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262 Cards in this Set

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had within his cabinet both Federalists and Anti-Federalists. At the outset the most important figure was a Federalist, the Treasury Secretary Andrew Hamilton, at whose behest Congress approved the establishment of a national bank and the federal assumption of states' war debts, both signal events in the development of the national government
Cabinet members under Washington
giving the Supreme Court the authority to issue a writ of mandamus was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in the case of Marbury v. Madison (1803). It was the first federal law to fall victim to judicial review.
Judiciary Act of 1789
Strategy to pay off all the debt from the Revolutionary War. Also he wanted to establish a National Bank
Hamilton's plan for establishing national credit
Hamilton wanted to establish a one but Jefferson was against it.
National Bank controversy under Washington
the Jay Treaty settled American differences with Britain for the moment, and the Pinckney Treaty did the same with Spain. Relations with France were rockier, but in the wake of the Citizen Genet and XYZ affairs, Congress enacted the Alien and Sedition Acts, which pushed France to sign the Convention of 1800 and avoided war.
Foreign affairs between U.S. and France and England
When war broke out between England and France in 1793, President Washington issued this committing the United States to be friendly and impartial toward both England and France
Proclamation of Neutrality
Genet was a special representative to the United States sent by the French government to seek support for the French Revolution. He was popularly received, but when he began recruiting ships and men for service to France, President Washington demanded his departure.
Citizen Genet
John Jay negotiated this with Britain in 1794 in which the British agreed to evacuate posts in the American northwest and settle some maritime disputes. Jay agreed to accept Britain's definition of America's neutral rights. The terms of the treaty provoked a storm of protest, but it was ratified in 1795.
Jay's Treaty
In this(also known as the Treaty of San Lorenzo), Spain granted the United States free navigation of the Mississippi River and the right of deposit at New Orleans. It also settled the boundary dispute between Spanish Florida and the United States on terms favorable to the United States, placing the boundary at the 31st parallel.
Pinckney's Treaty
Western Pennsylvania farmers violently resisted paying the whiskey tax imposed by Hamilton's financial program. In 1794 they threatened to destroy Pittsburgh. Washington and Hamilton marshaled the full force of the army to suppress the rebellion, but the rebels had dispersed by the time the army arrived.
Whiskey Rebellion
Differences between political parties, Federalists and Anti-Federalists.
Federalists:
1) Strong Central government
2) Broad interpretation of Constitution
3) High tariff to promote industry
4) Favored industry
5) Pro-British
6) Concentration along eastern Seaboard
7) Primarily upper class

Anti-Federalists:
1) Weak Central government
2) strict interpretation
3) Favored free trade
4) Favored agriculture
5) Pro-French (liberal)
6) Concentration in South and West
7) Primarily middle and lower class
Strict vs Broad interpretation of Constitution
Strict (Anti Federalists), Broad (Federalists
President Washington decided not to seek reelection in 1796. Near the end of his term he delivered this that warned the nation against the harmful effects of rivalry between political parties, and against the dangers of permanent alliances with foreign nations.
Washington's warning in farewell address
Adams was bright, honest, but hard to get along with. Federal Pres, but Republican V.P.
Adams as president, Jefferson as v.p
Peace commissioners sent to France by President Adams in 1797 were insulted by their French counterparts' demand for a bribe as a condition for negotiating with American diplomats. America's tender sense of national honor was outraged and the affair led Federalists to demand war against France.
XYZ Affair
In 1798 the Federalist Congress passed the four acts collectively known as the this to attack the Republican party and suppress dissent against Federalist policies. They curtailed freedom of speech and the liberty of foreigners resident in the United States.
Alien and Sedition Acts
In response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison wrote these. They argued that the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional and that each state had a right to declare them null and void.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolves
Jefferson ran against Adams and it went to House of Rep. For vote. Jefferson finally won.
“Revolution of 1800”
All Rep. Elector told to vote for Jeff & Arron Burr. Result was tie. Went to House of Rep. For vote. Finally Hamilton threw support to Jefferson
Disputed election of 1800
In 1803 the United States purchased the Louisiana Territory from Napoleonic France for $15 million. The purchase secured U.S. control of the Mississippi River and nearly doubled the size of the nation.
Louisiana Purchase
President Jefferson commissioned Lewis and Clark to explore the Louisiana Territory and beyond to the Pacific Coast. Their expedition (1803-1806) brought back a wealth of data about the country and its resources.
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Chief Justice of the United States from 1801 to 1835. His rulings constantly upheld the sanctity of contracts and the supremacy of federal legislation over the laws of the states
John Marshall
In 1803 the Supreme Court ruled the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional. This case established the precedent for judicial review of federal laws.
"Marbury v. Madison"
Jefferson got angry over the establishment of judicial review. So, he got Congress to impeach and remove judge John Pickering
Judicial impeachments under Jefferson
Burr tied Jefferson for the presidency in the Electoral College vote in 1800 and became vice-president. He later killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel, and was acquitted of conspiring to commit treason when he was party to a mysterious scheme involving the Southwest Territory.
Aaron Burr
Burr challenged Hamilton to duel after Hamilton fought to get Burr defeated at Essex Junto. Hamilton got shot and died.
Hamilton-Burr Duel
Pirates from the Barbary states in North Africa habitually seized trading vessels in the Mediterranean Sea and held crews and passengers for ransom. President Jefferson dispatched a naval squadron to deal with the pirates, but the venture failed and the United States paid a financial tribute to the Barbary states until 1815.
Barbary pirates
occurred on June 22, 1807, the British warship HMS Leopard attacked and boarded the American frigate USS Chesapeake off the coast of Norfolk, Virginia, killing or wounding 21 men and capturing four alleged British deserters. The American public was outraged with the incident, as President Thomas Jefferson noted: "Never since the battle of Lexington have I seen this country in such a state of exasperation." The President closed U.S. territorial waters to British warships, demanded payment for damages, and requested an end to British efforts to search United States ships for "deserters," acts which were commonly considered an excuse to impress American sailors into British service.This event served to escalate tensions between the two countries and can be seen as one of the events leading up to the War of 1812. Indeed, many demanded war following the incident, but President Thomas Jefferson instead used diplomacy and economic pressure in the form of the Embargo Act of 1807.
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
provoked by the "Chesapeake" incident and prohibited all exports from U.S. ports. President Jefferson hoped to pressure Britain and France into recognizing neutral rights, but the embargo damaged the economy and was bitterly resented, especially in New England.
Embargo Act
In 1808 Congress replaced the Embargo Act with this. It forbade U.S. trade only with Britain and France, and authorized the president to end nonintercourse with either nation if it stopped violating U.S. neutral rights.
