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85 Cards in this Set

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government
The institutions and processes through which public policies are made for a society.
1. Introducing Government in America
public goods
Goods, such as clean air and clean water, that everyone must share.
1. Introducing Government in America
politics
The process by which we select our governmental leaders and what policies these leaders pursue. It produces authoritative decisions about public issues.
1. Introducing Government in America
political participation
All the activities used by citizens to influence the selection of political leaders or the policies they pursue. Voting is the most common but not the only means of this in a democracy. Other means include protest and civil disobedience.
1. Introducing Government in America
single-issue groups
Groups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics. These features distinguish them from traditional interest groups.
1. Introducing Government in America
policymaking system
The process by which policy comes into being and evolves over time. People's interests, problems, and concerns create political issues for government policymakers. These issues shape policy, which in turn impacts people, generating more interests, problems, and concerns.
1. Introducing Government in America
linkage institutions
The political channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the policy agenda. In the United States, these include elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media.
1. Introducing Government in America
policy agenda
The issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actually involved in politics at any given point in time.
1. Introducing Government in America
political issue
An issue that arises when people disagree about a problem and how to fix it.
1. Introducing Government in America
policymaking institutions
The branches of government charged with taking action on political issues. The US Constitution established three policymaking institutions - the Congress, the presidency, and the courts. Today, the power if the bureaucracy is so great that most political scientists consider it a fourth policymaking institution.
1. Introducing Government in America
public policy
A choice that government makes in response to a political issue.
1. Introducing Government in America
policy
A course of action taken with regard to some problem.
1. Introducing Government in America
democracy
A system of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public's preferences.
1. Introducing Government in America
majority rule
A fundamental principle of traditional democratic theory. In a democracy, choosing among alternatives requires that the majority's desire be respected.
1. Introducing Government in America
minority rights
A principle of traditional democratic theory that guarantees rights to those who do not belong to majorities and allows that they might join majorities through persuasion and reasoned argument.
1. Introducing Government in America
representation
A basic principle of traditional democratic theory that describes the relationship between the few leaders and the many followers. The desires of the people should be replicated in government through the choices of elected officials.
1. Introducing Government in America
pluralist theory
A theory of government and politics emphasizing that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies.
1. Introducing Government in America
elite and class theory
A theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization.
1. Introducing Government in America
hyperpluralism
A theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened. This theory is an extreme or exaggerated form of pluralism.
1. Introducing Government in America
policy gridlock
A condition that occurs when no coalition is strong enough to form a majority and establish policy. The result is that nothing may get done.
1. Introducing Government in America
gross domestic product
The sum total of the value of all the goods and services produced in a nation.
1. Introducing Government in America
individualism
The belief that individuals should be left on their own by the government. One of the primary reasons for the comparatively small scope of American government is the prominence of this belief in American political thought and practice.
1. Introducing Government in America
constitution
A nation's basic law. It creates political institutions, assigns or divides powers in government, and often provides certain guarantees to citizens. They can be either written or unwritten.
2. The Constitution
Declaration of Independence
The document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence.
2. The Constitution
natural rights
Rights inherent in human beings, not dependent on governments, which include life, liberty, and property. The concept of these rights was central to English philosopher John Locke's theories about government, and was widely accepted among America's Founding Fathers.
2. The Constitution
consent of the governed
The idea that government derives its authority by sanction of the people.
2. The Constitution
limited government
The idea that certain restrictions should be placed on government to protect the natural rights of citizens.
2. The Constitution
Articles of Confederation
The first constitution of the United States, adopted by Congress in 1777 and enacted in 1781. It established a national legislature, the Continental Congress, but most authority rested with the state legislatures.
2. The Constitution
Shays' Rebellion
A series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by Revolutionary War Captain Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings.
2. The Constitution
US Constitution
The document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structure of US government and the tasks these institutions perform. It replaced the Articles of Confederation.
2. The Constitution
factions
Interest groups arising from the unequal distribution of property or wealth that James Madison attacked in Federalist Paper No. 10. Today's parties or interest groups are what Madison had in mind when he warned of the instability in government caused by these.
2. The Constitution
writ of habeas corpus
A court order requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody.
2. The Constitution
separation of powers
A feature of the Constitution that requires each of the three branches of government - executive, legislative, and judicial - to be relatively independent of the others so that one cannot control the others. Power is shared among these three institutions.
2. The Constitution
checks and balances
Features of the Constitution that limit government's power by requiring that power be balanced among the different governmental institutions. These institutions continually constrain one another's activities.
2. The Constitution
republic
A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws.
2. The Constitution
Federalists
Supporters of the US Constitution at the time the states were contemplating its adoption.
2. The Constitution
Anti-Federalists
Opponents of the American Constitution at the time when the states were contemplating its adoption.
2. The Constitution
Federalist Papers
A collection of 85 articles (appearing in newspapers) written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail.
2. The Constitution
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the US Constitution, drafted in response to some of the Anti-Federalist concerns. These amendments define such basic liberties as freedom of religion, speech, and press and guarantee defendants' rights.
2. The Constitution
Equal Rights Amendment
A constitutional amendment passed by Congress in 1972 stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridges by the United States or by any state on account of sex." The amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from three-fourths of the state legislatures, and thus was not adopted as an amendment to the US Constitution.
2. The Constitution
judicial review
The power of the courts to determine whether acts of Congress, and by implication the executive, are in accord with the US Constitution. It was established by John Marshall and his associates in Marbury v. Madison.
2. The Constitution
federalism
A way of organizing a nation so that two or more levels of government have formal authority over the same land and people. It is a system of shared power between units of government.
3. Federalism
unitary governments
A way of organizing a nation so that all power resides in the central government. Most national governments today are this type.
