
342. Hamilton-Burr duel
After Burr lost to Jefferson as a Republican, he switched to the Federalist party and ran for governor of New York. When he lost, he blamed Hamilton (a successful Federalist politician) of making defamatory remarks that cost him the election. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel, in which Hamilton was killed on July 11, 1804.
343. Burr expedition, treason trial
After the duel, Burr fled New York and joined a group of mercenaries in the southern Louisiana territory region. The U.S. arrested them as they moved towards Mexico. Burr claimed that they had intended to attack Mexico, but the U.S. believed that they were actually trying to get Mexican aid to start a secession movement in the territories. Burr was tried for treason, and although Jefferson advocated Burr’s punishment, the Supreme Court acquitted Burr.
344. Lewis and Clark expedition and its findings
1804-1806 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
345. Pike, Major Long, their observations
Zebulon Pike explored (1805-1807) Minnesota and the Southwest, mapped the region, and spied on the Spanish whenever his exploration took him into their territory. (He was eventually captured by the Spanish, but the U.S. arranged for his release.) Major Long explored the middle of the Louisiana Purchase region (Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado) and concluded that it was a worthless "Great American Desert."
346. Berlin Decree (1806), Milan Decree (1807)
These decrees issued by Napoleon dealt with shipping and led to the War of 1812. The Berlin Decree initiated the Continental System, which closed European ports to ships which had docked in Britain. The Milan Decree authorized French ships to seize neutral shipping vessels trying to trade at British ports.
347. Polly case, Essex case
These dealt with the impressment of sailors.
348. Orders-in-council
British laws which led to the War of 1812. Orders-in-council passed in 1807 permitted the impressment of sailors and forbade neutral ships from visiting ports from which Britain was excluded unless they first went to Britain and traded for British goods.
349. Impressment
British seamen often deserted to join the American merchant marines. The British would board American vessels in order to retrieve the deserters, and often seized any sailor who could not prove that he was an American citizen and not British.
350. Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
1807 - The American ship Chesapeake refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake. As a result of the incident, the U.S. expelled all British ships from its waters until Britain issued an apology. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
351. Embargo of 1807, opposition
This act issued by Jefferson forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S. It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. It was difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade. It also hurt the national economy, so it was replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act.
352. Non-Intercourse Act
1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon’s Bill No. 2.
353. Erskine Agreement
1809 - The U.S. offered to cease all trade with France and resume trade with Britain if the British would stop the impressment of American sailors. The British did not agree to this, so this proposal never went into effect.
354. Macon’s Bill No. 2
1810 - Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.
355. Tecumseh (1763-1813)
A Shawnee chief who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as The Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. The league of tribes was defeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh was killed fighting for the British during the War of 1812 at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
356. War Hawks
Western settlers who advocated war with Britain because they hoped to aquire Britain’s northwest posts (and also Florida or even Canada) and because they felt the British were aiding the Indians and encouraging them to attack the Americans on the frontier. In Congress, the War Hawks were Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun.
357. Causes of the War of 1812
These included: British impressment of sailors, British seizure of neutral American trading ships, and the reasons given by the War Hawks (the British were inciting the Indians on the frontier to attack the Americans, and the war would allow the U.S. to seize the northwest posts, Florida, and possibly Canada).
358. Why war against Britain rather than against France?
Britain practiced impressment and was believed to be supplying weapons to the Indians on the frontier and encouraging them to attack the U.S. Also, Britain held land near the U.S. which the Americans hoped to acquire, and a war with Britain would allow the U.S. to seize Florida from Britain’s ally Spain. Although France had also seized American ships, France had agreed to lift its neutral trading restrictions, and the U.S. had resumed trade with France.
359. Federalist opposition to the War of 1812
The Federalist party was mainly composed of New England merchants, who wanted good relations with Britain and free trade. New England merchants met at the Hartford Convention in protest of the war and the U.S. government’s restrictions on trade.
360. Naval engagements in the War of 1812
The U.S. navy won some important battles on the Great Lakes but failed to break the British blockade of the U.S.
361. Fort McHenry, Francis Scott Key, "Star Spangled Banner"
Francis Scott Key saw Fort McHenry hold out during the night against a British attack. He wrote the poem "Star Spangled Banner" about the experience of seeing the U.S. flag still flying above the fort in the morning, and the poem was later set to the tune of an old English bar song.
362. Events of the War of 1812: Perry, Lake Erie, D.C., New Orleans
Oliver Perry led a 1813 naval victory against the British on Lake Erie. Washington D.C. was captured and burned by the British in 1814. The Battle of New Orleans was a great victory for the U.S. in January, 1815, but it took place two weeks after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent had ended the war.
363. Jackson’s victory at New Orleans
January, 1815 - A large British invasion force was repelled by Andrew Jackson’s troops at New Orleans. Jackson had been given the details of the British army’s battle plans by the French pirate, Jean Laffite. About 2500 British soldiers were killed or captured, while in the American army only 8 men were killed. Neither side knew that the Treaty of Ghent had ended the War of 1812 two weeks before the battle. This victory inspired American nationalism.
364. New England’s merchants, critics of the War of 1812, Essex Junto
New England’s merchants opposed the War of 1812 because it cut off trade with Great Britain. Critics of the war were mainly Federalists who represented New England. The Essex Junto was a group of extreme Federalists led by Aaron Burr who advocated New England’s secession from the U.S.
365. Hartford Convention, resolution
December 1814 - A convention of New England merchants who opposed the Embargo and other trade restriction, and the War of 1812. They proposed some Amendments to the Constitution and advocated the right of states to nullify federal laws. They also discussed the idea of seceding from the U.S. if their desires were ignored. The Hartford Convention turned public sentiment against the Federalists and led to the demise of the party.
366. Treaty negotiators: John Quincy Adams, Albert Gallatin, Henry Clay
These three were among the American delegation which negotiated the Treaty of Ghent.
367. Treaty of Ghent, provisions
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
368. Neutral rights issues end with the defeat of Napoleon
Napoleon’s defeat ended the war between Britain and France, and thus ended the need for restrictions on neutral trading.
369. War of 1812 increased nationalism and economic independence
The U.S.’s success in the War of 1812 gave Americans a feeling of national pride. The War of 1812 had cut off America’s access to British manufactured goods and forced the U.S. to develop the means to produce those goods on its own.
370. Second bank of the U.S., a reversal of Jeffersonian ideas
As a Republican, Jefferson opposed the National Bank. The Second Bank of the U.S. was established in 1816 and was given more authority than the First Bank of the U.S. Bank loans were used to finance the American industrial revolution in the period after the War of 1812.
371. Tariff of 1816 -- Protective
This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
372. Bonus Bill veto
March, 1817 - Madison vetoed John C. Calhoun’s Bonus Bill, which would have used the bonus money paid to the government by the Second National Bank to build roads and canals. Madison believed in strict interpretation, and using federal money for internal improvements is not a power granted to the federal government in the Constitution.
373. Rush-Bagot Treaty, Great Lakes
1817 - This treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain (which controlled Canada) provided for the mutual disarmament of the Great Lakes. This was later expanded into an unarmed Canada/U.S. border.
374. Convention of 1818
Set the border between the U.S. and Canada at the 49th parallel (or latitude). Also affirmed U.S. rights to fisheries along Newfoundland and Labrador.
375. Panic of 1819
A natural post-war depression caused by overproduction and the reduced demand for goods after the war. However, it was generally blamed on the National Bank.
376. West Florida, 1810
The U.S. wanted this region, which now forms the southern parts of the states of Alabama and Mississippi, because it bordered the Mississippi River. The U.S. seized West Florida after an uprising by American settlers in the region.
377. Jackson in Florida
1817 - The Seminole Indians in Florida, encouraged by the Spanish, launched a series of raids into the U.S. President J. Q. Adams ordered Andrew Jackson, whose troops were on the U.S./Florida border, to seize Spanish forts in northern Florida. Jackson’s successful attacks convinced the Spanish that they could not defend Florida against the U.S.
378. Purchase of Florida
1819 - Under the Adams-Onis Treaty, Spain sold Florida to the U.S., and the U.S. gave up its claims to Texas.
379. Transcontinental Treaty (Adams-Onis Treaty)
Spain gave up Florida to the U.S. and the U.S./Mexico border was set so that Texas and the American Southwest would be part of Mexico.
380. Quadruple Alliance, Holy Alliance
The Quadruple Alliance was signed by Austria, Britain, Prussia, and Russia in 1815. The Holy Alliance signed by all European rulers except the Pope, the king of England, and the sultan of Turkey. It was meant to unite Europe, preserve peace, and spread Christianity.
381. George Canning (1770-1829)
Led the House of Commons in Parliament. Cut Great Britain from the Holy Alliance in 1823. First leader to recognize the independence of the Spanish colonies in America and support the Monroe Doctrine, which helped restore good relations between the U.S. and Great Britain.
382. Monroe Doctrine: origins, provisions, impact
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
383. Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe’s two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
384. Chief Justice John Marshall: decision
Justice Marshall was a Federalist whose decisions on the U.S. Supreme Court promoted federal power over state power and established the judiciary as a branch of government equal to the legislative and executive. In Marbury v. Madison he established the Supreme Court’s power of judicial review, which allows the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional.
385. Missouri: Tallmadge Amendment, Thomas Amendment
When Missouri applied for statehood, there was a dispute over whether it would be admitted as a slave state or a free state. The Tallmadge Amendment was a bill which would have admitted Missouri with its existing slave population, but would forbid the introduction of additional slaves and free all slave children at age 25. The Thomas Amendment was a bill which would have admitted Missouri as a slave state but forbid slavery north of the 36°30" latitude in the Louisiana Purchase region. Neither bill was put into effect.
386. Missouri Compromise, provisions
Admitted Missouri as a slave state and at the same time admitted Maine as a free state. Declared that all territory north of the 36°30" latitude would become free states, and all territory south of that latitude would become slave states.
