Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
imposed harsh military regime on Jamestown and took aggressive military action against Indians
Lord De La Warr
saved John Smith, became a mediator between Indians and settlers, and married John Rolfe
dominated James River tribes, saw colonists at first as allies in his struggle to further extend his power over Indian rivals, but quickly changed attitude when settlers raided Indian food supply
Iroquois prophet who encouraged the tribe to change its ways
Handsome Lake
the economic savior of Virginia as father of tobacco industry, married Pocahontas
John Rolfe
prominent English Catholic who organized a feudal Maryland (St. Mary's), and exercised religious toleration for everyone except Jews and Atheists
Lord Baltimore
organized expedition to Roanoke Island, named Virginia...bonus: who was his brother?
Walter Raleigh
the imperialist and philanthropistfounder of Georgia, wanted to reform prison, and repelled attacks
James Oglethorpe
tried to start English colony in Newfoundland
Humphrey Gilbert
Puritan who had Charles I beheaded, and ruled England for a decade as "the great protector"
Oliver Cromwell
reformed colonists, "he who shall not work shall not eat", saved by Pocahontas
John Smith
worked to convert Indians, founded the Methodist Church
John Wesley
most famous sea dog, plundered his way through the seas (Spanish booty), and knighted by Queen Elizabeth
Francis Drake
accompanied John Smith as deputy governor, and wrote A Discourse of the Plantation of Virginia
George Percy
Quaker who founded Pennsylvania, improved white-Indian relations
William Penn
English writer who stressed colonization of the New World
Richard Hakluyt
founded Church of England with the Act of Supremacy
Henry VIII
secretly supported sea dog plundering, and funded New World expeditions, rivaled Spain
Elizabeth I
leader of Spain in opposition to Elizabeth, and organized the failed Spanish Armada which in part led to Spanish downfall
Philip II
Shrewd Scotsman who emphasized connection of Church and state in England, Jamestown named after him, gave Virginia Company of London a charter for settlement of the New World
James I
king of England who disagreed on many accounts with Parliament, eventually beheaded by Oliver Cromwell
Charles I
brought about English Restoration and took more control of colonies discouraging those who had become independent of England
Charles II
founded League of Iroquois, in part, binding together 5 of the Indian nations
Deganawidah and Hiawatha
Georgia was named for him
George II
sovereign state whose inhabitants share a feeling of common nationality in language, culture, history, and religion
nation state
provided financial means for English exploration and colonization, received various charters from kings to settle in the new world
joint-stock company
forced labor, mostly of Africans, born in North America as a result the demand for labor to fuel the growing tobacco industry
sheep and other livestock that supported English economy enclosed land to graze on
first of many representative legislative bodies (mini-parlianments) in US, established in Virginia which James I distrusted
House of Burgesses
land given by a king to a joint-stock company or an individual that is really ruled by the king
royal charter
defined a slaves' legal status and their masters' prerogatives
slave codes
a farmer who grow crops to support himself and family(live off the land) and sells surplus for a small profit
land owner
a long communal dwelling in which Indians live
people who settle or occupy property, especially otherwise unoccupied property, without any title, right, or payment of rent
swash-buckling scally-wags who plundered European and Caribbean waters, especially English who smuggled Spanish booty
sea dogs
decreed that only elder sons were eligible to inherit landed estates
law of premogeniture
the binding of poor persons to work for a certain number of years to pay their passage
indentured servitude
winter 1609-1610 through which only 60 people survived in Jamestown
starving time
when farmers took to roads in the 1500s and drifted about England, creating excess of the number of people--> they needed to do something about it because it was becoming overbearing
surplus population
period of time in which De La Warr was given an order to go to war with Indians, ended in 1614 with the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe
First Anglo-Powhatan War
period of time during which Indians made one last effort to dislodge the Virginians, but made no difference--> peace treaty banished Indians from new land & forbid mingling
Second Anglo-Powhatan War
of 1649 passed by local representative assembly in Maryland; tolerance for all Christians and death penalty if one didnt believe in the divinity of Jesus
Maryland Act of Toleration
denied even the most fundamental rights to slaves and gave masters full and total control
Barbados slave trade
joint-stock company that received charter from James I for a settlement in the New World--charter guaranteed settlers the same rights as Englishmen
after Civil War; empire building resumed with greater intensity
had alliance with Carolinas but ended it to migrate to Maryland and Pennsylvania
Savannah Indians
union of 5 Iroquois Indian tribes
Iroquois Confederacy
tried to throw off English under Queen Elizabeth, but were crushed
primitive outpost of the Spanish 1610
Santa Fe
primitive outpost of the French 1608
primitive outpost of the English 1607, founded by Virginia Company and named after James I
named for king; busiest seaport in south, rich aristocratic flavor, religious tolerance, and culturally diverse
Charles Town
representative self-government assembly authorized by the London Company
House of Burgesses
Protestants and Catholics constantly fighting, with Christian denominations eventually forming their own ideas and breaking away from the Church; started with Martin Luther and Henry VIII, became dominant with Elizabeth I
Protestant Reformation
"invincible" fleet of Spanish ships sent by Philip II to invade England; failed and served as the catalyst for the eventual downfall of Spain
Spanish Armada
a few dozen small tribes loosely affiliated with each other on James River; Powhatan took control over; downfall was disease, disorganization, and disposability
Powhatan's Confederacy
where Virginia Company's 3 ships first landed and where settlers were attacked by Indians
in the 1640's, the struggle for power in England starting with Charles I's beheading and ending with the Restoration with Charles II
English Civil War
island shrouded by the mysterious disappearance of its settlers; founded by Walter Raleigh
Roanoke Island
Virginia's main crop "poor man's crop" on which prosperity and the slave labor system were built
"rich man's crop", only wealthy capital growers succeeded in planting-slave labor imports
a slow-growing buffer colony against Spanish Florida and French Louisiana, named for George II, known for debtors, silk, wine, and determination to keep slavery out for as long as possible