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28 Cards in this Set

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ad hoc structuer
A method in which the president organizes his personal staff that employes task forces, committees, and informal groups of friends dealing directly with him
Budget Reform act of 1974
A congressional effort to control presidential impoundments. It requires, among other things, that the prsident spend all appropriated funds unless he first tells Congress whcih funds he wishes to spend and Congress, within forty-five days, agrees to delete the items.
cabinet
By custom, the heads of the fourteen major excutive deparments who meet to discuss matters with the president. These "secretaries" recieve their positions by presidential nominations and confirmation by the Senate. They can be removed at the will of the prsident.
circular structure
A method in which the president organizes his personal staff that has cabinet secretaries and assistants reporting directly to te president.
direct democracy
A form of democracy in which the people legislate for themselves.
electoral college
The body that formally selects the president. Each state is allotted ellectoral votes equal to the number of its representative and senators in Congress. it can decide how its electors are to be chosen and under what method they cast their votes for president.
executive agencies
Federal agencies that are part of the executive branch but outside the structure of cabinet departments. Their heads typically serve at the pleaure of the president and can be rmoved at the president's discretion.
Executive Office of the Presdient
Executive agencies that report directly to the president and whose purpose is to perfom staff services for the president. Top postioins are filled by presidential nomination with Senate confirmation.
executive prvilege
A claim by the president entitling him to withold infomation from the courts or Congress. In 1973, the Supreme Court ruled that such a claim is valid when sensitive military or diplomatic matters are involved, but it refused to recognize an "absolute unqualifed" presidential privilege of immunity.
impeachment
A form of indictment voted on by the House of Representatives. It can be brought against the president, the vice president, and all "civil officers" of the federal government. To be removed from his or her positon, the impeached officer must be convicted by a two-thirds vote of the Senate.
impoundment
The refusal fo the president to spend money appropriated by Congress. The Constitution is silent on this power, but the Budget Reform Act of 1974 limites the president's ability to impound funds.
independent agencies
Federal agencies that are part of the executive branch but outside the structure of cabinet departments. Their heads typically serve fixed terms of office and can be removed only for cuase.
inherent powers
Powers not specified in the Constitution which the president claims. These pwoers are asserted by virtue of office.
lame duck
A politician whose power has beendiminished becuase he or she is about to leave office as a result of electoral dfeat or statutory limitation.
legislative veto
A method by which congress in law allows either one or both houses to block a proposed executive action. It is frequently used for presidential reorganization plans of the executive branch. These vetoes were declared unconstitutional in 1981.
Office of Management and Budget
Created as the Bureau of the Budget in 1921, the OMB was rorganized in 1970. It assembles and analyzes the national budget sbumitted to Congress by the president. Additional duties include studying the organization and operation of the executive branch, devising plans for reoganizing departments and agencies, developing ways of gettting better information about government progams, and reviewing proposals that cabinet departments want included in the president's legislative program.
perks
A short form of the term "perquisites," meaning the fringe benefits of office.
pocket veto
One of two ways for a presdient to disapprove a bill sent to him by Congress. If the president does not sign the bill withing ten days of receiving it, and Congress has adjourned with that time, the bill does not become law.
presidential coattails
The charismatic power of a president which enables congressional cnadidates of the same party to ride into offic eon the strength of his popularity. This influence has declined in recent elections.
prime minister
The head of governmetn in a parliamentary system. Chosen by the le4gilature, this officail selects the other ministers of govenment from among the members of parliamnet and remains in power as long as his her party has a majority of seats in the legislature, as long as the assmbled coaltiion holds together, or until the next scheduled election.
pyramid structure
A method in which the president organized his personal staff that has most assistants reporting though a hierachy to a chief of staff.
recissions
Presidentail recommendations to cut parts of appropriations bilss; a 1996 law allows the president's recissions to go into effect unless they are overridden by a thwo-thirds vote in Congress.
representaive democracy
A form of government in which the people elect representatives to act on their behalf.
Twenty-fifth Amendment
A constitutional amendment ratified in 1967 which deals with presidential disablity. It proves that the vice president is to serve as acting presdent whenever the president declares he is unable to discharge the duties of office or whenever the vice president and a majority of the cabinet declare the president incapacitated.
Twenty-second Amwndment
A constituional amendment ratified in 1952 which limites presidents to two terms of office.
unified governmetn
A government in which the same party controls the presidency and both houses of Congress
veto message
A statement the president sends to Congress accompanying a refusal to sign a bill passed by both houses. It indicates the president's resasons for the veto. A two-thirds bote of both houses overrides the veto.
White House Office
Personal assistants to the president with offices in the White House. These aides oversee the political and policy interests of the present and do not require Senate confrimation for appointment. They can be removed at the discretion fot he presdient.