387. Growth of industry in New England, textiles
The industrial revolution had occurred in England in the 1700s, but it was not until the period industrial growth after the War of 1812 that the U.S. began to manufacture goods with the aid of factories and machines. New England, rather than the South, emerged as a manufacturing center because New England had many rivers to supply water power, plus a better system of roads and canals. The first major industry in New England was textiles.
388. Samuel Slater (1768-1835)
When he emigrated from England to America in the 1790s, he brought with him the plans to an English factory. With these plans, he helped build the first factory in America.
389. Robert Fulton, Clermont
A famous inventor, Robert Fulton designed and built America’s first steamboat, the Clermont in 1807. He also built the Nautilus, the first practical submarine.
390. Eli Whitney: cotton gin (short for "engine")
1798 - He developed the cotton gin, a machine which could separate cotton form its seeds. This invention made cotton a profitable crop of great value to the Southern economy. It also reinforced the importance of slavery in the economy of the South.
391. Interchangeable parts
1799-1800 - Eli Whitney developed a manufacturing system which uses standardized parts which are all identical and thus, interchangeable. Before this, each part of a given device had been designed only for that one device; if a single piece of the device broke, it was difficult or impossible to replace. With standardized parts, it was easy to get a replacement part from the manufacturer. Whitney first put used standardized parts to make muskets for the U.S. government.
392. Boston Associates, Lowell, Massachusetts
The Boston Associates were a group of Boston businessmen who built the first power loom. In 1814 in Waltham, Massachusetts, they opened a factory run by Lowell. Their factory made cloth so cheaply that women began to buy it rather than make it themselves.
393. Daniel Webster (1782-1852)
A great American orator. He gave several important speeches, first as a lawyer, then as a Congressman. He was a major representative of the North in pre-Civil War Senate debates, just as Sen. John C. Calhoun was the representative of the South in that time.
394. National Road (also called Cumberland Road)
The first highway built by the federal government. Constructed during 1825-1850, it stretched from Pennsylvania to Illinois. It was a major overland shipping route and an important connection between the North and the West.
395. Internal improvements
The program for building roads, canals, bridges, and railroads in and between the states. There was a dispute over whether the federal government should fund internal improvements, since it was not specifically given that power by the Constitution.
396. Erie Canal, Dewitt Clinton
1825 - The Erie canal was opened as a toll waterway connecting New York to the Great Lakes. The canal was approved in 1817 with the support of New York’s Governor, Dewitt Clinton. Along with the Cumberland Road, it helped connect the North and the West.
397. New states, 1815-1840
The government tried to maintain a balance between slave states and free states. The new states admitted were: Indiana (1816, free), Mississippi (1817, slave), Illinois (1818, free), Alabama (1819, slave), Maine (1820, free), Missouri (1821, slave), Arkansas (1836, slave), and Michigan (1837, free).
398. Federal government’s land policy: 1796, 1800, 1804, 1820
In 1796, land was sold in 640-acre tracts or more for no less than $2 per acre. In 1800, the minimum lot size was reduced to 320 acres. In 1804, the minimum lot size was 160 acres, and the minimum price $1.64 per acre. In 1804, the minimum lot size was 80 acres, and the minimum price $1.25 per acre.
399. New England’s opposition to cheap land
New England was opposed to the federal government’s liberal land policy because they did not feel that their region was benefitting from the money made off the land sales.
400. John Quincy Adams as Sec. of State: Florida, Monroe Doctrine
He served under president Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the U.S. Florida in exchange for the U.S. dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams’ work.
401. Election of 1824: popular vote, electoral vote, house vote: Jackson, Adams, Crawford, Clay
Popular vote: Jackson - 152,933 (42%), Adams - 115,626 (32%), Clay - 47,136 (13%), Crawford - 46,979 (13%). Electoral vote: Jackson - 99, Adams - 84, Crawford - 41, Clay - 37. House vote: Adams - 13, Jackson - 7, Crawford - 4, Clay - dropped. Jackson did not have a majority in the electoral vote, so the election went to the House of Representatives, where Adams won.
402. "Corrupt Bargain"
The charge make by Jacksonians in 1825 that Clay had supported John Quincy Adams in the House presidential vote in return for the office of Secretary of State. Clay knew he could not win, so he traded his votes for an office.
403. Panama Conference
Summoned by the Venezuelan revolutionary leader, Simon Bolivar, in 1826 to discuss commercial treaties, adopt a code of international law, and arrive at a common Latin American policy toward Spain. Two delegates were sent by the U.S., but were delayed so long that when they got there the meeting was over. They were uncomfortable about black and whites mixing at the meeting. Showed the good relations between U.S. and South America.
404. Tariff of Abominations
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights. It passed because New England favored high tariffs.
405. Vice-President Calhoun: South Carolina Exposition and protest, nullification
Vice-President Calhoun anonymously published the essay South Carolina Exposition, which proposed that each state in the union counter the tyranny of the majority by asserting the right to nullify an unconstitutional act of Congress. It was written in reaction to the Tariff of 1828, which he said placed the Union in danger and stripped the South of its rights. South Carolina had threatened to secede if the tariff was not revoked; Calhoun suggested state nullification as a more peaceful solution.
406. Jacksonian Revolution of 1828
When Andrew Jackson was elected president from humble beginnings, people thought he could make the American Dream come true. Jackson appointed common people to government positions. Jefferson's emphasis on farmers’ welfare gave way to Jackson's appeal to city workers, small businessmen, and farmers. Jackson was the first non-aristocrat to be elected president. Jackson's election was the revolution of the "Common Man".
407. Age of the Common Man
Jackson's presidency was the called the Age of the Common Man. He felt that government should be run by common people - a democracy based on self-sufficient middle class with ideas formed by liberal education and a free press. All white men could now vote, and the increased voting rights allowed Jackson to be elected.
408. Jacksonian Democracy: characteristics
The Jacksonian era (1829-1841) included many reforms: free public schools, more women's rights, better working conditions in factories, and the rise of the Abolition movement. In the election, Jackson was portrayed as a common man and his opponent, J.Q. Adams, was attacked for his aristocratic principles. Electors in the electorial college were also chosen by popular vote. Common man, nationalism, National Nominating Conventions.
409. Franchise extended, spoils system
Franchise extended - more people were given the right to vote, even men who owned no land. Spoils system - "To the victor go the spoils" - the winner of the election may do whatever they want with the staff. Jackson made more staff changes than any previous president, firing many people and replacing them with his own.
410. National Republicans
After the 1824 election, part of the Democratic - Republican party joined John Q. Adams, Clay, and Daniel Webster to oppose Andrew Jackson. They favored nationalistic measures like recharter of the Bank of the United States, high tariffs, and internal improvements at national expense. They were supported mainly by Northwesterners and were not very successful. They were conservatives alarmed by Jackson's radicalness; they joined with the Whigs in the 1830's.
411. Caucus System, Nation Nominating Conventions
In the National Nominating Convention, delegates voted on the results of a primary. In the Caucus System, candidates were elected by small, secretive party groups and the public had little say in the process.
412. Kitchen Cabinet
A small group of Jackson's friends and advisors who were especially influential in the first years of his presidency. Jackson conferred with them instead of his regular cabinet. Many people didn't like Jackson ignoring official procedures, and called it the "Kitchen Cabinet" or "Lower Cabinet".
413. Cherokee Indian removal, "Trail of Tears"
A minority of the Cherokee tribe, despite the protest of the majority, had surrendered their Georgia land in the 1835 Treaty of New Echota. During the winter of 1838 - 1839, troops under General Winfield Scott evicted them from their homes in Georgia and moved them to Oklahoma Indian country. Many died on the trail; the journey became known as the "Trail of Tears".
414. Worchester v. Georgia; Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Worchester v. Georgia: 1832 - The Supreme Court decided Georgia had no jurisdiction over Cherokee reservations. Georgia refused to enforce decision and President Jackson didn't support the Court. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia: 1831 - The Supreme Court ruled that Indians weren't independent nations but dependent domestic nations which could be regulated by the federal government. From then until 1871, treaties were formalities with the terms dictated by the federal government.
415. Whigs: origins, policies
Whigs were conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Among the Whigs were Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, and, for a while, Calhoun. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin.
416. Maysville Road Veto
1830 - The Maysville Road Bill proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clay's state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didn't like Clay, and Martin Van Buren pointed out that New York and Pennsylvania paid for their transportation improvements with state money. Applied strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements.
417. Election of 1832, Anti-Masonic Party
Andrew Jackson (Democrat) ran for re-election with V.P. Martin Van Buren. The main issue was his veto of the recharter of the U.S. Bank, which he said was a monopoly. Henry Clay (Whig), who was pro-Bank, ran against him The Anti-Masonic Party nominated William Wirt. This was the first election with a national nominating convention. Jackson won - 219 to Clay's 49 and Wirt's 1. The Masons were a semi-secret society devoted to libertarian principles to which most educated or upper-class men of the Revolutionary War era belonged. The Anti-Masons sprang up as a reaction to the perceived elitism of the Masons, and the new party took votes from the Whigs, helping Jackson to win the election.
418. Clay, Bank Recharter Bill, Nicholas Biddle
The Bank of the United States was chartered by Congress in 1791; it held government funds and was also commercial. It wasn't rechartered in 1811, but a second bank was established in 1816 (1/5 government owned). Jackson opposed it, saying it drove other banks out of business and favored the rich, but Clay favored it. Nicholas Biddle became the bank's president. He made the bank's loan policy stricter and testified that, although the bank had enormous power, it didn't destroy small banks. The bank went out of business in 1836 amid controversy over whether the National Bank was constitutional and should be rechartered.
419. Veto message
1832 - Jackson, in his veto message of the recharter of the Second Bank of the U.S., said that the bank was a monopoly that catered to the rich, and that it was owned by the wealthy and by foreigners.
