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58 Cards in this Set

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The label given to America's nineteenth-century foreign policy. It was based on President Washington's warning not to form alliances or become politically entangled with European nations in peacetime, and was announced as policy in the Monroe Doctrine of 1823.
Isolationism
The United States and Britain decided to arbitrate the "Alabama" claims dispute dating from the Civil War. The "Alabama" was a British-built Confederate naval cruiser that sank tons of Union shipping. The British agreed to pay reparations.
Treaty of Washington, 1871
During the Civil War France had established a protectorate over Mexico, installing him as emperor. He was seized and executed by Nationalist rebels.
Archduke Maximilian
Serving as Lincoln’s Secretary of State, he demanded the French withdrawal from Mexico, purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million, and acquired the Midway Islands.
William H. Seward
Darwin historian, argued that the American democratic system of government was so clearly the worlds “fittest” that it was destined to spread peacefully over “every land on the earth’s surface.”
John Fiske
Wrote Our Country (1885). He found racist and religious justifications for American expansionism based on the theory of evolution. "God wants us to colonize."
Josiah Strong
Since expansionism, which had been a dominant fact of life for the past 300 years, had ended on the frontier, it seemed unlikely that it no longer occur.
Frederick Jackson Turner’s frontier thesis as related to expansionism
in the 1880s, the naval Captain applied the lessons from his "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History" to argue that the United States needed a strong navy, coaling stations, annexation of Hawaii, bases in the Caribbean, and a Central American canal, all of which would ensure the United States's future as a world power.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Congressman of Massachusetts and a prominent member of the Naval Affairs Committee, in 1883 he helped push through Congress an act authorizing the building of three steel warships, and constantly advocated expanding and modernizing the fleet. Elevated to the Senate in 1893, he pressed for expansionist policies and was a strong supporter of Mahan’s “sea power” concepts.
Henry Cabot Lodge
The US obtained the right to establish a naval base here after the renewal of a reciprocity treaty between the US and Hawaii.
Pearl Harbor
A determined Hawaiian nationalist who tried to wrestle control of Hawaii from American sugar growers. She failed.
Queen Liliuokalani
U.S. minister to Hawaii, helped stage a coup that overthrew the nationalist government of Queen Liliuokalani. The coup leaders, American sugar growers, then applied for annexation of Hawaii by the United States.
John L. Stevens
Provided for the demilitarization and joint British-American control of any canal across the Central American Isthmus of Panama. For Americans, it was a response to the need for improved communications to the West Coast.
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850)
French engineer, organized a company to build a canal across the isthmus of panama in 1880, was halted by President Hayes.
Ferdinand de Lesseps
Established during the Pan-American Conference to promote commercial and cultural exchanges
Pan-American Union
Killing of soldiers from USS Baltimore almost led to war with Chile.
Valparaiso Incident
Venezuela demanded more territory from British Guiana, but British refused arbitration. U.S. sided with Venezuelan boundary dispute implying that Great Britain was defying the Monroe Doctrine. A boundary commission was assigned to arbitrate and British agreed, fearing war. Marked beginning of era of close Anglo-American friendship.
Venezuelan-British dispute
Cleveland’s Secretary of State in 1895, he was ordered to send a near ultimatum to the British during the Venezuelan-British dispute, threatening war.
Richard Olney
Also known as "Butcher", he was the Spanish governor of Cuba whose harsh reconcentration camp policy provoked outrage in America and steeled Cuban rebels' resolve against him. Americans saw in Cuba's anti-Spanish rebels a reflection of their own revolutionary ancestors' struggle against the British.
General Valeriano Weyler
Publisher of the "New York World" was the first newspaper publisher to reach a truly mass audience. He did it with a combination of sensationalism, solid political and financial coverage, and civic crusading.
Joseph Pulitzer
Newspaper by Joseph Pulitzer, competed with the New York Journal to increase circulation, and advocated intervention in Cuba.
New York World
Copied Joseph Pulitzer's methods and made the "New York Journal" newspaper even more popular than Pulitzer's "New York World."
William Randolph Hearst
Newspaper by William Randolph Hearst, competed with the New York World to increase circulation, and became even more popular than it in that respect.
New York Journal
Sent to Havana harbor during riots in Cuba to protect American citizens, it exploded and sank taking 260 of the crew with it. Spain was accused of the incident pushing the U.S. to become involved.
U.S.S. Maine
Spanish minister in Washington, his letter to a friend in Cuba was printed in the New York Journal, which insulted the president, increasing animus toward Spain. He subsequently resigned.
Dupuy de Lome
Senator who proposed an amendment that disclaimed any intention of adding Cuban territory to the United States, which passed without opposition
Henry Teller
Titular head of the Democratic Party. Although he was opposed to annexation of the Philippines, he did not oppose the peace treaty with Spain since it would leave the United States technically at war with Spain and the fate of the Philippines undetermined. Had he urged his supporters to vote nay, he could have probably prevented ratification.
William Jennings Bryan
Passed by Congress in 1900, established a civil government for Puerto Rico. It did not give the Puerto Ricans either American citizenship or full local self-government, and it placed a tariff on Puerto Rican products imported into the United States.
Foraker Act
Case in which the Supreme Court upheld the legality of the duties (tariffs) in the Foraker Act.
Downes v. Bidwell
Military governor of Cuba in December 1899, who considered annexation of Cuba was the best solution.
General Leonard Wood
Dictator of Venezuela who refused to honor debts owed the citizens of European nations. To force him to pay up, Germany and Britain established a blockade of Venezuelan ports and destroyed their gunboats. Under American pressure the Europeans agreed to arbitrate the dispute. For the first time, European powers accepted the broad implications of the Monroe Doctrine.
Cipriano Castro
Defaulted on bonds totaling some $40 million. When European investors urged their governments to intervene, Roosevelt announced that under the Monroe Doctrine the U.S. could not permit foreign nations to intervene in Latin America. But Latin America should not be allowed to escape their obligations. He arranged for the U.S to take charge of the Dominican customs service.
Dominican Republic
The Colombian were charging higher and higher prices for Panama. The Panamanians started a revolution. The Colombian government forces found themselves facing Nashville and eight other warships. The revolution succeeded.
Nashville
Accumulated large holdings in banana plantations, railroads, and other ventures in Central America.
United Fruit Company
Reasons for move to imperialsm
1) Need for external and internal markets
2) Closing of frontier
3) Josiah Strong and other imperialists
4) Spread Christianity
5) Other nations doing it
6) Need to use army
7) Alfred Thayer Mahan - Influence of Seapower Upon History
Hearst to Fredrick Remington
"You furnish the pictures, I'll furnish the war."
Wrote "White Man's Burden", the classic justification for imperialism.
Rudyard Kipling
Jingoism
Extreme Nationalism