Non intercourse Act of 1809
replaced the ineffective Nonintercourse Act. It removed all restrictions on commerce with France and Britain, but it authorized the president to reapply nonintercourse to either European power if one of them ceased violating American neutral rights.
Macon's Bill #2
issued by Napoleon that said all trade with England is illegal. England issued Orders in Council which blockaded ports and said all ships must to through England.
Berlin and Milan Decrees and Orders in Council
attack was unsuccessful. Eng. And Indians under Tecumseh chased Ams. Back and captured Chicago and Detroit. U.S. took back Detroit but gave up on Canada.
Attempt to take Canada in war of 1812
The Shawnee chief organized an Indian confederacy to try to defend Indian land and culture in the Ohio country. In 1811 his confederacy was shattered at the Battle of Tippecanoe. Was killed at the Battle of the Thames during the War of 1812.
Tecumseh
young congressional leaders who, in 1811 and 1812, called for war against Great Britain as the only way to defend the national honor and force the British to respect America's neutral rights.
War Hawks
New England opposed the war with England because England was their main trading partner. Also Federalists opposed b/c they were pro-British.
Opposition to war
Americans used no real strategy. They used frigates like Constitution at 1st but then lost effectiveness
Constitution ("Old Ironsides")
Captain who defeated the English fleet on Lake Erie which contributed to the retake of Detroit. He quoted "We have met the enemy and they are ours"
Oliver Hazard Perry
watched the bombardment and wrote the "Star Spangled Banner"
Francis Scott Key
Although it was fought two weeks after the Treaty of Ghent, General Andrew Jackson's victory over the British at New Orleans in January 1815 convinced many Americans, inattentive to chronology, that the United States had won the War of 1812 on the battlefield. Jackson became a celebrated national hero. The victory ended any British hopes of gaining control of the lower Mississippi River Valley.
Battle of New Orleans
Ended the War of 1812. Britain and the United States agreed to end the state of hostilities. Neither side made any major concessions. With Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo, the war issues had simply evaporated.
Treaty of Ghent
In December 1814, a group of Federalists met in Hartford, Connecticut, to protest the War of 1812 and propose several constitutional amendments, including changes to protect the commercial interests of New England. These antiwar Federalists were discredited when the United States achieved an honorable peace in the Treaty of Ghent that same month.
Hartford Convention
lasted from 1817 to 1823 in which the disappearance of the Federalists enabled the Republicans to govern in a spirit of seemingly nonpartisan harmony. Times are good b/c divisive issues had subsided. Only one party. Recharter of nation Bank. High protective tariff. Federal aid to transportation projects. Fed. Party died but Rep. party ideas lost. Americans on big happy family.
Era of Good Feelings
Elected president in 1816 and served two terms. He was a weak leader, but his presidency succeeded in achieving several important foreign policy goals with Britain and Spain. He announced the Monroe Doctrine in 1823.
James Monroe
Intended to protect domestic manufacturers from foreign competition, the American System was the brainchild of Kentucky Congressman Henry Clay. It involved a political trade-off: In return for eastern support for federal aid to railroad and canal construction, the West would back protective tariffs. This arrangement would stimulate manufacturing and a demand for raw materials, and increase the market for manufactured goods.
Clay's American system
died out after the War of 1812
Decline of Federalist party
In this case (1819), the Supreme Court prohibited states from interfering with the privileges granted to a private corporation. In its ruling, the Supreme Court mandated that a charter granted by a state was a contract and could not be canceled or altered without the consent of both parties. The ruling caused states to spell out the limitations of corporate charters in greater detail.
Dartmouth vs. Woodward
issues involving the Yazoo Land Fraud. The Supreme Court stated that states cannot breach a contract.
Fletcher vs. Peck
In this case (1819), the Supreme Court ruled that the second Bank of the United States was constitutional, thus affirming the doctrine of implied powers. The case also determined that "the power to tax involves the power to destroy," thus state governments could not tax a federal agency like the Bank
McCulloch vs. Maryland
In this case (1824), the Supreme Court ruled that states can regulate commerce that begins and ends in its own territory (intrastate trade), but when the transaction involves crossing a state line (interstate commerce), Congress's constitutional authority to regulate interstate trade takes precedence
Gibbons vs. Ogden
Americans built roads and canals, and operated steamboats on rivers. This improved transportation allowed manufacturers to deliver their goods and farmers their crops to markets throughout the country
Developments of Transportation (roads, canals, steamboats, railroads)
· Industrial growth helped to create wealth
· Demands for goods was great at this time
· Birth of the factory system occurred during this time
Developments in Industry During 1800-1850
· When he emigrated from England to America in the 1790s, he brought with him the plans to an English factory
· With these plans, he helped to build the first factory in America; it was profitable from the start
· The factory system brought the means of production together in buildings (factories) where water power (later steam and electricity) supplied the energy to run the machinery that increased productivity and reduced labor costs
· It was introduced to the United States in textile manufacturing in 1790
Samuel Slater and the Factory System
· Francis Cabot Lowell smuggled plans for an efficient power loom into America
· The Boston Associates developed the Waltham System of employing young unmarried women as workers in their New England textile mills; the women lived in boardinghouses and their proper behavior was strictly policed
· By 1840, for economy reasons, the women were replaced by immigrant laborers.
Lowell System
· In 1820, after angry debate over issue of slavery in Congress, Missouri entered the Union as a slave state, and Maine was admitted as a free state to preserve the balance of slave and free states in the Union. Also, slavery was banned from that part of the Louisiana Territory north of 36° 30'
Missouri Compromise
Limited warships from US and ENG on Great Lakes
Rush-Bagot Agreement
· Said America will leave Texas alone, and get Florida for $5 million
· Problems w/ Indians and Slaves in GA; people would commit crimes and then escape to FL
· America told Spain we would return FL if they could control it; they couldn't so Adams-Onis Treaty resulted
Acquisition of Florida and the Adams-Onis Treaty
· 1817-1822-revolutions in Latin America; Austria, Prussia, France, Russia offer to help Spain regain control; England opposed them helping (b/c they benefited from trade w/ Latin America)
· George Canning of Eng proposed alliance w/ US warning nations to stay out
· America was flattered but decided to issue their own; said American continent no longer open to colonization, and we would stay out of European affairs; we couldn't enforce, knew ENG would
· Formulated foreign policy until end of the century
· Was included in Monroe's State of Union Address
Monroe Doctrine
· Politic divided along sectional lines, no issue divided country so deeply as slavery
· Look to Sectional Issues 1820-1860 chart
Various Sections and How They Lined Up On Sectional Issues
Beginning of modern politics
-Symbol: Jackson's inauguration
-Before inaugurations were exclusive and dignified
He invited everyone to his (mobs of people came)
More people began to vote b/c many states eliminated property qualifications for voting and holding office
Age of the Common Man
· During "Age of Common Man"- Federalists: Died & Anti-federalists (Republicans): split into Nat'l Republicans (later Whigs then Republicans) and Democratic Republicans
· Beginning of voting on personality
Emergence of Modern Parties
· Dealt w/ voting on personality; saying mean things about political opponent
· Used in first election of Jackson
Mudslinging
· During the "Age of Common Man", many states drew up constitutions that eliminated property qualifications for voting and holding office
· More people started voting
Changes in Ways of Electing President
· The practice of elected officials appointing loyal members of their own party to public office
· Jackson was accused of initiating the spoils system (which he called rotation-in-office) when he was elected to the presidency in 1828; didn't really start it, just took it to an extreme
· Practice also called patronage
· William Marcy: "To the victor belongs the spoils of the enemy."