3. Federalism
intergovernmental relations
The workings of the federal system - the entire set of interactions among national, state, and local governments.
3. Federalism
supremacy clause
Article VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting withing its constitutional limits.
3. Federalism
Tenth Amendment
The constitutional amendment stating that "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people."
3. Federalism
enumerated powers
Powers of the federal government that are specifically addressed in the Constitution; for Congress, these powers are listed in Article I, Section 8, and include the power to coin money, regulate its value, and impose taxes.
3. Federalism
implied powers
Powers of the federal government that go beyond those enumerated in the Constitution. The Constitution states that Congress has the power to "make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution" the powers enumerated in Article I.
3. Federalism
elastic clause
The final paragraph of Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which authorizes Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers.
3. Federalism
full faith and credit clause
A clause in Article IV, Section 1, of the Constitution requiring each state to recognize the official documents and civil judgments rendered by the courts of other states.
3. Federalism
extradition
A legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed.
3. Federalism
privileges and immunities
A clause in Article IV, Section 2, of the Constitution according citizens of each state most of the privileges of citizens of other states.
3. Federalism
dual federalism
A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies.
3. Federalism
cooperative federalism
A system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government. They may also share costs, administration, and even blame for programs that work poorly.
3. Federalism
fiscal federalism
The pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system; it is the cornerstone of the national government's relations with state and local governments.
3. Federalism
categorical grants
Federal grants that can be used only for specific purposes, or "categories," of state and local spending. They come with strings attached, such as nondiscrimination provisions.
3. Federalism
project grants
Federal categorical grants given for specific purposes and awarded on the basis of the merits of applications. An example is a National Science Foundation grant obtained by a university professor.
3. Federalism
formula grants
Federal categorical grants distributed according to a formula specified in legislation or in administrative regulations. Examples are grants for Medicaid, child nutrition programs, sewage treatment plant construction, public housing, community development programs, and training and employment programs.
3. Federalism
block grants
Federal grants given more or less automatically to states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development and social services.
3. Federalism
civil liberties
The legal constitutional protections against government. Although those of the U.S. are formally set down in the Bill of Rights, the courts, police, and legislatures define their meaning.
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, which define such basic liberties as freedom of religion, speech and press and guarantee defendants' rights.
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
First Amendment
The constitutional amendment that establishes the four great liberties: freedom of the press, of speech, of religion, and of assembly.
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
Fourteenth Amendment
The constitutional amendment adopted after the Civil War that states, "No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
incorporation doctrine
The legal concept under which the Supreme Court has nationalized the Bill of Rights by making most of its provisions applicable to the states through the Fourteenth Amendment.
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
establishment clause
Part of the First Amendment stating that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion."
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
free exercise clause
A First Amendment provision that prohibits government from interfering with the practice of religion.
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
prior restraint
A government preventing material from being published. This is a common method of limiting the press in some nations, but it is usually unconstitutional in the U.S., according to the First Amendment and as confirmed in the 1931 Supreme Court case of Near v. Minnesota.
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
libel
The written publication of false or malicious statements that damage someone's reputation.
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
slander
The act of making false or malicious spoken statements that damage someone's reputation.
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
symbolic speech
Nonverbal communication, such as burning a flag or wearing an armband. The Supreme Court has accorded some symbolic speech protection under the First Amendment.
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
commercial speech
Communication in the form of advertising. It can be restricted more than many other types of speech but as been receiving increased protection from the Supreme Court.
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
probable cause
The situation occurring when the police have reason to believe that a person should be arrested. In making the arrest, police are allowed legally to search for and seize incriminating evidence.
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
unreasonable searches and seizures
Obtaining evidence in a haphazard or random manner, a practice prohibited by the Fourth Amendment. Probable cause and/or a search warrant are required for a legal and proper search for and seizure of incriminating evidence.
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
search warrant
A written authorization from a court specifying the area to be searched and what the police are searching for.
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
exclusionary rule
The rule that evidence, no matter how incriminating, cannot be introduced into a trial if it was not constitutionally obtained. The rule prohibits use of evidence obtained through unreasonable search and seizure.
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
Fifth Amendment
The constitutional amendment designed to protect the rights of persons accused of crimes, including protection against double jeopardy, self-incrimination, and punishment without due process of law.
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
self-incrimination
The situation occurring when an individual accused of a crime is compelled to be a witness against himself or herself in court. The Fifth Amendment forbids this situation.
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
Sixth Amendment
The constitutional amendment designed to protect individuals accused of crimes. It includes the right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, and the right to a speedy and public trial.
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
plea bargaining
A bargain struck between the defendant's lawyer and the prosecutor to the effect that the defendant will plead guilty to a lesser crime (or fewer crimes) in exchange for the state's promise not to prosecute the defendant for a more serious (or additional) crime.
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
Eighth Amendment
The constitutional amendment that forbids cruel and unusual punishment, although it does not define this phrase. Through the Fourteenth Amendment, this Bill of Rights provision applies to the states.
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
cruel and unusual punishment
Court sentences prohibited by the Eighth Amendment. Although the Supreme Court has ruled that mandatory death sentences for certain offenses are unconstitutional, it has not held that the death penalty itself constitutes this form of punishment.
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
right to privacy
The right to a private personal life free from the intrusion of the government.
4. Civil Liberties and Public Policy
civil rights
Policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government officials or individuals.
5. Civil Rights and Public Policy
Fourteenth Amendment
The constitutional amendment adopted after the Civil War that states, "No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny any to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws."
5. Civil Rights and Public Policy
equal protection of the laws
Part of the Fourteenth Amendment emphasizing that the laws must provide equivalent "protection" to all people.
5. Civil Rights and Public Policy