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39 Cards in this Set

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Jay
Moss
Diana
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Spencer
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Shelby
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Leah
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Lord De La Warr
Amidst the starvation among settlers driving Settlers to steal from Indians, the Lord De La Warr took the roll of governor, and ordered military action against the Powhatan peoples, this event is considered to be the start of the 1st Anglo-Powhatan War.
Pocahontas
Pocahontas was the daughter of Powhatan, the Indian tribes in the east coast of America. She is primarily known for her brave act of putting her head beside Captain John Smith seconds before his death by beheading, because of this John Smith’s life was saved, and started a greater peace between the two peoples. She is also famous for her marriage to John Rolfe, and accompanied him when he went back to England, where she died.
Powhatan
Powhatan was the chieftain of the Powhatan Indian tribes. He took great pride in his power, and his land. Between his tribes and the settlers, two Wars broke out, and by the end of the 17th century, his peoples were considered extinct.
Handsome Lake
Handsome Lake was the name of an Iroquois prophet, he taught his people how to live in order for the society to live on, and this included family values, receiving Iroquois customs, and forsaking alcohol.
John Rolfe
John Rolfe is well known for marrying Powhatan princess Pocahontas, and creating a more efficient way to grow and harvest the Tobacco plant, which evidently saved Virginia’s fast declining economy.
Lord Baltimore
Lord Baltimore is well known for founding the second plantation colony, and fourth English colony, Maryland. He was part of a very well-known Catholic Family, and made Maryland prominently for Catholics, until the Act of Toleration was passed 1649, which forced them to tolerate all Christians, but still held the death penalty for any Jews or non-Christ followers.
Walter Raleigh
Walter Raleigh, known for introducing tobacco and the potato into England, is also the man who organized a group of settlers and landed in North Carolina in 1585, in Roanoke Island, off the coast of Virginia, but the colony vanished before England could completely colonize it.
James Oglethorpe
James Oglethorpe is well known for being one of the founders of Georgia, he, having military experience, held off Spanish attacks by donating his own personal money to the cause. Oglethorpe was also very interested in the reform of Prisons after his friend died in one of them.
Humphrey Gilbert
Half-brother of Walter Raleigh, Gilbert was England’s first attempt at colonizing the Americas, attempting to settle off the coast of Newfoundland, Gilbert was the promoter of this attempt, but lost his life at sea in 1583.
Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell was a Puritan soldier who took control over England for a decade after the beheading of Charles I, until in 1660 Charles II took the throne over.
John Smith
Virginia was taken over and led by Captain John Smith, stating the famous saying, “He who shall not work shall not eat.” John Smith was captured and nearly executed by Chieftain Powhatan in 1607, until Powhatan’s daughter Pocahontas put her head by John Smith right before execution, she saved John Smith.
Nation-State
A united colony or “state”, which is ruled by one common person to which all countries united in this colony, share a common profitable and economical goal.
Joint-stock company
The Joint Stock Company enables a huge amount of investors known as “adventurers” to pool their capitol. This created the financial means for markets, and religious freedom to grow and branch out.
Slavery
Slavery is the idea of work labor for no salaries for specific races. This shaped the Colonies in the Americas just as much as Tobacco did. African peoples would be shipped from the coasts of Africa and sold among the colonies as common as tobacco was sold.
Enclosure
Landlords would enclose large areas of crop land for sheep grazing, which forced the smaller farmers into small amounts of actually crop grazing land; some were driven entirely off the Land.
House of Burgesses
Settlers in Virginia were allowed to summon an assembly known as the House of Burgesses; this was the start of many “mini” parliaments which would rise in the Americas future. Because of this self sufficient parliament in Virginia, James I, ruler of England, despised and distrusted it, eventually bringing the Virginia Company to economic bankrupts, James took utter control over this mini parliament and Virginia itself.
Royal Charter
The Royal Charter was a decree by King James I of England, given to the Virginia Company of London to colonize in the New World. This Charter guaranteed to overseas settlers the same rights of Englishmen that they would have enjoyed if they had stayed in England, this became the foundation stone for American Liberties.