Spoils System
· Peggy Eaton was John Henry Eaton's wife; John Henry Eaton was a friend of Jackson
· Eaton married Peggy; scandal resulted with her being snubbed by the cabinet wives b/c they felt Peggy got with before she was available
· Cabinet wives led by Calhoun's wife
· Jackson and Van Buren plot to get all of the cabinet members to resign over Eaton scandal (her being snubbed); all of them do including Calhoun
Peggy Eaton
a. Jackson took states' right position in controversy between Cherokee Indians and GA
b. He pursued a policy of removing Indians from the path of white settlement
c. Some tribes resisted and were subdued by troops
d. Cherokee attempted to hold their lands by adjusting to white ways
Indian Removal
Marshall ruled that the Cherokee were "not a foreign state" and therefore couldn't sue in a federal court
Cherokee Nation v. GA
· Marshall ruled that states could not control Cherokee or their territory (also overturned conviction for murder of a Cherokee named Corn Tassel on the grounds that the crime had taken place in Cherokee territory
· "Cherokee nation is a nation w/in a Nation"
· Jackson: "John Marshall has made his nation, now let him enforce it."
Worchester v. GA
US forced about 15,000 Cherokee to leave GA for lands in Oklahoma.About 4000 died along the way
Trail of Tears
SC's planters objected to a new tariff law passed in 1832 that lowered duties less than they had hoped; they also resented northern agitation against slavery. Radicals in the state saw the two issues as related (by tyranny of majority) and they turned to Calhoun's doctrine of nullification as a logical defense. Jackson believed if state could nullify federal law the Union couldn't exist
SC passed ordinance of nullification prohibiting collection of tariff duties in state and voted to authorize raising an army; Jackson began military prep of his own. "disunion by armed force is treason" according to Jackson. Congress compromised by reducing tariff & passing Force Bill granting pres additional authority to enforce revenue laws. SC repealed nullification ordinance & SC nullified Force Act to save face.
Nullification Controversy
· Calhoun attempted to make Jackson take strong stand as Southerner state rightists
· Jackson found out about plan
· Break between Calhoun and Jackson was made public here
Jefferson Day Banquet
· In 1832 President Jackson vetoed a politically motivated proposal to renew the charter of the second Bank of the United States. Jackson's veto
message asserted that the Bank was unconstitutional, a dangerous monopoly, and vulnerable to control by foreign investors
· Opposition to the Bank remained unfocused until Jackson brought it together
· Biddle drew closer to Clay and Webster, who hoped to use bank issue against Jackson; Clay and Webster urged Biddle to ask Congress to renew Bank charter early; bill passed Congress, but Jackson vetoed it
· After his reelection, Jackson withdrew gov't funds from
nat'l Banks and put them into pet banks
Veto of National Bank (BANK WAR)
· Following his victory in the Bank War, President Jackson decided to withdraw federal funds deposited from nat'l bank
· Secretary of Treasury Roger Taney then redeposited the funds in several state banks that Jackson's enemies dubbed.
Pet Banks
· In 1836, President Jackson issued this to halt a speculative land mania fueled by the easy availability of paper currency issued by state banks
· It provided that purchasers must pay for public land in gold and silver. It abruptly halted the speculative boom
Specie Circular
· President after Jackson; "Jacksonianism W/out Jackson"
· Approached most problems sensibly
· Had misfortune to take office as Panic of 1837 hit; didn't cause it, but his policies did nothing to help
· According to Robert Remini: given better times, Van Buren would have been very successful pres
Martin Van Buren
a. Called for construction of gov't owned vaults to store federal revenues; all payments to gov't were to be made in hard cash
b. Plan was economically irresponsible, but worked well for many years
Independent Subtreasury
A consequence of President Jackson's Specie Circular. The Panic passed quickly, but in 1839 falling cotton prices and state defaults on debts frightened investors and a general economic depression began that lasted until 1843.
Panic of 1837
· "Tippecanoe, and Tyler, Too." campaign slogan; log cabin was a symbol
· Whigs stole Democrats tactics by nominating a popular general and shouting praises of the common man
· Whigs nominated William Henry Harrison against Van Buren; contrasted Harrison's simplicity w/ suave Van Buren
· Huge turnout elected Harrison
"Log Cabin Campaign"
~won election with the "Log Cabin Campaign"
~died less than a month after inauguration; first time a president died in office
William Henry Harrison
~one of the least productive presidents there ever was
~vice-president when Harrison fell ill and died; his actions led to up to the civil war
~none of the parties accepted him; each thought be belonged to the other
John Tyler
~French visitor to U.S. in the early 1830’s
~He was impressed by the relative equality of opportunity and condition in
America and wrote of it in his classic description of Jacksonian American, Democracy in America
Alexis de Tocqueville
~a spiritual movement that began as an emotional counteroffensive to the deism identified with the French Revolution
~participating ministers assaulted Calvinism by stressing mercy, love, and benevolence of God
~they emphasized the ability of people to control their own fate, even achieve their own salvation
Second Great Awakening
~evangelist; brought the Second Great Awakening to its crest in the early
1830’s
~encouraged his listeners to take their salvation into their own hands, and
that, with the grace of God, salvation was available to anyone
Charles Grandison Finney
~most important of the religious communes founded in the early nineteenth century
~Joseph Smith founded the religion in western NY in the 1820’s
~they were resented because of their unorthodox religious views and exclusivism
~Brigham Young led them to a religious haven near Salt Lake City, UT in the 1840's where they have flourished ever since
Mormons
~an intellectual movement that represented the fullest expression of early
nineteenth century romanticism
~it was a mystical, intuitive way of looking at life
~adherents argued that humans could transcend reason and intellectual
capacities by having faith in themselves and the fundamental benevolence of the universe
Transcendentalists
~Brook Farm was a utopian community and experimental farm established in 1841 near Boston.