420. Jackson's removal of deposits, Roger B. Taney, pet bank, Loco-Focos
Angry because Biddle used bank funds to support anti-Jacksonian candidates, Jackson removed federal deposits from the bank in 1833, firing the secretaries of treasury who wouldn't comply, and was charged with abuse of power. Roger B. Taney was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and helped Jackson crush the Bank of the U.S. Pet banks were state banks into which Jackson deposited federal funds in 1833, after he vetoed the recharter of the Second Bank of the U.S., so called because people thought they were chosen on political grounds. Loco Focos (1835) were Democrats who wanted reform and opposed tariffs, banks, monopolies, and other places of special privilege.
421. Chestnut Street to Wall
Name change of the street in New York in 1800s.
422. Foote Resolution, Webster-Hayne debate
The Webster-Hayne debate in 1830 was over an 1830 bill by Samuel A. Foote to limit the sale of public lands in the west to new settlers. Daniel Webster, in a dramatic speech, showed the danger of the states' rights doctrine, which permitted each state to decide for itself which laws were unconstitutional, claiming it would lead to civil war. States' rights (South) vs. nationalism (North).
423. Peggy Eaton Affair
Social scandal (1829-1831) - John Eaton, Secretary of War, stayed with the Timberlakes when in Washington, and there were rumors of his affair with Peggy Timberlake even before her husband died in 1828. Many cabinet members snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton. Jackson sided with the Eatons, and the affair helped to dissolve the cabinet - especially those members associated with John C. Calhoun (V.P.), who was against the Eatons and had other problems with Jackson.
424. Calhoun resigns as vice-president
1832 - Calhoun, from South Carolina, wrote the doctrine of nullification, expressing his views in support of states' rights. His views were so disputed and so different from Jackson's that Calhoun resigned and was appointed senator in South Carolina to present their case to Congress.
425. South opposes protective tariffs (Tariff of Abominations)
The North wanted tariffs that protected new industries, but the agricultural Southern states depended on cheap imports of manufactured goods and only wanted tariffs for revenue. The South strongly opposed protective tariffs like the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832, and protested by asserting that enforcement of the tariffs could be prohibited by individual states, and by refusing to collect tariff duties.
426. Nullification crisis, South Carolina Exposition and Protest
When faced with the protective Tariff of 1828, John Calhoun presented a theory in the South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828) that federal tariffs could be declared null and void by individual states and that they could refuse to enforce them. South Carolina called a convention in 1832, after the revised Tariff of 1828 became the Tariff of 1832, and passed an ordinance forbidding collection of tariff duties in the state. This was protested by Jackson.
427. Jefferson Day Dinner: toasts and quotes
April 13, 1830 - At the Jefferson anniversary dinner, President Jackson toasted, "Our federal union! It must and shall be preserved!" making it clear to the nullifiers that he would resist the states' rights supporters' claim to nullify the tariff law. V.P. Calhoun's response to the toast was, "The union, next to our liberty, most dear. May we always remember that it can only be preserved by distributing evenly the benefits and burdens of the Union." Calhoun had wanted Jackson to side with him (for states' rights) in public, but he didn't succeed.
428. Clay: Compromise Tariff of 1833
Henry Clay devised the Compromise Tariff of 1833 which gradually reduced the rates levied under the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. It caused South Carolina to withdraw the ordinance nullifying the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. Both protectionists and anti-protectionists accepted the compromise.
429. Force Bill
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
430. Calhoun splits with Jackson
1832 - Calhoun resigned as vice-president when his views on states' rights were disputed by Jackson. Calhoun wanted each section of the country to share federal power equally, and he wanted independence for the South if they were to be controlled by the majority.
431. Martin Van Buren, the Albany Regency
Martin Van Buren, a Democratic-Republican Senator from New York, rallied the factory workers of the North in support of Jackson. He became Jackson's V.P. after Calhoun resigned. New York politics at that time was controlled by a clique of wealthy land-owners known as the Albany Regency, of which Van Buren became the leader.
432. Specie Circular
1863 - The Specie Circular, issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. The Circular required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
433. Charles River Bridge Decision, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, General Incooperation Laws
1837 - The Charles River Bridge Decision, delivered by Roger B. Taney, modified C.J. Marshall's ruling in the Darmouth College Case of 1819, which said that a state could not make laws infringing on the charters of private organizations. Taney ruled that a charter granted by a state to a company cannot work to the disadvantage of the public. The Charles River Bridge Company protested when the Warren Bridge Company was authorized in 1828 to build a free bridge where it had been chartered to operate a toll bridge in 1785. The court ruled that the Charles River Company was not granted a monopoly right in their charter, and the Warren Company could build its bridge. Began the legal concept that private companies cannot injure the public welfare.
434. Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
435. Dorr's Rebellion
In 1841, Rhode Island was governed by a 1663 charter which said that only property holders and their eldest sons could vote (1/2 the adult male population). Thomas Dorr led a group of rebels who wrote a new constitution and elected him governor in 1842. The state militia was called in to stop the rebellion. Dorr was sentenced to life imprisonment, but the sentence was withdrawn. Dorr's Rebellion caused conservatives to realize the need for reform. A new constitution in 1843 gave almost all men the right to vote.
436. Independent Treasury Plan
Idea that federal government should have its own treasury; never put into practice.
437. Election of 1840: candidates, characteristics
William Henry Harrison and V.P. John Tyler - Whig - 234 votes. Martin Van Buren - Democrat - 60 votes. James G. Birney - Liberty Party - 0 votes. Panic of 1837 and a coming depression kept Van Buren from being reelected. Whigs rejected Clay, nominated military hero Harrison with the slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler too". They depicted Van Buren as living in luxury and Harrison as a "log cabin and hard cider" guy, which wasn't entirely true.
438. Rise of the Second Party System
Since the 1840's, two major political parties have managed to eliminated all competition. Democrats and Republicans have controlled nearly all government systems since the 1840's.
439. Pre-emption Act, 1841
This was to help settlers who occupied land and improved it before surveys were done. Without it, settlers could be outbid for the land. Some speculators used "floaters" to pre-empt land for them.
440. Tariff of 1842
A protective tariff signed by President John Tyler, it raised the general level of duties to about where they had been before the Compromise Tariff of 1833. Also banned pornography by increasing its cost.
441. Transcendentalism
A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
442. Transcendentalists
Believed in Transcendentalism, they included Emerson (who pioneered the movement) and Thoreau. Many of them formed cooperative communities such as Brook Farm and Fruitlands, in which they lived and farmed together with the philosophy as their guide. "They sympathize with each other in the hope that the future will not always be as the past." It was more literary than practical - Brook Farm lasted only from 1841 to 1847.
443. Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882)
Essayist, poet. A leading transcendentalist, emphasizing freedom and self-reliance in essays which still make him a force today. He had an international reputation as a first-rate poet. He spoke and wrote many works on the behalf of the Abolitionists.
444. Henry David Thoreau, Walden (1817-1862), "On Civil Disobedience"
A transcendentalist and friend of Emerson. He lived alone on Walden Pond with only $8 a year from 1845-1847 and wrote about it in Walden. In his essay, "On Civil Disobedience," he inspired social and political reformers because he had refused to pay a poll tax in protest of slavery and the Mexican-American War, and had spent a night in jail. He was an extreme individualist and advised people to protest by not obeying laws (passive resistance).
445. Orestes Brownson (1803-1876)
Presbyterian layman, Universalist minister, Unitarian preacher and founder of his own church in Boston. Spent his life searching for his place and supporting various causes. As an editor, he attacked organized Christianity and won a large intellectual New England following. Then turned Roman Catholic and became a strong defender of Catholicism in Brownson's Quarterly Review, from 1844 until his death.
446. Margaret Fuller (1810-1815), The Dial
Social reformer, leader in women's movement and a transcendentalist. Edited The Dial (1840-1842), which was the puplication of the transcendentalists. It appealed to people who wanted "perfect freedom", "progress in philosophy and theology . . . and hope that the future will not always be as the past."
447. James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851), The Spy, The Pioneers
American novelist. The Spy (1821) was about the American Revolution. The Pioneers (1823) tells of an old scout returning to his boyhood home and is one of the Leatherstocking Tales, a series of novels about the American frontier, for which Cooper was famous. (Leatherstocking is the scout.) Cooper later stayed in Europe for seven years, and when he returned he was disgusted by American society because it didn't live up to his books. Cooper emphasized the independence of individuals and importance of a stable social order.
448. James Fenimore Cooper, Last of the Mohicans
1826 - It is about a scout named Hawkeye during the French and Indian War, while he was in his prime. It is one of the Leatherstocking Tales, about a frontiersman and a noble Indian, and the clash between growing civilization and untamed wilderness.
449. Herman Melville (1819-1891), Moby Dick
Wrote Moby Dick (1851) about a Captain Ahab who seeks revenge on the white whale that crippled him but ends up losing his life, his ship, and his crew. Wasn't popular at the time but now highly regarded. Melville rejected the optimism of the transcendentalists and felt that man faced a tragic destiny. His views were not popular at the time, but were accepted by later generations.
450. Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864), The Scarlet Letter
Originally a transcendentalist; later rejected them and became a leading anti-trascendentalist. He was a descendant of Puritan settlers. The Scarlet Letter shows the hypocrisy and insensitivity of New England puritans by showing their cruelty to a woman who has committed adultery and is forced to wear a scarlet "A".
451. Edgar Allen Poe (1809-1849)
Author who wrote many poems and short stories including "The Raven," "The Bells," "The Tell-Tale Heart," and "The Gold Bug." He was the originator of the detective story and had a major influence on symbolism and surrealism. Best known for macabre stories.
452. Washington Irving (1783-1859)
Author, diplomat. Wrote The Sketch Book, which included "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow." He was the first American to be recognized in England (and elsewhere) as a writer.
453. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882)
Internationally recognized poet. Emphasized the value of tradition and the impact of the past on the present.
454. Walt Whitman (1819-1892), Leaves of Grass
Leaves of Grass (1855) was his first volume of poetry. He broke away from the traditional forms and content of New England poetry by describing the life of working Americans and using words like "I reckon", "duds", and "folks". He loved people and expressed the new democracy of a nation finding itself. He had radical ideas and abolitionist views - Leaves of Grass was considered immoral. Patriotic.
455. Hudson River School of Art
In about 1825, a group of American painters, led by Thomas Cole, used their talents to do landscapes, which were not highly regarded. They painted many scenes of New York's Hudson River. Mystical overtones.
456. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America
De Tocqueville came from France to America in 1831. He observed democracy in government and society. His book (written in two parts in 1835 and 1840) discusses the advantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power. First to raise topics of American practicality over theory, the industrial aristocracy, and the conflict between the masses and individuals.
457. Millennialism, Millerites
Millerites were Seventh-Day Adventists who followed William Miller. They sold their possessions because they believed the Second Coming would be in 1843 or 1844, and waited for the world to end. The Millennial Dawnists, another sect of the Seventh-Day Adventists, believed the world was under Satan's rule and felt it their obligation to announce the Second Coming of Christ and the battle of Armageddon.
458. "The Burned-Over District"
Term applied to the region of western New York along the Erie Canal, and refers to the religious fervor of its inhabitants. In the 1800's, farmers there were susceptible to revivalist and tent rallies by the pentecostals (religious groups).
459. Charles G. Finney (1792-1875)
An immensely successful revivalist of the 1800's. He helped establish the "Oberlin Theology". His emphasis on "disinterested benevolence" helped shape the main charitable enterprises of the time.
460. Mormons: Joseph Smith (1805-1844)
Founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel. In 1843, Smith's announcement that God sanctioned polygamy split the Mormons and let to an uprising against Mormons in 1844. He translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr.
461. Brigham Young, Great Salt Lake, Utah
1847 - Brigham Young let the Mormons to the Great Salt Lake Valley in Utah, where they founded the Mormon republic of Deseret. Believed in polygamy and strong social order. Others feared that the Mormons would act as a block, politically and economically.
462. Brook Farm
An experiment in Utopian socialism, it lasted for six years (1841-1847) in New Roxbury, Massachusetts.
463. New Harmony
A utopian settlement in Indiana lasting from 1825 to 1827. It had 1,000 settlers, but a lack of authority caused it to break up.
464. Oneida Community
A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children.
465. Shakers
A millennial group who believed in both Jesus and a mystic named Ann Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
466. Amana Community
A German religious sect set up this community with communist overtones. Still in existence.
467. Lyceum Movement
Developed in the 1800's in response to growing interest in higher education. Associations were formed in nearly every state to give lectures, concerts, debates, scientific demonstrations, and entertainment. This movement was directly responsible for the increase in the number of institutions of higher learning.
468. Some reforms successful, some not, why?
In the 1800's, it was usually because the general public either didn't vocally support the reform or was opposed it. Not all people wanted change. In general, reforms failed if they were too far out on the political spectrum.
469. Dorothea Dix, treatment of the insane
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
470. Rise of labor leaders
During the 1800's, labor unions became more and more common. Their leaders sought to achieve the unions' goals through political actions. Their goals included reduction in the length of the workday, universal education, free land for settlers, and abolition of monopolies. Labor unions were the result of the growth of factories.
471. National Trade Union
Unions formed by groups of skilled craftsmen.
472. Commonwealth v. Hunt
1842 - Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. The case was the first judgement in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members.
473. Criminal Conspiracy Laws and early unions
For a time in the 1700's and 1800's, these laws were directed at early labor unions. The organized stoppage of work by a group of employees in a strike could be judged a criminal restraint of trade. This approach largely ended after Commonwealth v. Hunt.
474. Oberlin, 1833; Mt. Holyoke, 1836
Oberlin: founded by a New England Congregationalist at Oberlin, Ohio. First coed facility at the college level. The first to enroll Blacks in 1835. Mt. Holyoke: founded in 1837 in South Hadley, Massachusetts. Became the model for later liberal arts institutions of higher education for women. Liberal colleges.
475. Public education, Horace Mann
Secretary of the newly formed Massachusetts Board of Education, he created a public school system in Massachusetts that became the model for the nation. Started the first American public schools, using European schools (Prussian military schools) as models.
476. American Temperance Union
The flagship of the temperance movement in the 1800's. Opposed alcohol.
477. "Ten Nights in a Bar-Room," Timothy Shay Arthur
A melodramatic story, published in 1856, which became a favorite text for temperance lecturers. In it, a traveller visits the town of Cedarville occasionally for ten years, notes the changing fortunes of the citizens and blames the saloon.
478. Maine Law, Neal Dow
In 1838, Dow founded the Maine Temperance Union. As mayor of Portland, Maine, Dow secured in 1851 the state's passage the Maine Law, which forbade the sale or manufacture of liquor.
479. Irish, German immigration
Irish: arriving in immense waves in the 1800's, they were extremely poor peasants who later became the manpower for canal and railroad construction. German: also came because of economic distress, German immigration had a large impact on America, shaping many of its morals. Both groups of immigrants were heavy drinkers and supplied the labor force for the early industrial era.
480. Nativism
An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.
481. Samuel F.B. Morse, Imminent Dangers to the Free Institutions of the U.S. Through Foreign Immigration, and the Present State of the Naturalization Laws
He was briefly involved in Nativism and anti-Catholic movements, asserting that foreign immigration posed a threat to the free institutions of the U.S., as immigrants took jobs from Americans and brought dangerous new ideas.
482. Women, their rights, areas of discrimination
In the 1800's women were not allowed to be involved in politics or own property, had little legal status and rarely held jobs.
483. Lucretia Mott (1803-1880)
An early feminist, she worked constantly with her husband in liberal causes, particularly slavery abolition and women's suffrage. Her home was a station on the underground railroad. With Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she helped organize the first women's rights convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848.
484. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A pioneer in the women's suffrage movement, she helped organize the first women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. She later helped edit the militant feminist magazine Revolution from 1868 - 1870.
485. Seneca Falls
July, 1848 - Site of the first modern women's right convention. At the gathering, Elizabeth Cady Staton read a Declaration of Sentiment listing the many discriminations against women, and adopted eleven resolutions, one of which called for women's suffrage.
486. Emma Willard (1787-1870)
Early supporter of women's education, in 1818 she published Plan for Improving Female Education, which became the basis for public education of women in New York. In 1821, she opened her own girls’ school, the Troy Female Seminary, designed to prepare women for college.
487. Catherine Beecher (1800-1878)
A writer and lecturer, she worked on behalf of household arts and education of the young. She established two schools for women and emphasized better teacher training. She opposed women's suffrage.
488. "Cult of True Womanhood": piety, domesticity, purity and submissiveness
While many women were in favor of the women's movement, some were not. Some of these believed in preserving the values of "true womanhood": piety, domesticity, purity and submissiveness. These opponents of the women’s movement referred to their ideas as the "Cult of True Womanhood."
489. Women's movement, like others, overshadowed by anti-slavery movement
In the 1800's, the women's movement was often overshadowed by the anti-slavery movement. Many men who had been working on behalf of the women's movement worked for the abolition of slavery once it became a major issue.
490. American Peace Society
Founded in 1828 by William Laddit. Formally condemned all wars, though it supported the U.S. government during the Civil War, WWI, and WWII. It was dissolved after the United Nations was formed in 1945.
491. Prison reform: Auburn system, Pennsylvania system
Prison reform in the U.S. began with the Pennsylvania system in 1790, based on the concept that solitary confinement would induce meditation and moral reform. However, this led to many mental breakdowns. The Auburn system, adopted in 1816, allowed the congregation of prisoners during the day.
492. Supreme Court: Marbury v. Madison
1803 - The case arose out of Jefferson’s refusal to deliver the commissions to the judges appointed by Adams’ Midnight Appointments. One of the appointees, Marbury, sued the Sect. of State, Madison, to obtain his commission. The Supreme Court held that Madison need not deliver the commissions because the Congressional act that had created the new judgships violated the judiciary provisions of the Constitution, and was therefore unconstitutional and void. This case established the Supreme Court's right to judicial review. Chief Justice John Marshall presided.
493. Supreme Court: Fletcher v. Peck
1810 - A state had tried to revoke a land grant on the grounds that it had been obtained by corruption. The Court ruled that a state cannot arbitrarily interfere with a person’s property rights. Since the land grant wass a legal contract, it could not be repealed, even if corruption was involved.
494. Supreme Court: Martin v. Hunters Lessee
1816 - This case upheld the right of the Supreme Court to review the decisions of state courts.
495. Supreme Court: Darmouth College v. Woodward
1819 - This decision declared private corporation charters to be contracts and immune form impairment by states' legislative action. It freed corporations from the states which created them.
496. Supreme Court: McCulloch v. Maryland
1819 - This decision upheld the power of Congress to charter a bank as a government agency, and denied the state the power to tax that agency.
497. Supreme Court: Cohens v. Virginia
1821 - This case upheld the Supreme Court's jurisdiction to review a state court's decision where the case involved breaking federal laws.
498. Supreme Court: Gibbons v. Ogden
1824 - This case ruled that only the federal government has authority over interstate commerce.
499. Supreme Court: Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
1831 - Supreme Court refused to hear a suit filed by the Cherokee Nation against a Georgia law abolishing tribal legislature. Court said Indians were not foreign nations, and U.S. had broad powers over tribes but a responsibility for their welfare.
500. Supreme Court: Worchester v. Georgia
1832 - Expanded tribal authority by declaring tribes sovereign entities, like states, with exclusive authority within their own boundaries. President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling.