Slave Codes
The Slave codes were a barbaric list of rules abiding to African slaves, and their masters. This code gave masters utter control over his or her slaves, and denied even the basic fundamental rights to the slaves themselves. For example “If any Negro or slave whatsoever shall offer any violence to any Christian by striking or the like, such Negro or slave shall for his or her first offense be severely whipped by the Constable.”
Yeoman
A Yeoman is a respectable English commoner who cultivates his or her own crops.
Proprietor
A proprietor is a group or party that usually exercises private ownership over an item.
The Lord Proprietors in London protested against the slave trading into their colony, perhaps one of few groups who did want to accept slave trade.
Longhouse
The Longhouse is a design native to the Iroquois tribe, it usually sheltered 2 families containing up to 3-5 fire places, and were up to 200 feet long!
Squatter
A Squatter was a commonly used name for newcomers into North Carolina, these “Squatters” usually did not have legal right to soil, raised their tobacco and other crops on small farms, because of this they had little need for slaves or servants.
Primogeniture
The Laws of Primogeniture decreed that only the eldest sons were eligible to inherit landed estates, this sparked ambitions for landholding younger sons, to explore new opportunities, among them included Gilbert, Drake, and Raleigh.
Indentured Servitude
Indentured Servitude was a certain period of time where men and woman would work as servants for landholders, and in return would be granted a trip to the Americas, basically working off their debt.
Starving Time
The “Starving Time” refers to the winter between 1609 and 1610 where only 60 of the original 400 settlers survived. During this time men would become so overwhelmed with hunger, they would be reduced to eating dogs, cats, mice, and rats.
First Anglo-Powhatan War
The Starvation among settlers drove them to steal Indian food supplies, and in 1610 by order of a new governor, Lord De La Warr ordered military action against the Powhatan peoples, thus started the 1st Anglo-Powhatan War. Colonist John Rolfe marries Pocahontas in 1614, creating a temporary peace, and ending the 1st Anglo-Powhatan War.
Second Anglo-Powhatan War
Native Americans became infested with disease from the settlers, and in 1622 attacked the colonists. (347 settlers killed, including John Rolfe) In 1644, the Virginia Company called for a “perpetual war without peace” against the Indians, which started the 2nd Anglo-Powhatan War. In 1646, peace settlement ending the 2nd Anglo-Powhatan War was issued saying, “there is no hope for integrating Indian civilization, or coexisting with the Native American peoples.” In 1685, English considered the Powhatan Native Americans extinct.
Act of Toleration
The Act of Toleration, which was passed in 1649, would allow the toleration of all Christians in Maryland, yet it still Maryland held the death penalty to anyone denying Christ such as Jews and atheists.
Barbados slave code
Barbados slave code established in 1661, gave masters complete control over their slaves (allowing masters to whip until death) and by 1700, African American slaves outnumbered white settlers in the Caribbean 4::1.
Virginia Company
The Virginia Company was a joint stock company, which allowed men to invest in the colonization and cultivation of gold in the New World, only thought to have lasted a few years, the Virginia Company became the roots to the most powerful nation in the modern world.
Restoration
The restoration refers to the restoring of the rightful king Charles II to the throne of England in 1660 after being taken over by the Puritan soldier Oliver Cromwell. In 1670, the Carolinas was named after the restored king.
Savannah Indians
The Savannah Indians had made deals of slavery and trading between themselves and the Carolinas. In 1710, these coastal Indians were slaughtered by peoples of Carolina, before they could end the peace treaty and migrate to Pennsylvania, and Maryland.
Iroquois Confederacy
The Iroquois Confederacy was a collaboration of Indian tribes, The Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas. This confederacy was already a strong military force long before Europeans arrived in the Americas. These people were native to present day New York State. Until the arrival of Eurpeans, this diplomatic supremacy worked smoothly for the most part. Most of the tribes ended up siding with the English during the American Revolution, and thus broke up with confederacy.
Ireland
Ireland is an Island that is part of the United Kingdom, it is off the coast of England. During the 16th century, Catholic Ireland sought to help the Spanish captain against England, Though the campaign never triumphed and the Irish rebellion was crushed by Elizabeth’s troops between the 1570’s and 1580’s. After the rebellion Protestantism took over due to the new protestant landlords now ruling the aristocracy in Ireland.