~Utopian societies felt they could make the world a better place
~Rappites- George Rapp, renounced marriage and sex; Shakers- Ann Lee, common property; Oneida- John Humphrey Noyes, complex marriages; New Harmony- Robert Owen, everybody shares everything; Fourierism- Charles Fourier, didn't try to change or tamper with religion
Utopian societies, such as Brook Farm, etc.
the author of The Last of the Mohicans in 1826; presented a vivid, if not romanticized, view of frontier life
James Fennimore Cooper
~New England's Puritan heritage and its continuing influence fascinated this romantic novelist
~his books analyzed the themes of guilt, sin, and pride
~he wrote The Scarlet Letter which was a sympathetic analysis of adultery
Nathaniel Hawthorne
~an American novelist who was acutely aware of the existence of evil in the world and his works reflected that insight
~Moby Dick dealt symbolically with the problem of good and evil, courage and cowardice, and, with faith, stubbornness and pride
Herman Melville
~one of the most imaginative romantics of the early nineteenth century
~he was fascinated with mystery, fright, and the occult
~of particular note was his work, The Raven
Edgar Allan Poe
~a belief in the moderate use of alcoholic beverages that attracted many advocates in the early nineteenth century
~waged a national crusade against drunkenness
~advocates used both moral appeals and the coercive power of law to successfully reduce consumption of intoxicating beverages
Temperance
~an early nineteenth century reformer devoted to improve the care of the insane
~she traveled extensively inspecting asylums and poorhouses, but in the long run, her hopes for reform were not realized
~Schools for blind and deaf.
~established after Dorthea Dix's attempts at a reform movement
Dorthea Dix
contrasted the Philadelphia System of solitary confinement and severe
punishment to the Auburn System of work but also had strict codes of conduct or a flogging would result
Prison reform
~an early nineteenth century education movement that was grounded in the belief that a successful republican government depended on an educated citizenry; this defined a need for free tax-supported common schools, which all children were expected to attend
~Horace Mann was the recognized leader of the movement
Free school movement
~aka Cult of True Womanhood
~term used to describe make expectations of females' roles in American society during the early nineteenth century
Cult of domesticity
~a women's rights meeting held in 1848
~drafted the Declaration of Sentiments modeled after the Declaration of
Independence
Seneca Falls Conference
~founded in 1817; purchased African land and established the Republic of Liberia; accomplished little
Liberty Party:
~Arthur and Lewis Tappan organized this political party after they broke w/ Garrison over issues of abolitionist's involvement in politics and the role of women in the movement
~nominated James Birney for president in 1840 and 1844, but he garnered few
votes
American Colonization Society
~former slave who escaped to the North and became active in the abolitionist
movement
~determined campaigner against slavery and racial prejudice
Frederick Douglass
~an immediate abolitionist; published The Liberator which was an abolitionist
newspaper that called for the immediate abolition of slavery and the treatment of blacks as equals
~he called for immediate, uncompensated emancipation of slaves, and for racial equality
~his confrontational tactics repelled moderate abolitionists and the general
public
William Lloyd Garrison
advocate of Fourierism; journalist; "Go West young man"
Horace Greeley
a romantic group of early nineteenth century artists specialized in grandiose
pictures of wild landscape
Hudson River School
~natives of SC; sisters who began a public career in the abolitionist movement
~male abolitionists objected to their prominence in the movement, and the
sisters turned to the advocacy of women's rights
Sarah Grimke, Angelina Grimke
organized the Seneca Falls Convention for women's rights in 1848
~campaigned for the woman's right to vote, own property, attend college, and
enter into professions
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
born a slave in Maryland; helped many slaves escape on Underground Railroad
Harriet Tubman
forerunner of modern black nationalism
David Walker
~In 1831, a Virginia slave, led a brief, but bloody slave revolt
against local whites
~When his revolt failed, he was captured, tried, and executed.
~The revolt terrified southern whites.
Nat Turner
~the idea that in time the U.S. would extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific
~people went westward believing it would happen; John L. O'Sullivan coined the
Manifest Destiny
~Stephen Austin got Spanish gov't to give permission for Americans to move into TX; Mexico took over
~Americans try for independence; Alamo attacked by Santa Anna; Battle of San Jacinto led by Sam Houston
~Independent TX appealed to U.S. for annexation
~TX flirts with Great Britain
~Sec. Of State Abel P. Upshur dies in accident and replaced my Calhoun
~Tyler annexed Texas right before his presidency ended
Texas revolution, annexation
~established eastern part of Canadian border (New Brunswick and Maine)
~Maine and Massachusetts wanted all of the land as drawn on the old Ben Franklin Map from the end of the Revolutionary war
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
established western border between U.S. and Canada
Buchanan-Packenham Treaty
~big expansionist; wanted to complete Manifest Destiny
~tried to provoke Mexico into war
~president
James K. Polk
~sent by Polk to buy upper and lower CA; Mexico refused Skirmish leading to Mexican War:
~border of Mexico wasn't defined; therefore differing opinions of borders lead to conflict
~Taylor went past Mexican border (Nueces River) to the Rio Grande (U.S. border)
~skirmish broke out; Polk said "American blood has been spilled on American soil"
~Abe Lincoln said "show me the spot"
John Slidell
the commander of American armies in northern Mexico during the Mexican War. In 1848 he was elected president as a Whig candidate. He died in office in 1850.
Zachary Taylor
commander of the campaign to capture Mexico City during the Mexican War. After an amphibious landing at Veracruz, his army marched overland and captured Mexico City in September 1847.
Winfield Scott
the agreement that ended the Mexican War in 1848. In it, Mexico accepted the Rio Grande as its boundary with Texas and ceded New Mexico and California to the United States. In return, the United States agreed to pay Mexico $15 million and assume the $3.25 million claims of American citizens against Mexico.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
an amendment to an 1846 appropriations bill provided for banning slavery from any territory the United States might acquire from Mexico as a result of war. It never passed Congress, but it generated a great debate on the authority of the federal government to ban slavery from the territories.
Wilmot Proviso
a confidential dispatch to the U.S. State Department from U.S. ambassadors in Europe. It suggested that if Spain refused to sell Cuba to the United States, the United States would be justified in seizing the island. Northerners claimed it was a plot to extend slavery and the Manifesto was disavowed.
Ostend Manifesto
1850, provided for the demilitarization and joint British-American control of any canal across the Central American isthmus of Panama. For Americans, it was a response to the need for improved communications to the West Coast.
