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11 Cards in this Set

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Blood -
Interstitial fluid -
Blood is a CT
a. matrix
b. cell = rbs, wbc, platlets
Widely sepearated in matrix

Fluid that bathes body cells
Fxns of blood
1.Transport- 02 to lungs, Co2 from tissue, nutrients, waste

2.Regulation a) maintain body temp (b) pH maintenance - pH buffers maintain in 7.35-7.45 range (c) water content of cells - ossmostic preesure

3.Protection
a.Against blood loss - Clots
b.Against disease
1.Fight invading organisms (phagocytosis)
2.Produce proteins (Ab, interferons, complement, etc.)
Characterisitics of Blood
1.55% plasma and 45% formed elements (cells)
a.plasma
1.proteins 7%
2.water 91.5%
3.other solutes 1.5%

b.formed elements (per microliter of blood)
1.RBC 4.8-5.4 million - most numberous
2.WBC 5,000-10,000
3.Platelets 150,000-400,000
2.Temperature of blood is 38C (100.4)
3.pH of blood is 7.35-7.45
4.20% extracellular fluid and 8% of the body mass

5.volume
a.males 5 to 6 L (1.5 gallons)
b.females 4 to 5 L (1.2 gallons)

6.withdrawing blood
a. venipuncture
b. finger/heel stick
c. arterial stick
Blood Composition -
PLASMA
1.Plasma: Watery liquid that forms the extracellular matrix and contains dissolved gases, hormones and other solutes

b.91.5% water and 8.5% solutes (majority of solutes are proteins)

A.Plasma proteins
1. Regulate osmotic pressure (impact fluid exchange at capillary walls)
2.Albumins (54%)- transport lipids (steriods) fatty acids
3.Globulins (38%) - made by plasma cells - WBC that produce antibodies, transport fat soluable vitamens
4.Fibrinogen (7%)- blood clotting transport
d. Other solutes in Plasma (remaining 1%)

1.Electrolytes (IONS)
i.Inorganic salts
ii.Cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+)
iii.Anions (Cl-, HPO42-, SO42- HCO3-)

2.Nutrients
i.Amino acids - building blocks for proteins
ii.Glucose
iii.Fatty acids
iv.Glycerol
v.Vitamins
vi.minerals

3.Gases: O2, CO2, N2
4.Regulatory Substances
i. Enzymes
ii. Hormones
iii. Cofactors (vitamins)

5.Waste
i.CO2 (krebs cycle)
ii.Urea
iii.Uric Acid
iv.Creatine
v.Creatinine
vi.Bilirubin
vii.Ammonia
Blood Composition-
FORMED ELEMENTS
2.Formed Elements: cells and cell fragments

1.Erythrocytes (RBC) - most numerous in millions
2.Thrombocytes (platelets) - second in hundreds of thousands
3.Leukocytes (WBC) - least numerous (5-10K)= 2 kinds:
i.Granular - have vessicles/ granuals seen
1. Neutrophils (60-70%)
2. Eosinophils (2-4%)
3. Basophils (0.5-1%)

ii.Agranular
1. Monocytes (3-8%)
2. Lymphocytes (20-25%)
a. T-Cells(T-lymphocyte)
b. B-Cells (B-lymphocyte
Hematocrit

Complete blood count
Hematocrit: Blood volume occupied by RBCs
2.40 indicates 40% of the volume is composed of RBCs
3.normal range - (Females = 38-46, Males = 40-54)
4.testosterone stimulates erythropoietin (EPO)

5.Anemia: Lower than normal hematocrit in most cases
ii. Hemorrhagic - b/c of bleeding
iii. Pernicious - vitamen B12 deficency
iv. Sickle cell - genetic, RBC's have wrong shape
v. Hypochromic - Iron defiency
vi. Hemolytic - microbe causing RBC's to pop

6.Erythrocytosis - High RBC's, blood too thick, heart works too hard, cardiac arrest
i. Direct damage - impact bone marrow
ii. Indirect Damage - smoking, copd, altitude sickness
1. Polycythemia- cancer

c. CBC – complete blood count
1. RBC
2. WBC
3. Platelet
4. Hematocrit
5. Differential WBC count
6. Hb (g/100 ml)
Formation of Blood Cells
1.Hemopoiesis (Hematopoiesis)
a. Before birth – yolk sac
b. Last trimester and throughout life –FETUS: liver, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes
c. LIFE – Red bone marrow

2.General Information
d. life of formed elements is hours, days or weeks – memory cells and lymphocytes= years
e. Formation of RBCs and Platelets – regulated by negative feedback, # RBC’s stay relatively constant = 2 million cells per second made
f. Formation of WBCs

2.Red Bone Marrow
g. Location – Epipyses, shoulder and pelvic gurdle,
h. Red marrow decreases and yellow increases as we age

Mesenchymal cells (pluripotent stem cells): Reproduce themselves and differentiate into several cell types
1. Also called hemocytoblasts (1% of red bone marrow)

