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41 Cards in this Set

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Cognition C28-1

AP Psychology:P9-Thinking and Learning

David Ruehle
The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Concept C28-2
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
Prototype C28-3
A mental image or best example of a category.
Algorithm C28-4
A methodical, logical rule that guarantees solving a particular problem.
Heuristic C28-5
A simple thinking strategy that allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently and quicky.
Insight C28-6
A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
Conformation Biases C28-7
A tendency to search for data that confirms one's preconceptions.
Fixation C28-8
The inability to see a problem from a new perspective.
Mental Set C28-9
A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way.
Functional Fixedness C28-10
A tendency to think only in terms of their usual functions.
Representativeness Heuristic C28-11
Judging the likelihood of thinks in terms of how they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes.
Availability Heuristic C28-12
Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory.
Overconfidence C28-13
The tendency to be more confident than correct.
Framing C28-14
The way an issue is posed.
Belief Bias C28-15
The tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusioins to seem valid, or vice versa.
Belief Perserverance C28-16
Clinging to ones's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredThe ited.
Artificial Intelligence C28-17
The science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things to stimulate human thought processes.
Computer Neural Networks C28-18
Computer circuits that mimic the brain's interconnected neural cells.
Language C29-1

AP Psychology:P9 Thinking and Learning

David Ruehle
Our Spoken, Written, and Signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
Phonemes C29-2
In spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
Morphemes C29-3
In language, the smallest sound unit with meaning.
Grammar C29-4
A system of rules that allows communication and understanding with others.
Semantics C29-5
The set of rules from which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language.
Syntax C29-6
The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences, in a given language.
Babbling Stage C29-7
Beginning at 3-4 months, the speech stage where an infant spontaneously utters various sounds unrelated to the household.
One-Word Stage C29-8
From 1-2 years old, the stage where a child speaks one word phrases.
Two Word Stage C29-9
Around age 2, the stage where a child speaks mainly two-world statements.
Telegraphic Speech C29-10
Speech stage where a child will compose sentences compiled mainly of nouns and verbs.
Linguistic Relativity C29-11
How language distinguishes cultures.
Intelligence C30-1

AP Psychology:P9 Thinking and Learning

David Ruehle
The ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
Intelligence C30-2
Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
Factor Analysis C30-3
A statistical procedure that clusters related items on a test.
General Intelligence C30-4
Intelligence that underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.
Savant Syndrome C30-5
A type of Autism where a person has limited mental ability has an exceptional specific skill.
Emotional Intelligence C30-6
The ability to percieve, express, understand, and regulate emotions.
Mental Age C31-1

AP Psychology:P9 Thinking and Learning

David Ruehle
A measure of intelligence test performance where a chronological age responds to a mental age.
Stanford-Binet C31-2
American revision of the mental age test.
Intelligence Quotient C31-3
The Ratio of Mental age to chronological age.
Aptitude Test C31-4
A test to predict a person's future performance.
Achievement Test C31-5
Used to assess what a person has learned.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) C31-6
Most widely used intelligence test, contains verbal and nonverbal subtest.