501. Supreme Court: River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
1837 - Supreme Court ruled that a charter granted by a state to a company cannot work to the disadvantage of the public. The Charles River Bridge Company protested when the Warren Bridge Company was authorized in 1828 to build a free bridge where it had been chartered to operate a toll bridge in 1785. The court ruled that the Charles River Company was not granted a monopoly right in their charter, and the Warren Company could build its bridge.
502. Supreme Court: Commonwealth v. Hunt
1842 - Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. The case was the first judgement in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members.
503. Great American Desert
Region between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains. Vast domain became accessible to Americans wishing to settle there. This region was called the "Great American Desert" in atlases published between 1820 and 1850, and many people were convinced this land was a Sahara habitable only to Indians. The phrase had been coined by Major Long during his exploration of the middle of the Louisiana Purchase region.
504. Manifest Destiny
Phrase commonly used in the 1840's and 1850's. It expressed the inevitableness of continued expansion of the U.S. to the Pacific.
505. Horace Greeley (1811-1873)
Founder and editor of the New York Tribune. He popularized the saying "Go west, young man." He said that people who were struggling in the East could make the fortunes by going west.
506. Senator Thomas Hart Benton (1782-1858)
A zealous supporter of western interests, he staunchly advocated government support of frontier exploration during his term in the Senate from 1820 - 1850. A senator from Missouri, but he opposed slavery.
507. Stephen Austin (1793-1836)
In 1822, Austin founded the first settlement of Americans in Texas. In 1833 he was sent by the colonists to negotiate with the Mexican government for Texan indedendence and was imprisoned in Mexico until 1835, when he returned to Texas and became the commander of the settlers’ army in the Texas Revolution.
508. Texas War for Independence
After a few skirmishes with Mexican soldiers in 1835, Texas leaders met and organized a temporary government. Texas troops initially seized San Antonio, but lost it after the massacre of the outpost garrisoning the Alamo. In respone, Texas issued a Declaration of Independence. Santa Ana tried to swiftly put down the rebellion, but Texan soldiers surprised him and his troops on April 21, 1836. They crushed his forces and captured him in the Battle of San Jacinto, and forced him to sign a treaty granting Texan independence. U.S. lent no aid.
509. Santa Ana
As dictator of Mexico, he led the attack on the Alamo in 1836. He was later defeated by Sam Houston at San Jacinto.
510. Alamo
A Spanish mission converted into a fort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out for thirteen days, but in the final battle, all of the Texans were killed by the larger Mexican force.
511. San Jacinto
A surprise attack by Texas forces on Santa Ana's camp on April 21, 1836. Santa Ana's men were surprised and overrun in twenty minutes. Santa Ana was taken prisoner and signed an armistice securing Texas independence. Mexicans - 1,500 dead, 1,000 captured. Texans - 4 dead.
512. Sam Houston (1793-1863)
Former Governor of Tennessee and an adopted member of the Cherokee Indian tribe, Houston settled in Texas after being sent there by Pres. Jackson to negotiate with the local Indians. Appointed commander of the Texas army in 1835, he led them to victory at San Jacinto, where they were outnumbered 2 to 1. He was President of the Republic of Texas (1836-1838 & 1841-1845) and advocated Texas joining the Union in 1845. He later served as U.S. Senator and Governor of Texas, but was removed from the governorship in 1861 for refusing to ratify Texas joining the Confederacy.
513. Republic of Texas
Created March, 1836 but not recognized until the next month after the battle of San Jacinto. Its second president attempted to establish a sound government and develop relations with England and France. However, rapidly rising public debt, internal conflicts and renewed threats from Mexico led Texas to join the U.S. in 1845.
514. Annexation of Texas, Joint Resolution under President Tyler
U.S. made Texas a state in 1845. Joint resolution - both houses of Congress supported annexation under Tyler, and he signed the bill shortly before leaving office.
515. Election of 1844: Candidates
James K. Polk - Democrat. Henry Clay - Whig. James G. Birney - Liberty Party.
516. Election of 1844: Issues
Manifest Destiny Issues: The annexation of Texas and the reoccupation of Oregon. Tariff reform.
517. Election of 1844: Third party's impact
Third party's impact was significant. James G. Birney drew enough votes away from Clay to give Polk New York, and thus the election.
518. Election 1844: Liberty Party
The first abolitionist party - believed in ending slavery.
519. Reoccupation of Texas and reannexation of Oregon
Texas was annexed by Polk in 1845. Oregon was explored by Lewis and Clark from 1804 to 1806 and American fur traders set up there, but during the War of 1812, the British essentially took control of Oregon and held it jointly with the U.S. The land was returned to the U.S. with the Oregon Treaty of 1846, supported by Polk.
520. 54º40' or Fight!
An aggressive slogan adopted in the Oregon boundary dispute, a dispute over where the border between Canada and Oregon should be drawn. This was also Polk's slogan - the Democrats wanted the U.S. border drawn at the 54º40' latitude. Polk settled for the 49º latitude in 1846.
521. James K. Polk
President known for promoting Manifest Destiny.
522. Slidell mission to Mexico
Appointed minister to Mexico in 1845, John Slidell went to Mexico to pay for disputed Texas and California land. But the Mexican government was still angry about the annexation of Texas and refused to talk to him.
523. Rio Grande, Nueces River, disputed territory
Texas claimed its southern border was the Rio Grande; Mexico wanted the border drawn at the Nueces River, about 100 miles noth of the Rio Gannde. U.S. and Mexico agreed not to send troops into the disputed territory between the two rivers, but President Polk later reneged on the agreement.
524. General Zachary Taylor
Commander of the Army of Occupation on the Texas border. On President Polk’s orders, he took the Army into the disputed territory between the Nueces and Rio Grnade Rivers and built a fort on the north bank of the Rio Grande River. When the Mexican Army tried to capture the fort, Taylor’s forces engaged in is a series of engagements that led to the Mexican War. His victories in the war and defeat of Santa Ana made him a national hero.
525. Mexican War: causes, results
Causes: annexation of Texas, diplomatic ineptness of U.S./Mexican relations in the 1840's and particularly the provocation of U.S. troops on the Rio Grande. The first half of the war was fought in northern Mexico near the Texas border, with the U.S. Army led by Zachary Taylor. The second half of the war was fought in central Mexico after U.S. troops seized the port of Veracruz, with the Army being led by Winfield Scott. Results: U.S. captured Mexico City, Zachary Taylor was elected president, Santa Ana abdicated, and Mexico ceded large parts of the West, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California, to the U.S.
526. Spot Resolutions
Congressman Abraham Lincoln supported a proposition to find the exact spot where American troops were fired upon, suspecting that they had illegally crossed into Mexican territory.
527. Stephen Kearny
Commander of the Army of the West in the Mexican War, marched all the way to California, securing New Mexico.
528. John C. Fremont
Civil governor of California, led the Army exploration to help Kearny. Heard that a war with Mexico was coming, thought he could take California by himself before the war began and become a hero. He failed, so he joined forces with Kearny.
529. General Winfield Scott
Led the U.S. forces' march on Mexico City during the Mexican War. He took the city and ended the war.
530. Nicholas Trist
Sent as a special envoy by President Polk to Mexico City in 1847 to negotiate an end to the Mexican War.
531. Treaty of Guadelupe Hildago provisions
This treaty required Mexico to cede the American Southwest, including New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Arizona, Nevada and California, to the U.S. U.S. gave Mexico $15 million in exchange, so that it would not look like conquest.
532. All Mexico Movement
Benito Juarez overthrew Mexican dictator Santa Ana. Mexico began blocking American immigration (Mexico for Mexicans only).
533. Mexican Cession
Some of Mexico's territory was added to the U.S. after the Mexican War: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Utah, Nevada & Colorado. (Treaty of Guadelupe Hildago)
534. Webster-Ashburton Treaty
1842 - Established Maine's northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states.
535. Carolina and Creole Affairs
A group of Canadian malcontents determined to free Canada from British rule made looting forays into Canada from an island being supplied by a ship from Carolina. The Canadians burned the vessel and killed an American on board. The Creole Affair involved slaves who mutinied and killed a crewman, then sailed to the Bahamas, where the British let them all go. The U.S. wanted the slaves back, but Britain refused. The ship stolen by the slaves was the Creole.
536. Aroostook War
Maine lumberjacks camped along the Aroostook Rive in Maine in 1839 tried to oust Canadian rivals. Militia were called in from both sides until the Webster Ashburn - Treaty was signed. Took place in disputed territory.
537. John Jacob Astor (1763-1848)
His American fur company (est. 1808) rapidly became the dominant fur trading company in America. Helped finance the War of 1812. First millionaire in America (in cash, not land).
538. Oregon Fever
1842 - Many Eastern and Midwestern farmers and city dwellers were dissatisfied with their lives and began moving up the Oregon trail to the Willamette Valley. This free land was widely publicized.
539. Willamette Valley
The spot where many settlers travelling along the Oregon trailed stopped.
540. Oregon Territory
The territory comprised what arenow the states of Oregon and Washington, and portions of what became British Columbia, Canada. This land was claimed by both the U.S. and Britain and was held jointly under the Convention of 1818.
541. 49th Parallel
The Oregon Treaty of 1846 established an U.S./Canadian (British) border along this parallel. The boundary along the 49th parallel extended from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean.
542. Election of 1848: Cass, Taylor
Zachary Taylor - Whig. Lewis Cass - Democrat. Martin Van Buren - Free Soil Party (Oregon issues). Taylor side-stepped the issue of slavery and allowed his military reputation to gain him victory. Cass advocated states' rights in the slavery issue. Free Soil Party wanted no slavery in Oregon.
543. Wilmot Proviso
When President Polk submitted his Appropriations Bill of 1846 requesting Congress' approval of the $2 million indemnity to be paid to Mexico under the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo, Pennsylvania Representative David Wilmot attached a rider which would have barred slavery from the territory acquired. The South hated the Wilmot Proviso and a new Appropriations Bill was introduced in 1847 without the Proviso. It provoked one of the first debates on slavery at the federal level, and the principles of the Proviso became the core of the Free Soil, and later the Republican, Party.