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
in 1853, James Gadsden, U.S. Minister to Mexico, engineered the purchase of over 29,000 square miles of Mexico territory south of the Gila River. It provided a potential route for construction of a transcontinental railroad.
Gadsden Purchase
an idea hatched by Michigan Senator Lewis Cass in 1848. He urged it as a solution to the question of slavery in the territories. It called for Congress to organize territories without the mention of slavery, thus leaving it to settlers within the territories to determine the status of slavery.
popular sovereignty
Congress's attempt to settle several outstanding issues involving slavery. It banned the slave trade, but not slavery in Washington, D.C.; admitted California as a free state; applied popular sovereignty to the remaining Mexican Cession territory; settled the Texas-New Mexico boundary dispute; and passed a more stringent Fugitive Slave Act.
Compromise of 1850
this support system set up by antislavery groups in the Upper South and the North assisted fugitive slaves in escaping the South.
underground railroad
a novel written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in response to the Fugitive Slave Act. In it she presented slaves as real people to a northern audience that was moved by the trials and tribulations of Uncle Tom and his family. Many heretofore disinterested northerners now began to question the justness of slavery.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
in 1854, Senator Stephen A. Douglas introduced this proposal to organize the remaining Louisiana Purchase Territory. Since the Missouri Compromise had banned slavery in that territory, his proposal to use popular sovereignty to determine the fate of slavery in the territory outraged northerners.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
also known as the American party, this was a nativist, anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic political party organized in the early 1850s in response to the recent flood of Catholic immigrants from Ireland and Germany. The party enjoyed some success in local and state elections in 1854.
Know-Nothings
first presidential nominee of the new Republican party in 1856. Known as "the Pathfinder," he was a noted frontier soldier and a hero of the conquest of California during the Mexican War. He had little political experience.
John C. Fremont
the Republican Party organized in 1855 in response to the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act was a party composed of northerners who opposed the territorial expansion of slavery. It also adopted most of the Whigs' economic program. The party nominated John C. Fremont for president in 1856 and Abraham Lincoln in 1860.
Formation of Republican Party
the contest between pro and antislavery settlers for control of Kansas Territory provoked violence and bloodshed in 1855. For partisan reasons, President Pierce's administration failed to peacefully implement popular sovereignty in this region.
Bleeding Kansas
Charles Sumner, an abolitionist Senator from Massachusetts, was brutally beaten in 1856 by a proslavery congressman for his Crime Against Kansas speech, an abusive blast against proslavery politicians.
Caning of Sumner
a fraudulently adopted, proslavery constitution that Kansas presented with a request for admission to statehood in 1856. It generated a controversy that divided the Democratic party. Congress eventually rejected it, and Kansas was admitted as a free state in 1861.
Lecompton Constitution
in 1857 the Supreme Court ruled that blacks were not citizens and could not sue in a federal court, and that Congress had no constitutional authority to ban slavery from a territory, that, in effect, the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.
Dred Scott Decision
in the senate race in Illinois in 1858, Senator Stephen Douglas and Republican Abraham Lincoln conducted a series of debates. These debates focused on the implications of the Dred Scott decision and the future of slavery in America. Lincoln won wide acclaim in the North for his views. Douglas won reelection.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
John Brown's Raid was the ill-fated attempt of the eponymous New England abolitionist to free Virginia's slaves with a raid on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in 1859.
John Brown's Raid
the nation fragmented along political lines. Southern extremism as a reaction to Brown's Raid led to split in the Democratic party between Douglas (North) and Breckenridge (South). Southern demands included the recognized right of slavery and the right to move the slaves (their "property") anywhere they wished, even in the face of the rising free state majority. Douglas's position was popular sovereignty. Lincoln barely won the nomination for the Republican party; his moderate position and the convention's location in Illinois aided Lincoln's nomination. Constitutional party (remaining Whigs) nominated John Bell of Tennessee, who had a platform ignoring sectionalism. Votes were split; Lincoln won.
Election of 1860
days after Lincoln won, South Carolina predictably seceded from the Union on Dec. 20, 1860. Two levels of secession: first the deep South seceded, and then the upper tier states, like Virginia. Buchanan lacked the political skill and fortitude to guide the nation through secession.
secession of South
during the Secession Crisis in 1860-1861, Kentucky Senator John Crittenden proposed a North-South compromise on slavery. He proposed a constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in all territory south of 36e 30’, and an unamendable amendment guaranteeing slavery in slave states. President-elect Lincoln and the Republicans rejected the proposals.
Crittenden Compromise
built on a small island, Fort Sumter was designed to protect the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. When South Carolina seceded in December 1860, the garrison inside Fort Sumter remained loyal to the United States. When the fort's food supplies began to run out, President Lincoln's effort to replenish them generated military reprisal from Confederate forces. The shelling of Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, triggered open warfare between the United States and the Confederate secessionists.
Ft. Sumter
Delaware, Maryland, Missouri, Kentucky. The Emancipation Proclamation did not free the slaves in these states.
border states
North: population (especially including slaves), manufacturing, weapons production, fairly efficient railroads, and control of merchant marine & navy.
South: fighting a defensive war ("home field" advantage & morality), better military leaders, expected support from Britain for cotton (but did not get it).
advantages of each side in Civil War
the CSA was declared to be a nation in Montgomery, Alabama, in February 1861, after the seven states of the Lower South seceded from the United States.
Confederate States of America
Davis: first (and only) president of the Confederate States of America. He had been a respected Senator from Mississippi and former Secretary of War, but proved unable to provide strong national leadership for the Confederacy during the Civil War.
Lincoln: a one-term congressman from Illinois during the Mexican War. His debates with Senator Stephen Douglas in 1858 propelled him to national attention and the Republican nomination for president in 1860. He won the election and led the Union during the Civil War, during which he issued the Emancipation Proclamation.
comparison and contrast of Davis and Lincoln
the first Battle of Bull Run, fought July 21, 1861, was also the first major battle of the Civil War. Poorly organized Union troops under the command of General Irvin McDowell were repulsed by poorly organized Confederate troops under the command of General P.G.T. Beauregard. Both sides realized that the war would not end quickly with a single major showdown, and both sides fell back to prepare for larger military operations.
First Battle of Bull Run
in the spring of 1862, Union general George B. McClellan launched his Civil War campaign with Richmond as its objective; it failed despite superior numbers of federal troops.
Peninsular Campaign
in the second Battle of Bull Run, fought August 29 and 30, 1862, Confederate troops under the field command of Generals Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson and James Longstreet outmaneuvered and defeated Union troops under the rather inept command of General John Pope.