From:
We don't want to fight
But, by Jingo, if we do,
We've got the ships,
We've got the men,
We've got the money, too.
Spanish American War called "Splendid Little War".
John Hay
Disclaimed intent to annex
Teller Amendment
Theodore Roosevelt's Undersecretary of Navy, ordered to attack Manila, and destroy Spanish fleet.
George Dewey
Filipino Nationalist. Aided Americans in defeating Spanish in the Philippines. Later turned against Americans using guerilla warfare but was defeated.
Emilio Aguinaldo
Led Spanish fleet in Santiago Harbor
Pascal Cervera
Treaty of Paris 1898
U.S. got Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines
Anti-Imperialists
Andrew Carnagie, Gompers, Mark Twain, Jane Addams, Lincoln Steffens
Constitution does not follow flag
"Insular Cases"
Platt Amendment (to Cuban Constitution 1900)
1) U.S. could intervene to maintain indepedence
2) Must have Democratic Gov't
3) No treaties w/ foreign nations compromising independence
4) Grant Naval bases to U.S.
Major powers exploited Caribbean (ex. Germans in Haiti). Theodore Roosevelt said a violation of the Monroe Doctrine. U.S. takes over custom houses to pay off debts. There was enormous resentment from this.
Roosevelt Corollary (to Monroe Doctrine)
Introduced by Sec. of State John Hay. Agreement to honor existing trade agreements w/ China and not impose new restictions in spheres of influence. It signified an end to isolationism outside of the Western Hemisphere.
Open Door Policy
Chinese nationalists attacked Peking. Hay then expanded Open Door Policy to support territorial integrity of all of China.
Boxer Rebellion
Japan attacked Russia over Manchuria in 1905. T. Roosevelt mediated meeting at Portsmouth, NH.

(war and treaty)
Russo-Japanese War; Treaty of Portsmouth
Japanese-Am. Relations hurt by prejudice. Referred to as _____.
"yellow peril"
Replaced the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty. Opened canal to all nations.
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
Taft's strategy of influencing others without controlling. Used economic influence(not troops), much investment, and take over of customs houses,
"Dollar Diplomacy"
Historian. Said we used "non-colonial imperialism" beyond period.
William Appleman Williams
Exempted us from paying tolls on Panama Canal
Panama Canal Tolls Act of 1912
Promised Philippines independence when stable
Jones Act of 1916
He replaced the murdered Mex. president after a revolution in 1913. U.S. refused to recognize him. ABC powers put pressure on him and he resigned.
General Victoriano Huerta