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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who circled the world first and discovered North America
Cristobol Colón
Conquered the aztecs
Cortés
conquered the incas
Pizarro
Aztec princess who helped the europeans conquer her own town
Malinche
Fought for Cuba's independence
Martí
3 consequences of colonization
1) Spanish tried to convert the indígenas and make them catholic
2) Created a mixed race class (mestizos)
3) Transfer of new produce. New foods are shipped from North America to Europe.
3 causes of independence within then Spanish colonies
1) French invaded Spain and made Jose the rey. The colonies didn't want to be french.
2) French revolution and ideas of the iluminación made the colonies realize that they had the power to rebel and they were being deprived of human rights
3) EEUU constitution inspired colonies to govern themselves like the EEUU
How long did the colonial period last in latin america?
3 siglos
who governed?
los virreyes
name of the people who were born in the new world and whose parents were españoles

but these people couldn't govern
criollos

Social ladder
- españoles
- criollos
- mestizos
- negros
- indigenas
the new race that came from the fusion of spanish and the indios or negros
mestizos
who were at the bottom of the social ladder
indigenas

no derechos humanos
what constitution did the new latin american countries base their constitution off of?
the American constitution
where was Bolivar from?
venezuela
bolivar's nickname
el Libertador
where was Martin from?
Argentina
where was Martí from?
Cuba
latin american founding fathers belonged to an organization that wanted to limit the church's power
los masones
new latin american countries realized that they couldn't export a lot of products because they had a
sistema de monoprodución

they only had one crop that their entire economy depended on
why were the revolutions not considered real revolutions?
the revolution didn't change the social ladder, they only changed who was in power
What part of the population gradually became richer and more economically powerful
los criollos ricos
the newly independent countries were disorganized and disorderly

what created a sense of calmness, normalness, and established political social and economic life?
los periodicos
3 oligarquías economicas que tienen mucho poder economico y politica
clase ganadera, plantación, y minería

land owners, large plantation owners, mine owners
two major political parties

political parties rose after independence
conservadores y liberales
conservative ideology
small social reform, stick to tradition, against liberalism because it leads to anarchy and its mob rule and it attacks the church
what did the liberals do?
- abolished the tradition that los bienes are passed down only to the hijo mayor
- ended slavery
- destroyed the feudal system of the Church
- wanted to separate church and state
que es un caudillo
a líder muy poderoso como MG
who did the liberals and the conservatives fear?
las masas rurales

because they feared they would rise up and take over everything
who entered latin american society and changed the demographics of the continent?
European immigrants

they formed a new class (the clase obrera)
what new clases formed in latin american society during the 20th century
clase obrera (european immigrants)

clase media
who seceded the caudillos?
the dictadores
first revolution
Mexico 1910
second revolution
Bolivia 1952
third revolution
Cuba 1959
What did the revolutionaries do after gaining power? (4)
1) Reforma agrícola--> redistribute the tierra
2) Reforma educativa
3) Nacionalzación de industria
4) Derechos de la clase baja
difference between mexican and cuban revolution
mexican revolution--> revolutionaries became the clase alta (oligarquia)
Why do latin americans sympathize with the cuban revolution?
they were among the first to win
el guerrillero latinoamericano por antonomasia
Che Guevarra
La cultura de la pobreza
high death rate. short life expectancy

can't use important facilities like hospitals, museams, airports, stores

church, gobierno, and politicians don't trust the poor

large gap between poor and rich (1/3 of the population is way poor)

the middle class has the most to loose.