Second Bull Run
Lee knew South couldn't hold out as long as North; he decided to take offensive and went into Maryland. McClellan's army somehow stole Lee's battle plans. The battle was bloody and Lee was defeated, but he was allowed to escape. Lincoln then issued the Emancipation Proclamation.
Antietam
in this battle, fought December 13, 1862, Union General Ambrose E. Burnside failed to dislodge Confederate forces from their defensive position above this small Virginia city. Union forces lost heavily in a poorly conceived assault.
Fredericksburg
Chancellorsville was the site of a battle ending in May 1863, marked by a Confederate victory, during which General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson was mortally wounded
Chancellorsville
first engagement ever between two iron-clad naval vessels. The two ships battled in a portion of the Chesapeake Bay known as Hampton Roads for five hours on March 9, 1862, ending in a draw. Monitor- Union; Merrimac- Confederacy. Historians use the name of the original ship Merrimac on whose hull the Southern ironclad was constructed, even though the official Confederate name for their ship was the CSS Virginia.
Monitor v. Merrimac
Vicksburg was a key Mississippi River port and rail junction that fell in July 1863 to a brilliant Union campaign by Ulysses S. Grant, commander of the Army of Tennessee, during the Civil War.
Vicksburg
in 1861, a U.S. naval vessel intercepted a British ship, the Trent, and removed two Confederate envoys. This was a clear violation of international law. The British objected and threatened war, but the crisis passed when Lincoln released the two Confederates.
Trent Affair
expression used by Southern authors and orators before the Civil War to indicate the economic dominance of the Southern cotton industry, and that the North needed the South's cotton. In a speech to the Senate in 1858, James Hammond declared, "You daren't make war against cotton! Cotton is king!"
"King Cotton"
it freed all slaves in areas then in rebellion against the United States (i.e., the Confederacy) beginning January 1, 1863. By doing so, it made emancipation a war goal and speeded the destruction of slavery.
Emancipation Proclamation
Thirteenth: ratified in 1865, this abolished slavery and legally freed southern slaves. Ironically, by negating the Three-fifths Clause in the Constitution, it had the effect of increasing the representation of the southern states in Congress. Congressional Republicans balked at this.
Fourteenth: this Constitutional amendment passed by Congress in April 1866 incorporated some of the features of the Civil Rights Act of 1866. It prohibited states from violating the civil rights of its citizens and offered states the choice of allowing blacks to vote or losing representation in Congress.
Fifteenth: ratified in 1870, this forbade the states to deny the vote to anyone on the account of race, color, or for having been a slave. It was intended to guarantee blacks the right to vote in the South.
13, 14, 15th amendments
this Pennsylvania town was the site of a pivotal Union victory in July 1863 during the Civil War.
Gettysburg
on April 9, 1865, Confederate general Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union general Ulysses S. Grant in this town in south-central Virginia.
surrender at Appomattox
in September 1864, General William Sherman's army captured Atlanta and began marching toward Savannah on the Georgia coast. His march was designed to defeat the enemy's forces, destroy its economic resources, and break its will to resist.
Sherman's march to the sea
on April 14, 1865, while sitting in his box at Ford's Theatre watching "Our American Cousin," President Lincoln was shot by southerner John Wilkes Booth.
assassination of Lincoln
North used income tax, direct tax on states, loans, and greenbacks (paper money). South levied income tax, borrowed, printed Confederate money, which led to huge inflation by the end of the Civil War. South could also only ask for money from the seceded states; it could not require because of the states' rights belief.
financing war
an 1862 act that provided states with free grants of land at the rate of 30,000 acres for each member that state had in Congress. The grants were intended to support the building of state agricultural colleges.
Morrill Land Grant Act
passed in 1862, this act gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. It encouraged westward migration into the Great Plains after the Civil War.
Homestead Act
North used this plan created by Winfield Scott to strangle the South's economy and end the Civil War. Plan was to block southern shipping, cut off Louisiana and Texas from the rest of the South and the Mississippi River, and divide the remaining southern states in half.
Anaconda Plan
President Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction. It was a moderate and quick way to readmit former Confederate states during Reconstruction. When a number equal to 10% of a state's 1860 voters signed a loyalty oath, the state could begin the process of readmission.
10% Plan
a congressional substitute for Lincoln's ten percent plan. It required a majority of voters in a southern state to a take loyalty oath in order to begin the process of Reconstruction. It also required the repudiation of the Confederate debt.
Wade-Davis Bill
a federal refugee agency set up to aid former slaves after the Civil War. It provided them food, clothing, and other necessities as well as helping them find work and set up schools. Congress overrode President Johnson's veto of a renewal bill in 1866.
Freedmen's Bureau
VP who replaced Lincoln after assassination. Bad president. Had a horrible temper. Hated the rich.
Andrew Johnson
blacks could testify in court cases, marry, and some other rights, but could not bear arms or do anything other then farming.
Black Codes
attempted achieval of increased black civil rights, some were Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens
Radical Republicans
Main radical republicans. Sumner was the senate leader and Stevens was the house leader. insisted that the Confederate States had "committed suicide" and should be treated like "conquered provinces". Opposed the 10% plan.
Sumner, Stevens, Wade
vetoed extension of the Freedman's Bureau and civil rights act. Congress passed over the veto and now congress was in control of reconstruction.
Johnson's vetoes
a campaign issue made by Johnson which was a speech tour in protest of the Radicals.
Election of 1866 (Swing around the circle)
Frustrated by the refusal of the South to accept Reconstruction, and obsessed with the need to defeat Johnson, Congress passed a series of measures that threatened to destroy the balance of power between the three branches of Government (Judicial, Legislative, Executive).
Congressional Reconstruction
prohibits presidents to remove officials without the consent of the Senate
Tenure of Office Act
House impeached Johnson for removing Stanton without their consent. Senate fails by one vote to impeach him but he is weakened and eventually replaced by Grant.
Impeachment of Johnson
poor white inhabitants of the South who sought to gain power by taking advantage of newly-freed blacks, Northern Republicans who went south to gain political advancement and wealth, and The blacks were given the privileges and "immunities" granted to them under the Fourteenth Amendment.
Scalawags, Carpetbaggers, blacks in gov't in South
divided South into five military districts; ordered a Constitutional Convention with both black and white representatives; ratified the 14th amendment
Military Reconstruction
small plots of land given to black families to farm
Sharecropping
practiced black intimidation to stop blacks from voting
Ku Klux Klan
this would break up the KKK and other intolerant groups so blacks could vote
Force Acts
Reps = Rutherford Hayes. Dem = Samuel Tilden. Disputed election because FL, SC, LA had 2 gov'ts. Electoral commission declared Hayes winner.