544. Gadsen Purchase
1853 - After the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgowas signed, the U.S. realized that it had accidentally left portions of the southwestern stagecoach routes to California as part of Mexico. James Gadsen, the U.S. Minister to Mexico, was instructed by President Pierce to draw up a treaty that would provide for the purchase of the territory through which the stage lines ran, along which the U.S. hoped to also eventually build a southern continental railroad. This territory makes up the southern parts of Arizona and New Mexico.
545. Hegemony
Domination or leadership - especially the predominant influence of one state over others. Northern states seemed to be dominating Southern states.
546. "Transportation Revolution"
By the 1850s railroad transportation was fairly cheap and widespread. It allowed goods to be moved in large quantities over long distances, and it reduced travel time. This linked cities' economies together.
547. Commonwealth v. Hunt
1842 - Case heard by the Massachusetts supreme court. The case was the first judgement in the U.S. that recognized that the conspiracy law is inapplicable to unions and that strikes for a closed shop are legal. Also decided that unions are not responsible for the illegal acts of their members.
548. Boston Associates
The Boston Associates were a group of Boston businessmen who built the first power loom. In 1814 in Waltham, Massachusetts, they opened a factory run by Lowell. Their factory made cloth so cheaply that women began to buy it rather than make it themselves.
549. Lowell Factory
Francis Cabot Lowell established a factory in 1814 at Waltham, Massachusetts. It was the first factory in the world to manufacture cotton cloth by power machinery in a building.
550. Factory girls
Lowell opened a chaperoned boarding house for the girls who worked in his factory. He hired girls because they could do the job as well as men (in textiles, sometimes better), and he didn't have to pay them as much. He hired only unmarried women because they needed the money and would not be distracted from their work by domestic duties.
551. Cyrus McCormic, mechanical reaper
McCormic built the reaping machine in 1831, and it make farming more efficient. Part of the industrial revolution, it allowed farmers to substantially increase the acreage that could be worked by a single family, and also made corporate farming possible.
552. Elias Howe (1819-1869)
Invented the sewing machine in 1846, which made sewing faster and more efficient.
553. Ten-Hour Movement
Labor unions advocated a 10-hour workday. Previously workers had worked from sun up to sundown.
554. Clipper ships
Long, narrow, wooden ships with tall masts and enormous sails. They were developed in the second quarter of the 1800s. These ships were unequalled in speed and were used for trade, especially for transporting perishable products from distant countries like China and between the eastern and western U.S.
555. Cyrus Field (1819-1892)
An American financier who backed the first telegraph cable across the Atlantic. After four failed attempts in 1857, 1858 and 1865, a submarine cable was successfully laid between Newfoundland and Ireland in July, 1866.
556. Robert Fulton, steamships
A famous inventor, Robert Fulton designed and built America’s first steamboat, the Clermont in 1807. He also built the Nautilus, the first practical submarine.
557. Samuel F.B. Morse, telegraph
Morse developed a working telegraph which improved communications.
558. Walker Tariff
1846 - Sponsored by Polk's Secretary of Treasury, Robert J. Walker, it lowered the tariff. It introduced the warehouse system of storing goods until duty is paid.
559. Independent Treasury System, Van Buren and Polk
Meant to keep government out of banking. Vaults were to be constructed in various cities to collect and expand government funds in gold and silver. Proposed after the National Bank was destroyed as a method for maintaining government funds with minimum risk. Passed by Van Buren and Polk.
560. American Colonization Society
Formed in 1817, it purchased a tract of land in Liberia and returned free Blacks to Africa.
561. Abolitionism
The militant effort to do away with slavery. It had its roots in the North in the 1700s. It became a major issue in the 1830s and dominated politics after 1840. Congress became a battleground between pro and anti-slavery forces from the 1830's to the Civil War.
562. Sectionalism
Different parts of the country developing unique and separate cultures (as the North, South and West). This can lead to conflict.
563. William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879)
A militant abolitionist, he came editor of the Boston publication, The Liberator, in 1831. Under his leadership, The Liberator gained national fame and notoriety due to his quotable and inflammatory language, attacking everything from slave holders to moderate abolitionists, and advocating northern secession.
564. The Liberator
A militantly abolitionist weekly, edited by William Garrison from 1831 to 1865. Despite having a relatively small circulation, it achieved national notoriety due to Garrison's strong arguments.
565. American Anti-slavery Society
Formed in 1833, a major abolitionist movement in the North.
566. Theodore Weld (1802-1895)
Weld was devoted to the abolitionism movement. He advised the breakaway anti-slavery Whigs in Congress and his anonymous tract "American Slavery as It Is" (1839) was the inspiration for Uncle Tom's Cabin.
567. Theodore Parker (1810-1860)
A leading transcendentalist radical, he became known as "the keeper of the public's conscience". His advocation for social reform often put him in physical danger, though his causes later became popular.
568. The Grimke sisters
Angelina and Sarah Grimke wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement.
569. Elijah Lovejoy (1802-1837)
An abolitionist and editor. The press he used was attacked four time and Lovejoy was killed defending it. His death was an example of violence against abolitionists.
570. Wendell Phillips
An orator and associate of Garrison, Phillips was an influential abolitionist lecturer.
571. Nat Turner's Insurrection
1831 - Slave uprising. A group of 60 slaves led by Nat Turner, who believed he was a divine instrument sent to free his people, killed almost 60 Whites in South Hampton, Virginia. This let to a sensational manhunt in which 100 Blacks were killed. As a result, slave states strengthened measures against slaves and became more united in their support of fugitive slave laws.
572. David Walker (1785-1830), "Walker's Appeal"
A Boston free black man who published papers against slavery.
573. Sojourner Truth
Name used by Isabelle Baumfree, one of the best-known abolitionists of her day. She was the first black woman orator to speak out against slavery.
574. Gabriel Prosser (1775-1800)
A slave, he planned a revolt to make Virginia a state for Blacks. He organized about 1,000 slaves who met outside Richmond the night of August 30, 1800. They had planned to attack the city, but the roads leading to it were flooded. The attack was delayed and a slave owner found out about it. Twenty-five men were hanged, including Gabriel.
575. Denmark Vesey
A mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one of them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before the revolt started.
576. Frederick Douglass (1817-1895)
A self-educated slave who escaped in 1838, Douglas became the best-known abolitionist speaker. He edited an anti-slavery weekly, the North Star.
577. Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond, Virginia
An iron mill in Richmond. It was run by skilled slave labor and was among the best iron foundry in the nation. It kept the Confederacy alive until 1863 as its only supplier of cannons. It was also the major munitions supplier of the South and was directly responsible for the capitol of the Confederacy being moved to Richmond.
578. Mountain Whites in the South
Rednecks. Usually poor, aspired to be successful enough to own slaves. Hated Blacks and rich Whites. Made up much of the Confederate Army, fighting primarily for sectionalism and states' rights.
579. Prigg v. Pennsylvania
1842 - A slave had escaped from Maryland to Pennsylvania, where a federal agent captured him and returned him to his owner. Pennsylvania indicted the agent for kidnapping under the fugitive slave laws. The Supreme Court ruled it was unconstitutional for bounty hunters or anyone but the owner of an escaped slave to apprehend that slave, thus weakening the fugitive slave laws.
580. "King Cotton"
Expression used by Southern authors and orators before the Civil War to indicate the economic dominance of the Southern cotton industry, and that the North needed the South's cotton. In a speech to the Senate in 1858, James Hammond declared, "You daren't make war against cotton! ...Cotton is king!".
581. Free Soil Party
Formed in 1847 - 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.
582. John Sutter (1803-1880)
A German immigrant who was instrumental in the early settlement of Califonria by Americans, he had originally obtained his lands in Northern California through a Mexican grant. Gold was discovered by workmen excavating to build a sawmill on his land in the Sacramento Valley in 1848, touching off the California gold rush.
583. Forty-Niners
Easterners who flocked to California after the discovery of gold there. They established claims all over northern California and overwhelmed the existing government. Arrived in 1849.
584. California applies for admission as a state
Californians were so eager to join the union that they created and ratified a constitution and elected a government before receiving approval from Congress. California was split down the middle by the Missouri Compromise line, so there was a conflict over whether it should be slave or free.
585. Compromise of 1850: provisions, impact
Called for the admission of California as a free state, organizing Utah and New Mexico with out restrictions on slavery, adjustment of the Texas/New Mexico border, abolition of slave trade in District of Columbia, and tougher fugitive slave laws. Its passage was hailed as a solution to the threat of national division.
586. Fugitive Slave Law
Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.
587. Anthony Burns (1834-1862)
A slave who fled from Virginia to Boston in 1854. Attempts to return him led to unrest in Boston. He was successfully returned at a cost $100,000. He was bought a few months later by a Boston group intent on setting him free.
588. Ablemann v. Booth
1859 - Sherman Booth was sentenced to prison in a federal court for assisting in a fugitive slave's rescue in Milwaukee. He was released by the Wisconsin Supreme Court on the grounds that the Fugitive Slave Act was unconstitutional. The Supreme Court overturned this ruling. It upheld both the constitutionality of the Fugitive Slave Act and the supremacy of federal government over state government.
589. Webster's 7th of March Speech
Daniel Webster, a Northerner and opposed to slavery, spoke before Congress on March 7, 1850. During this speech, he envisioned thatg the legacy of the fugitive slave laws would be to divide the nation over the issue of slavery.
590. Nashville Convention
Meeting twice in 1850, its purpose was to protect the slave property in the South.
591. Henry Clay (1777-1852)
Clay helped heal the North/South rift by aiding passage of the Compromise of 1850, which served to delay the Civil War.
