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18 Cards in this Set

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Renal Hypertension

Which do kidney's regulate: CO or peripheral resistance?
BOTH!! since they regulate Na excretion
Renal Hypertension

With a change of BP how long does it take the kidney to regulate those changes?
Days to weeks (since the mechanism is to modulate Na balence)
Renal Hypertension

What percentage of pts with HTN are "sodium sensitive"?
43%!! (they have altered renal sodium handling)
Renal Hypertension

What is secondary hypertension?
When a patient has an explainable cause for having HTN.
Renal Hypertension

What are three examples of causes of secondary hypertension?
Secondary hypertension:
1. primary hyperaldosteronism (Cushings)
2. renal failure
3. glomerulonephritis
4. phenochromocytoma
Renal Hypertension

What is monogenic hypertension?
When a single gene leads to hypertension by causing increased salt retention

(T594M mutation in African americans)
Renal Hypertension

What is malignant hypertension?
Hypertensive renal injury that produces:
1. intimal thickening
2. proliferative arteritis
3. fibrinoid necrosis
4. "onion skin" appearance in arteriole.
Renal Hypertension

What is essential hypertension?
Hypertensive renal injury produced by benign nephrosclerosis.
Renal Hypertension

What is the main problem with diabetic hypertension?
Kidney can't autoregulate properly so pressure goes way up.
Renal Hypertension

What does autoregulation of the kidney protect the kidney from?
Sudden severe rises in blood pressure.
Developing viral vaccines

Compare the uses of active immunization vs passive immunization:
Active: used to stimulate an individual to develop an immunologic defense in advance of a challenge (can use live-attenuated virus or other vaccine)

Passive: is to supple preformed human or animal antibody to provide temporary treatment or protection to individuals already exposed or about to be exposed to infectious agent (ex. RIg for rabies)
Developing viral vaccines
VIP
What four factors influence vaccination strategy?
VIP
1. type of immune response (mucosal, serum IgG, or cellular)
2. age of immunization (when is appropriate immune response possible?)
3. duration of immunity (will boosters be required)
4. selection of antigens (whole virus vs. subunit vaccines)
Developing viral vaccines
VIP
Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of using a live attenuated virus vs using a killed virus for vaccination:
Live: "best" because they replicate in humans and elicit the "appropriate" immune response. However, reversion to virulence is possible.

Killed: good for generating a serum Ab response but sometimes may not give life-long protection.
Developing viral vaccines
VIP
What are six major factors as to why small pox was eradicated?
Small was eradicated because:
1. it is a strictly human disease
2. accurate dx is easy to make
3. disease spreads slowly
4. there is only one worldwide serotype of variola
5. virus (and thus its vaccine) is resistant to inactivation by physical or chemical means
6. WHO wanted it eradicated
Developing viral vaccines

What is vaccinia made of and why it is not a perfect vaccine?
It is neither small pox or cowpox anymore
Developing viral vaccines
VIP

Three take home points on poxvirus replication:
1. poxvirus replicates in the cytoplasm
2. poxvirus encodes its own DNA dependant DNA polymerase and DNA-dependant RNA polymerase.
3. Poxvirus encodes proteins that are synthesized and released during viral infection which block interleukins and thereby inhibit the immune response from efficiently clearing viral infection.
Developing viral vaccines
VIP

Why is vaccinia so successful as a vaccine?
p.4?
Developing viral vaccines
VIP

What are five potential advantages of DNA vaccines?
Advantages of DNA vaccines:
1. just need a plasmid DNA encoding microbial antigen to be directly injected --> it will induce expression of the antigen and SPECIFIC immune responses.
2. these DNA vaccines are easy to prepare
3. inexpensive to administer on a large scale.