Election of 1876
ended reconstruction, removed federal troops from S. confederate David Key Postmaster General.
Compromise of 1877
gold/silver led to boom towns. Permanent settlers. Gold provided money for imports and boomtowns added growth to agriculture and industry
Mining
cattle from ranches to cow towns to Chicago to the meatpacking plant.
Long Drive
Abilene, Wichita, Kansas City
Cow towns
major cattle trails
Trails such as Chisholm, Goodnight-Loving
young, cattle drivers
Cowboys
places between cow towns where the cattle could eat grass
Open range
Concentration, reservations , and acculturation. Killed buffalo
Removal of Plains Indians
tribes put together to make negotiation easier, places where Indians were put to live (controlled villages), made the Indians farmers and adapt to the white mans culture
Concentration, Reservations, Acculturation
An attempt to assimilate the Indians into American Society. This act divided tribal lands among all Indians with each receiving a portion of farmland.
Dawes Severalty Act
legalized Jim Crow laws that allowed states to segregate blacks and whites as long as the facilities provided were equal.
Plessy v Ferguson
Jim Crow laws, segregation.
Methods to disenfranchise blacks
black accomodationalist who told blacks to become self-reliant and to work hard so that they could earn the white men's respect.
Booker T. Washington
founder of NAACP. Favored immediate equality. Did not agree with Washington
WEB Dubois
organization of farmers formed after civil war
National Grange Movement
sought to outlaw excess of competition of business
Interstate Commerce Act
Supreme court ruling that said state could regulate business of public interest (railroads)
Munn v. Illinois
nat'l gov't, not states could regulate interstate commerce
Wabash Case
rebellion during the removal of plains Indians. Custer defeated by Sioux over gold in black hills of SD.
George Custer and Little Big Horn
laws of segregation in the south that attempted to subjugate blacks by restricting their economic and social growth.
Jim Crow Laws
integration, stimulated by industry
Growth of railroads
owned rail lines throughout the upper Midwest
Cornelius Vanderbilt
where two major railroads met
Promontory Point, Utah
(all done secretly) money off of items, rebates for other competitors
Rebates, drawbacks, pools
Multimillionaire who controlled a quarter of the steel industry with his industry, Carnegie Steel. He supported laissez - faire economy. He also believed the law of competition was beneficial and would bring long - term social benefits.
Andrew Carnegie
Men who improved the industry of steel production with the Bessemer process
Bessemer and Kelly
The process of monopolizing the whole business by controlling all of the parts from the raw materials to the finished product
Vertical Consolidation
made by JP Morgan after he bought steel company from Carnegie, first billion-dollar corporation
US Steel
Practiced horizontal consolidation by controlling refineries only. Eventually, he would control 90% of the American oil industry.
Rockefeller
major oil company owned by Rockefeller
Standard Oil Company
It was a gilded act that was created to suppress monopolistic control and plutocratic influence
Sherman Anti-trust Act
American Sugar Company had not violated any laws by taking over a number of competitors
US v EC Knight Co.
This means literally "to let alone." The phrase is commonly used to refer to a policy of no governmental interference in the economy or one's personal pursuit of material wealth. In practice, it opposes governmental regulation, but has no quarrel with government promotion of, or aid to, economic development.
Laissez-Faire
Natural scientist Charles Darwin's theory of evolution was thought by some to apply to business and social relationships. The "fittest" business or individual would succeed if left unrestricted. This promoted the values of competition and individualism.
Social Darwinism
This is the thesis that hard work and perseverance lead to wealth, implying that poverty is a character flaw.
"Gospel of Wealth"
Alexander Graham Bell invented the Telephone, Thomas Edison invented things like the Light Bulb, and Samuel Morse invented the telegraph.
Inventions and inventors, such as Bell, Edison, Morse
Growth of urban department stores; stores advertised heavily, stressing low prices, efficient service, and money back guarantees. High-volume made for large profits.
Marketing changes, such as department stores, chain stores, mail order
Lockout is where the job locks the worker out so that he cannot come back into work until they leave a labor union. Black lists are where the employer puts a person's name in the black list and if the person quits or is fired. The black list is sent to other companies or jobs for them not to be hired. A yellow dog contract is an employment contract that forbids membership into a labor union. A Court Injunction is an order of a court requiring a person, corporation, or government entity to stop doing something and refrain from doing that thing in the future. (like forming Unions)
Lockout, black lists, yellow dog contracts, court injunctions
Strikes are where workers refuse to work until the employer or company gives what they want. Boycotts- To abstain from or act together in abstaining from using, buying, or dealing with as an expression of protest or disfavor or as a means of coercion.
Strikes, Boycotts, etc
The Knights of Labor was organized in 1869 and headed by Uriah Stephens and Terence Powderly. It enjoyed brief success as a national labor organization, especially in the 1880s. It combined the roles of labor union and reform society, and its basic demand was for an eight-hour day. It declined when its advocacy of the eight-hour workday led to violent strikes in 1886.
Knights of Labor, Terrence V Powderly
In 1886, a meeting was called to protest the killing of a worker during a strike held for an eight-hour workday. The protest at Haymarket Square in Chicago was ended by a mysterious bomb blast that killed seven policemen. It resulted in public condemnation of organized labor and the demise of the Knights of Labor.
Haymarket Square Riot
This union formed in 1886 organized skilled workers along craft lines and emphasized a few workplace issues rather than a broad social program.
American Federation of Labor
A company decision to crush the workers' union provoked a strike at Andrew Carnegie's Homestead steel plant in Pittsburgh in 1892. With ruthless use of force, strikebreakers, and public support behind them, company officials effectively broke the strike and destroyed the union.
Homestead Strike
The strike at the Pullman railroad car company in Chicago was the most important strike of the late nineteenth century. It was provoked by wage cuts. Eugene V. Debs organized the strike, but it was broken when President Cleveland sent federal troops to keep the trains running.
Pullman Strike
Some Pullman workers belonged to the American Railway Union, headed by this guy.
Eugene Debs
the new immigrants of America came from south and east Europe. Many were Catholic, had a different language, and were viewed as not easily assimilated. Many people called for their restriction and they were thought to be racially inferior. There was a revival of nativism with the growth of ethnic communities.
Old vs New Immigration
This law passed by Congress in 1882 prohibited Chinese immigration to the United States; it was overturned in 1943.
233. Chinese Exclusion Act
changed the character of big-city life. They increase the distance that people could conveniently walk to work. She cars increased city radius to 6 mi. or more, which meant that the area of city expanded enormously. These speeded suburban growth.
Street cars
promoted by Louis Sullivan, Sullivan, a leading architect of skyscrapers in the late nineteenth century, stressed the need for building designs that followed function. His works combined beauty, modest cost, and efficient use of space.