592. John C. Calhoun
Formerly Jackson's vice-president, later a South Carolina senator. He said the North should grant the South's demands and keep quiet about slavery to keep the peace. He was a spokesman for the South and states' rights.
593. Underground Railroad
A secret, shifting network which aided slaves escaping to the North and Canada, mainly after 1840.
594. Harriet Tubman (1821-1913)
A former escaped slave, she was one of the shrewdest conductors of the underground railroad, leading 300 slaves to freedom.
595. Uncle Tom's Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe
She wrote the abolitionist book, Uncle Tom's Cabin. It helped to crystalize the rift between the North and South. It has been called the greatest American propaganda novel ever written, and helped to bring about the Civil War.
596. Election of 1852: end of the Whig party
By this time the Whig party was so weakened that the Democrats swept Franklin Pierce into office by a huge margin. Eventually the Whigs became part of the new Republican party.
597. Perry and Japan
Commodore Matthew Perry went to Japan to open trade between it and the U.S. In 1853, his armed squadron anchored in Tokyo Bay, where the Japanese were so impressed that they signed the Treaty of Kanagania in 1854, which opened Japanese ports to American trade.
598. Ostend Manifesto
The recommendation that the U.S. offer Spain $20 million for Cuba. It was not carried through in part because the North feared Cuba would become another slave state.
599. Kansas - Nebraska Act
1854 - This act repealed the Missouri Compromise and established a doctrine of congressional nonintervention in the territories. Popular sovereignty (vote of the people) would determine whether Kansas and Nebraska would be slave or free states.
600. Birth of the Republican Party
A coalition of the Free Soil Party, the Know-Nothing Party and renegade Whigs merged in 1854 to form the Republican Party, a liberal, anti-slavery party. The party's Presidential candidate, John C. Fremont, captured one-third of the popular vote in the 1856 election.
601. Stephen A. Douglas
A moderate, who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854 and popularized the idea of popular sovereignty.
602. Popular Sovereignty
The doctrine that stated that the people of a territory had the right to decide their own laws by voting. In the Kansas-Nebraska Act, popular sovereignty would decide whether a territory allowed slavery.
603. Thirty-six, thirty line
According to the Missouri Compromise (1820), slavery was forbidden in the Louisiana territory north of the 36º30' N latitude. This was nullified by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
604. Election of 1856: Republican Party, Know-Nothing Party
Democrat - James Buchanan (won by a narrow margin). Republican - John Fremont. Know- Nothing Party and Whig - Millard Fillmore. First election for the Republican Party. Know- Nothings opposed immigration and Catholic influence. They answered questions from outsiders about the party by saying "I know nothing".
605. "Bleeding Kansas"
Also known as the Kansas Border War. Following the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, pro-slavery forces from Missouri, known as the Border Ruffians, crossed the border into Kansas and terrorized and murdered antislavery settlers. Antislavery sympathizers from Kansas carried out reprisal attacks, the most notorious of which was John Brown's 1856 attack on the settlement at Pottawatomie Creek. The war continued for four years before the antislavery forces won. The violence it generated helped percipitate the Civil War.
606. Lawrence, Kansas
1855 - Where the pro-slavery /anti-slavery war in Kansas began ("Bleeding Kansas or Kansas Border War).
607. "Beecher's Bibles"
During the Kansas border war, the New England Emigrant Aid Society sent rifles at the instigation of fervid abolitionists like the preacher Henry Beecher. These rifles became known as "Beecher's Bibles".
608. John Brown's Raid
In 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed.
609. Pottawatomie Massacre
John Brown let a part of six in Kansas that killed 5 pro-slavery men. This helped make the Kansas border war a national issue.
610. New England Emigrant Aid Company
Promoted anti-slavery migration to Kansas. The movement encouraged 2600 people to move.
611. Sumner-Brooks Affair
1856 - Charles Sumner gave a two day speech on the Senate floor. He denounced the South for crimes against Kansas and singled out Senator Andrew Brooks of South Carolina for extra abuse. Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him. Sumner was the first Republican martyr.
612. Lecompton Constitution
The pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas' admission to the union. It was rejected.
613. Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
614. Chief Justice Roger B. Taney (pronounced "Tawny")
As chief justice, he wrote the important decision in the Dred Scott case, upholding police power of states and asserting the principle of social responsibility of private property. He was Southern and upheld the fugitive slave laws.
615. Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858 during Illinois Senatorial campaign
A series of seven debates. The two argued the important issues of the day like popular sovereignty, the Lecompton Constitution and the Dred Scott decision. Douglas won these debates, but Lincoln's position in these debates helped him beat Douglas in the 1860 presidential election.
616. Freeport Doctrine
During the Lincoln-Douglas debates, Douglas said in his Freeport Doctrine that Congress couldn't force a territory to become a slave state against its will.
617. Panic of 1857
Began with the failure of the Ohio Life Insurance Company and spread to the urban east. The depression affected the industrial east and the wheat belt more than the South.
618. George Fitzhugh, Sociology for the South, or the Failure of Free Society
The most influential propagandist in the decade before the Civil War. In his Sociology (1854), he said that the capitalism of the North was a failure. In another writing he argued that slavery was justified when compared to the cannibalistic approach of capitalism. Tried to justify slavery.
619. Hinton Helper, The Impending Crisis of the South
Hinton Helper of North Carolina spoke for poor, non-slave-owing Whites in his 1857 book, which as a violent attack on slavery. It wasn't written with sympathy for Blacks, who Helper despised, but with a belief that the economic system of the South was bringing ruin on the small farmer.
620. Lincoln's "House Divided" speech
In his acceptance speech for his nomination to the Senate in June, 1858, Lincoln paraphrased from the Bible: "A house divided against itself cannot stand." He continued, "I do not believe this government can continue half slave and half free, I do not expect the Union to be dissolved - I do not expect the house to fall - but I do believe it will cease to be divided."
621. John Brown, Harper's Ferry Raid
In 1859, the militant abolitionist John Brown seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves. He was captured and executed.
622. Election of 1860: candidates, parties, issues
Republican - Abraham Lincoln. Democrat - Stephan A. Douglas, John C. Breckenridge. Constitutional Union - John Bell. Issues were slavery in the territories (Lincoln opposed adding any new slave states).
623. Democratic Party Conventions: Baltimore, Charleston
The Democratic Party split North and South. The Northern Democratic convention was held in Baltimore and the Southern in Charleston. Douglas was the Northern candidate and Breckenridge was the Southern (they disagreed on slavery).
624. John Bell
He was a moderate and wanted the union to stay together. After Southern states seceded from the Union, he urged the middle states to join the North.
625. John Breckinridge (1821-1875)
Nominated by pro-slavers who had seceded from the Democratic convention, he was strongly for slavery and states' rights.
626. Republican Party: 1860 platform, supporter, leaders
1860 platform: free soil principles, a protective tariff. Supporters: anti-slavers, business, agriculture. Leaders: William M. Seward, Carl Shulz.
627. Buchanan and the Secession Crisis
After Lincoln was elected, but before he was inaugurated, seven Southern states seceded. Buchanan, the lame duck president, decided to leave the problem for Lincoln to take care of.
628. Crittenden Compromise proposal
A desperate measure to prevent the Civil War, introduced by John Crittenden, Senator from Kentucky, in December 1860. The bill offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves. Republicans, on the advice of Lincoln, defeated it.
629. Border states
States bordering the North: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky and Missouri. They were slave states, but did not secede.
630. South's advantages in the Civil War
Large land areas with long coasts, could afford to lose battles, and could export cotton for money. They were fighting a defensive war and only needed to keep the North out of their states to win. Also had the nation's best military leaders, and most of the existing military equipment and supplies.
631. North's advantages in the Civil War
Larger numbers of troops, superior navy, better transportation, overwhelming financial and industrial reserves to create munitions and supplies, which eventually outstripped the South's initial material advantage.
632. Fort Sumter
Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.
633. Bull Run
At Bull Run, a creek, Confederate soldiers charged Union men who were en route to besiege Richmond. Union troops fled back to Washington. Confederates didn't realize their victory in time to follow up on it. First major battle of the Civil War - both sides were ill-prepared.
634. Monitor and the Merrimac
First engagement ever between two iron-clad naval vessels. The two ships battled in a portion of the Cheasepeake Bay known as Hampton Roads for five hours on March 9, 1862, ending in a draw. Monitor - Union. Merrimac - Confederacy. Historians use the name of the original ship Merrimac on whose hull the Southern ironclad was constructed, even though the official Confederate name for their ship was the CSS Virginia.
635. Lee, Jackson
General Robert E. Lee and General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson were major leaders and generals for the Confederacy. Best military leaders in the Civil War.
636. Grant, McClellan, Sherman and Meade
Union generals in the Civil War.
637. Vicksburg, Gettysburg, Antietam, Appomattox
Battle sites of the Civil War. Gettysburg - 90,000 soldiers under Meade vs. 76,000 under Lee, lasted three days and the North won. Vicksburg - besieged by Grant and surrendered after six months. Antietam - turning point of the war and a much-needed victory for Lincoln. Appomattox - Lee surrendered to Grant.
638. Jefferson Davis, Alexander Stephens
Davis was chosen as president of the Confederacy in 1861. Stephens was vice-president.
639. Northern blockade
Starting in 1862, the North began to blockade the Southern coast in an attempt to force the South to surrender. The Southern coast was so long that it could not be completely blockaded.
640. Cotton versus Wheat
Cotton was a cash crop and could be sold for large amounts of money. Wheat was mainly raised to feed farmers and their animals. The North had to choose which to grow.
641.Copperheads
Lincoln believed that anti-war Northern Democrats harbored traitorous ideas and he labeled them "Copperheads", poisonous snakes waiting to get him.
642. Congressman Clement L. Vallandigham
An anti-war Democrat who criticized Lincoln as a dictator, called him "King Abraham". He was arrested and exiled to the South.