2,Regulation of Hemopoiesis
Hemopoietic growth factors – 3 chemicals that control
j. Erythropoietin (EPO)
k. Thrombopoietin (TPO)
l. Cytokines – small glycoprotiens, act as local hormones, stimulate proliferation
Erythrocytes
1.Anatomy of Erythrocytes - Morphology
a. Biconcave discs – decreases distance between membranes
b. 7 µm in diameter
c. glycolipids in cell membrane are antigenic – capable of generating an immune response
1. result in ABO and Rh blood groups
d. anucleate – no nucleus, no significant metabolic activity, no cell divisions

e. Cytoplasm filled with hemoglobin molecules
1. 33% cell weight
2. normal Hb ranges: Infant = 10-20g/ 100mL, Adults: F = 12-16g, M= 13.5-18g
3. synthesized before nuclear ejection
i. Hb – protein of 4 subunits (2 alpha, 2 beta
4. at the center of each chain is a non-protein ring containing Fe2+
1. Hb – Heme portion has Fe – can reversibly bind to O2
5. Hb transports 23% of the total CO2
f. Each RBC has 280 million Hb molecules to transport O2

2.Functions
g. Transport O2 and CO2
1. hemoglobin-oxygen binding affinity
2. relationship between % saturation (amt O2 bound to heme/ total hemoglobin) & PO2 is not a straight line
3. oxygen dissociation curve
i. hypoxic RBC (Hb) return to the heart from the body through veins
1. heart pumps this blood to the lungs
2. PO2 in lungs is high, so O2 binds to Hb and circulates back to the heart
ii. oxygen rich blood (HbO) leaves heart & circulates to O2 hungry cells through arteries
iii. P02 decreases as RBC move away from the lungs, which causes O2 to leave Hb and move into the cells
iv. Regulate blood flow and pressure
(GRAPH)

2. Life Cycle
a. Live for 120 days
b. Ruptured RBCs are removed from circulation
c. Destruction and Recycling of RBCs
1. Phagocytosis of ruptures / worn RBCs by Mø in spleen and liver
2. Split globin from heme
i. Globin is lysed into amino acids
ii. Heme
1. Iron portion – Fe+2 removed by Fe+3, Fe+3 bind to protein in blood and is carried to liver, attaches to ferritan
2. Non-iron portion of heme – Converts to billirubin green – bilirubin red – dump into blood stream and goes back to liver, liver excretes it with bile, GI tract, feces
3. Formation of RBCs
a. Resources
b. Erythropoiesis
1. Proerythroblast divides several times
2. Cells then begin to synthesize Hb
3. Nuclear ejection marks the start of the reticulocyte – gets bicanvavity
4. Stimuli for Erythropoiesis (a) hypoxia (b) premature infant, not enough EPO
Specific Pathways:
RBC
PLATELETS
GRANULOCYTIC LEUKOCYTES
AGRANULOCYTIC LEUKOCYTES
a. RBC
Pluripotent Stem Cell  Myeloid Stem Cell 
CFU-erythrocyte  Proerythroblast(ejection of nucleus)
Reticulocyte 
RBC

b. Platelets

Pluripotent Stem Cell  Myeloid Stem Cell 
CFU-megakaryocyte  Megakaryoblast  Megakaryocyte 
Thrombocytes

c. Granulocytic Leukocytes

Pluripotent Stem Cell  Myeloid Stem Cell 
CFU-granulocyte macrophage Myeloblast 
Neutrophil

Pluripotent Stem Cell  Myeloid Stem Cell Eosinophilic myeloblast  Eosinophil

Pluripotent Stem Cell  Myeloid Stem Cell Basophilic myeloblast Basophil

d. Agranulocytic Leukocytes

Pluripotent Stem Cell  Myeloid Stem Cell 
CFU-granulocyte macrophage Monoblast 
Monocyte 
Macrophage

Pluripotent Stem Cell  Lymphoid Stem Cell 
T lymphoblast 
T-Cell

Pluripotent Stem Cell  Lymphoid Stem Cell 
B lymphoblast 
B-Cell 
Plasma Cell
Leukocytes
1.General Information – Granular and Agranular
a. Possess nuclei and do not contain Hb
b. Most live a few days, some few hours
c. Leukocytosis – leukermia – too many over 10,000
d. Leukopenia – too few falls below 5,000
e. Emigration (diapedesis) of WBCs – leave blood site to go to site of infection and never return
1. Initiation Signal
2. Adhesion molecules help WBC stick to endothelium (2 types)
i. Endothelial selectins
ii. Neutrophil integrins
3. Chemotaxis draws WBCs to microbes
f. Major Histocompatibility (MHC) Antigens
Classes of WBC's - Granular
1.Neutrophil
i. Granules – small and evenly distributed
ii. Nucleus – starts rod shaped, PNM nucleus w/ 3-5 lobs connected by a thin band
iii. Clinical Indications
INCREASE: stress infection, burn, bacteria
DECREASE: B12 defiency, exposed to radiation, toxicity
iv. Function
1. Neutrophils respond first to bacterial destruction of cells (Infection)
2. Engulf microbe via phagocytosis
3. Release chemicals to kill microbe
4. Defensins Proteins – fight bacterial/ fungal infections

2.Basophil
i. Granules – round but not uniform – variable in size
ii. Nucleus – 2 lobes with thin connection
iii. Clinical Indications
INCREASE: allergic rxn, leukemia, hypothyroidism
DECREASE: Pregnant, ovulating, stressed, hyperthyriod
iv. Function
1. Inflammation sites
2. Release granules
3. Intensify inflammation – heparin, histamine, serotonin
4. Involved in hypersensitivity response (allergic rxn)
5. Similar in function to mast cells

3.Eosinophil
i. Granules – very large + uniform
ii. Nucleus – 2 lobes with THICK connection
iii. Clinical Indications
INCREASE: allergic rxn, parasite, autoimmune disease
DECREASE: drug toxicity, stress
iv. Function
1. Release enzymes such as histaminase – reduce allergic rxn
2. Phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes
3. Fight certain parasitic worms