Skyscrapers
since the new immigrants lack the resources to travel to the agriculturally developing regions, immigrant concentration became even denser in the cities, which spurred the development of many of these. These are often crowded, unhealthy, and crime-ridden.
Ethnic Communities
a California journalist, who published Progress and Poverty, a forthright attack on the maldistribution of wealth in the United States
Henry George
He wrote the utopian novel "Looking Backward, 2000-1887," in 1888. The book envisioned America in the future as a completely socialized society where all were equal.
Edward Bellamy
They were community centers located in poor urban districts of major cities. They were usually run by single, young, college-educated women. They tried to Americanize immigrant families and provided social services and a political voice for their neighborhoods.
Settlement Houses
made the Hull House in Chicago in 1889
Jane Addams
This that was preached by many urban Protestant ministers focused on improving living conditions for the city's poor rather than on saving souls. They advocated civil service reform, child labor laws, government regulation of big business, and a graduated income tax.
Social Gospel
He was a lay evangelist who urged slum dwellers to cast aside their sinful ways. He preached that faith in God would enable the poor to transcend the material difficulties of life.
Dwight Moody
This stressed meticulous research and freedom of inquiry. It specialized in graduate education and attracted scholars and faculty from throughout America and Europe.
John Hopkins University
Author (born Samuel Clemens) wrote several books that caught the spirit of the Gilded Age. His works combined real depth with a comic genius that exposed the pretentiousness and meanness of human beings. They were very popular and have lasting appeal.
Mark Twain
A leading late nineteenth-century literary realist and influential critic, His works described both the genteel, middle-class world he knew and the whole range of metropolitan life. "Silas Lapham," his masterpiece, dealt
with the ethical conflicts inherent in a competitive society.
William Dean Howells
a prominent realist who studied in Europe in the late 1860s and was influenced by the great realists 17th-century. He spent the remainder of his life teaching and painting.
Thomas Eakins
Whistler's portrait of his mother ("Whistler's Mother") is probably the most famous painting by an American. He was an eccentric, but he was also talented and versatile, proficient in both realistic and romantic art.
James McNeill Whistler
landscape architect, designer of New York's Central Park, was a leading figure in the movement
Frederick Law Olmstead
This was a sarcastic name given to the post civil war era by Mark Twain in his book "The Gilded Age." He said that the age looked "gold-plated" but in the reality the core was made of lead.
Gilded Age
the tactic of reminding the electorate of the Northern states that the men who had taken the south out of the Union and precipitated the Civil War had been Democrats and that their descendents were still Democrats.
"waving the bloody shirt"
Ohio Governor was the Republican nominee for president in 1876. He was elected when a special electoral commission gave several disputed electoral votes to him.
Rutherford Hayes
a compromise "dark horse" nominee of the Republican party, was elected president in 1880. He was a weak and indecisive leader. Charles Guiteau, a frustrated Stalwart, assassinated him four months after he become president
James Garfield
Led by New York Senator Roscoe Conkling, the Stalwart, anti-reform faction on the Republican party believed in the blatant pursuit of the spoils of office. Their main party rivals were the more circumspect Half-Breeds. Half Breeds- They were a more reform minded and circumspect faction of the Republican party than their major rivals, the Stalwarts. Both factions were mainly interested in patronage.
Stalwarts
In the 1884 presidential election, a group of eastern Republicans, disgusted with corruption in the party, campaigned for the Democrats. These thought corruption brought inefficiency to government, but were conservative on the money question and government regulation.
Mugwumps
Guiteau was a mentally unbalanced Stalwart office seeker who, in frustration, assassinated President James Garfield in 1881
Charles Guiteau
His vice-president and a former Collector of the New York Customs House, became president when Garfield was assassinated in 1881. Like presidents Hayes and Garfield, He was not a strong presidential leader
Chester Arthur
Ultra-conservative Thomas "Czar" Reed was a long-time Speaker of the House in the late nineteenth century. He ruled the House with an iron hand.
Thomas "Czar" Reed
The 1883 Act brought civil service reform to federal employment, thus limiting the spoils system. It classified many government jobs and required competitive examinations for these positions. It also outlawed forcing political contributions from appointed officials.
Pendleton Act
the treasury's supply of gold dwindled as worried citizens exchange greenbacks for hard money. The government tried to sell bonds for gold to bolster the reserve, but since most investors purchased the bonds with gold-backed paper money, in effect withdrawing gold from the treasury and then returning it for the bonds, the gold reserve continued to melt away.
Soft vs Hard Money
a noted waver of the "bloody shirt" accusing Democrats of treason for the Civil War, was elected president in 1888. Like other late nineteenth-century presidents, he usually deferred to Congress for leadership on the issues.
Benjamin Harrison
under Harrison, Congress distinguished itself by expending, for the first time in a period of peace more than $1 billion in a single session.
Billion Dollar Congress
This Republican enactment of 1890 sharply raise tariff rates to protect American manufacturers but thereby provoked a political backlash against the GOP.
McKinley Tariff
denounced the use of Pinkerton detective in labor disputes and backed the eight-hour day and the restriction of "undesirable" immigration
Populist Party Platform
Iowa reformer, was nominated for president by the Populist party in 1892. He won a million votes, but the party failed to unite black and white farmers in the South or to attract significant support from labor.
James B. Weaver
In 1894, Ohio small-town businessman Jacob Coxey led an "army" of unemployed workers to Washington, D.C. They demanded a federal public works program to make jobs available to those left unemployed by the Panic of 1893. He was arrested for trespassing on the White House lawn.
Coxey's Army
on the strength of his famous "Cross of Gold" speech, won the Democratic and Populist parties' nominations for president in 1896. He campaigned widely on a "free silver" platform for currency inflation, but was defeated by Republican William McKinley. He was later President Wilson's secretary of state, and a leading figure in the 1924 Scopes trial.
William Jennings Bryan
President McKinley's campaign manager in the election of 1896-a kingmaker. He was a skillful organizer and money raiser who masterminded McKinley's front porch campaign. After McKinley was elected, he was elected to the Senate w here he became a spokesman for business interests.
Marcus Hanna
New York Republican Senator who won the presidential election in 1896. He was a noted expert on tariff policy (he was pro-protectionist) and was a solid supporter of the gold standard. He won reelection in 1900, but was assassinated by anarchist Leon Czolgosz in 1901.
William McKinley
marked by the election of 1896, it was mainly due to the failure of the party's effort to unite white and black farmers in the south and to unite northern and southern farmers. Also unhelpful was the triumph of the industrial part of the country over the agricultural.
Populist Demise