643. Suspension of habeas corpus
Lincoln suspended this writ, which states that a person cannot be arrested without probable cause and must be informed of the charges against him and be given an opportunity to challenge them. Throughout the war, thousands were arrested for disloyal acts. Although the U.S. Supreme Court eventually held the suspension edict to be unconstitutional, by the time the Court acted the Civil War was nearly over.
644. Republican legislation passed in Congress after Southerners left: banking, tariff, homestead, transcontinental railroad
With no Southerners to vote them down, the Northern Congressman passed all the bills they wanted to. Led to the industrial revolution in America.
645. Conscription draft riots
The poor were drafted disproportionately, and in New York in 1863, they rioted, killing at least 73 people.
646. Emancipation Proclamation
September 22, 1862 - Lincoln freed all slaves in the states that had seceded, after the Northern victory at the Battle of Antietam. Lincoln had no power to enforce the law.
647. Charles Francis Adams
Minister to Great Britain during the Civil War, he wanted to keep Britain from entering the war on the side of the South.
648. Great Britain: Trent, Alabama, Laird rams, "Continuous Voyage"
A Union frigate stopped the Trent, a British steamer and abducted two Confederate ambassadors aboard it. The Alabama was a British-made vessel and fought for the Confederacy, destroying over 60 Northern ships in 22 months. The Laird rams were ships specifically designed to break blockades; the English prevented them from being sold to the South.
649. Election of 1864: candidates, parties
Lincoln ran against Democrat General McClellan. Lincoln won 212 electoral votes to 21, but the popular vote was much closer. (Lincoln had fired McClellan from his position in the war.)
650. Financing of the war effort by North and South
The North was much richer than the South, and financed the war through loans, treasury notes, taxes and duties on imported goods. The South had financial problems because they printed their Confederate notes without backing them with gold or silver.
651. Clara Barton
Launched the American Red Cross in 1881. An "angel" in the Civil War, she treated the wounded in the field.
652. Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan
Former Confederate states would be readmitted to the Union if 10% of their citizens took a loyalty oath and the state agreed to ratify the 13th Amendment which outlawed slavery. Not put into effect because Lincoln was assassinated.
653. Assassination of April 14, 1865
While sitting in his box at Ford's Theatre watching "Our American Cousin", President Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth.
654. John Wilkes Booth
An actor, planned with others for six months to abduct Lincoln at the start of the war, but they were foiled when Lincoln didn't arrive at the scheduled place. April 14, 1865, he shot Lincoln at Ford's Theatre and cried, "Sic Semper Tyrannis!" ("Thus always to tyrants!") When he jumped down onto the stage his spur caught in the American flag draped over the balcony and he fell and broke his leg. He escaped on a waiting horse and fled town. He was found several days later in a barn. He refused to come out; the barn was set on fire. Booth was shot, either by himself or a soldier.
655. Ex Parte Milligan
1866 - Supreme Court ruled that military trials of civilians were illegal unless the civil courts are inoperative or the region is under marshall law.
656. Radical Republicans
After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
657. Wade-Davis Bill, veto, Wade-Davis Manifesto
1864 - Bill declared that the Reconstruction of the South was a legislative, not executive, matter. It was an attempt to weaken the power of the president. Lincoln vetoed it. Wade-Davis Manifesto said Lincoln was acting like a dictator by vetoing.
658. Joint Committee on Reconstruction (Committee of Fifteen)
Six senators and nine representatives drafted the 14th Amendment and Reconstruction Acts. The purpose of the committee was to set the pace of Reconstruction. Most were radical Republicans.
659. Reconstruction Acts
1867 - Pushed through congress over Johnson's veto, it gave radical Republicans complete military control over the South and divided the South into five military zones, each headed by a general with absolute power over his district.
660. State suicide theory
The Southern states had relinquished their rights when they seceded. This, in effect, was suicide. This theory was used to justify the North taking military control of the South.
661. Conquered territory theory
Stated that conquered Southern states weren't part of the Union, but were instead conquered territory, which the North could deal with however they like.
662. The unreconstructed South
The South's infrastructure had been destroyed - manufacturing had almost ceased. Few banks were solvent and in some areas starvation was imminent. General Sherman had virtually destroyed large areas on his "march to the sea".
663. Black codes
Restrictions on the freedom of former slaves, passed by Southern governments.
664. Texas v. White
1869 - Argued that Texas had never seceded because there is no provision in the Constitution for a state to secede, thus Texas should still be a state and not have to undergo reconstruction.
665. Thaddeus Stevens
A radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South. Leader of the radical Republicans in Congress.
666. Charles Sumner
The same Senator who had been caned by Brooks in 1856, sumner returned to the Senate after the outbreak of the Civil War. He was the formulator of the state suicide theory, and supporter of emancipation. He was an outspoken radical Republican involved in the impeachment of Andrew Johnson.
667. Andrew Johnson (1808-1875)
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
668. Freedmen's Bureau
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs.
669. General Oliver O. Howard
Service as director of the Freedmen's Bureau.
670. Ku Klux Klan
White-supremacist group formed by six former Conferedate officers after the Civil War. Name is essentially Greek for "Circle of Friends". Group eventually turned to terrorist attacks on blacks. The original Klan was disbanded in 1869, but was later resurrected by white supremacists in 1915.
671. Civil Rights Act
1866 - Prohibited abridgement of rights of blacks or any other citizens.
672. Thirteenth Amendment
1865 - Freed all slaves, abolished slavery.
673. Fourteenth Amendment and its provisions
1866, ratified 1868. It fixed provision of the Civil Rights Bill: full citizenship to all native-born or naturalized Americans, including former slaves and immigrants.
674. Fifteenth Amendment
Ratified 1870 - No one could be denied the right to vote on account of race, color or having been a slave. It was to prevent states from amending their constitutions to deny black suffrage.
675. Tenure of Office Act
1866 - Enacted by radical Congress, it forbade the president from removing civil officers without consent of the Senate. It was meant to prevent Johnson from removing radicals from office. Johnson broke this law when he fired a radical Republican from his cabinet, and he was impeached for this "crime".
676. Impeachment
To bring charges against a public official. Johnson was impeached, but was saved from being taken out of office by one vote.
677. Chief Justice Chase
Chief Justice in 1868, he upheld Republican Reconstruction laws and ruled that paper money was not a legal substitute for specie.
678. Secretary of War Stanton
As Secretary of War, Edwin M. Stanton acted as a spy for the radicals in cabinet meetings. President Johnson asked him to resign in 1867. The dismissal of Stanton let to the impeachment of Johnson because Johnson had broken the Tenure of Office Law.
679. Scalawags
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners.
680. Carpetbaggers
A derogatory term applied to Northerners who migrated south during the Reconstruction to take advantage of opportunities to advance their own fortunes by buying up land from desperate Southerners and by manipulating new black voters to obtain lucrative government contracts.
681. Purchase of Alaska
In December, 1866, the U.S. offered to take Alaska from Russia. Russia was eager to give it up, as the fur resources had been exhausted, and, expecting friction with Great Britain, they preferred to see defenseless Alaska in U.S. hands. Called "Seward's Folly" and "Seward's Icebox", the purchase was made in 1867 for $7,200,000 and gave the U.S. Alaska's resources of fish, timber, oil and gold.
682. Secretary of State William Seward
1867 - An eager expansionist, he was the energetic supporter of the Alaskan purchase and negotiator of the deal often called "Seward's Folly" because Alaska was not fit for settlement or farming.
683. Napoleon III
Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, and elected emperor of France from 1852-1870, he invaded Mexico when the Mexican government couldn't repay loans from French bankers. He sent in an army and set up a new government under Maximillian. He refused Lincoln's request that France withdraw. After the Civil War, the U.S. sent an army to enforce the request and Napoleon withdrew.
684. Maximillian in Mexico
European prince appointed by Napoleon III of France to lead the new government set up in Mexico. After the Civil War, the U.S. invaded and he was executed, a demonstration of the enforcement of the Monroe Doctrine to European powers.
685. Monroe Doctrine
1823 - Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power would be seen as a threat to the U.S. It also declared that a New World colony which has gained independence may not be recolonized by Europe. (It was written at a time when many South American nations were gaining independence). Only England, in particular George Canning, supported the Monroe Doctrine. Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine had no major impact until later in the 1800s.
686. Ulysses S. Grant
U.S. president 1873-1877. Military hero of the Civil War, he led a corrupt administration, consisting of friends and relatives. Although Grant was personally a very honest and moral man, his administration was considered the most corrupt the U.S. had had at that time.
687. Treaty of Washington
1871 - Settled the Northern claims between the U.S. and Great Britain. Canada gave the U.S. permanent fishing rights to the St. Lawrence River.
688. Secretary of State Hamilton Fish
A member of the Grant administration, he was an able diplomat who peacefully settled conflicts with Great Britain through the Treaty of Washington.
689. Election of 1872: Liberal Republicans, Horace Greeley
Liberal Republicans sought honest government and nominated Greeley as their candidate. The Democratic Party had also chosen Greeley. Regular Republicans renominated Grant. The Republicans controlled enough Black votes to gain victory for Grant.
690. Election of 1876: Hayes and Tilden
Rutherford B. Hayes - liberal Republican, Civil War general, he received only 165 electoral votes. Samuel J. Tilden - Democrat, received 264,000 more popular votes that Hayes, and 184 of the 185 electoral votes needed to win. 20 electoral votes were disputed, and an electoral commission decided that Hayes was the winner - fraud was suspected.
691. Compromise of 1877 provisions
Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election results. He took Union troops out of the South.
692. Solid South
Term applied to the one-party (Democrat) system of the South following the Civil War. For 100 years after the Civil War, the South voted Democrat in every presidential election.
693. Sharecropping, Crop Lien System
Sharecropping provided the necessities for Black farmers. Storekeepers granted credit until the farm was harvested.