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48 Cards in this Set

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aphasia
impairment of language, especially to the Broca's area (impair speaking) or Wernicke's area (impair understanding) in the left hemisphere
hemisperectomy
When 1/2 the brain is removed or disabled
nuerons
basically nerve cells; though there are different types, they follow the same principles
dendrite
bushy tentacle like things which receive info on one end of the cell
axon
long cable like things which pass messages to other neurons or to muscles or glands
myelin sheath
fatty tissue which guards the axon; effects of degeneration seen in multiple sclerosis, when the muscle movement is uncontrollable
action potential
brief electrical change which travels down an axon
resting potential
more negative ions inside than outside, normal state
selectively permeable
the way the axon surface is
neuron firing
the axon opens its gates like man hole covers flipping open, and ions coming in. this action potential goes through the axon
synapse
junction of an axon and dendrite
ACh
Acetylcholine: muscle action, learning, memory. It's affected in those with Alzheimers
dopamine
movement, learning, attention, emotion. Too much linked to schizophrenia, without, Parkinson's
serotonin
mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal. too little - depression. Prozac raises serotonin level
Norepinephrine
alertness and arousal. Too little - depress mood
endorphins
natural opiates to alleviate pain
nervous system
body's chemical information network
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
links CNS to other receptors, muscles, and glands
nerves
axons carrying PNS information
somatic nervous system
voluntary control of skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system
auto pilot for the nervous system. it controls glands and the muscles to internal organs. it can be consciously overriden
autonomic nervous system contains
sympathetic nervous system
parasympathetic nervous system
sympathetic NS vs parasympathetic NS
para- calms
normal - excites
nuerotransmitters
excite or inhibit a nueron
hormones
originate in one tissue, travel through bloodstream, and affect other tissues, including the brain (affect interest in food, aggression)
epinephrine
adrenaline
norepinephrine
noradrenaline
adrenal glands
on top of the kidneys
pituitary gland
a gland in the core of the brain, controlled by the HYPOTHALAMUS, and it releases hormones which influences growth
EEG
see brain waves
animal's capabilities
can be seen through complexity of brain structure
brain stem
oldest, innermost region
medulla
start of the brain stem. controls heartbeat, and breathing
reticular formation
between ears, finger shaped network of neurons. it controls stimulation (being awake, etc)
thalamus
receives info from all senses except smell and routs it to the appropriate brain regions. it's a switchboard which also sends things to the medulla and cerebellum
cerebellum
helps in some learning and memory. help judge time, modulate emotions, and discriminate sounds and textures. help keep balance, all unconscious brain
limbic system
"limbus" = border of brain older parts
hippocampus
processes memory. without it, you can't store new memory. it's strandlike, and donut shaped. imagine a campus for hippos
amygdala
influences aggression and fear. if stimulated in animals, makes them ferocious. w/o, mellow. Humans - varied, and devastating results. located atthe base of the hippocampus
hypothalamus
below the thalamus. it performs bodily maintainence duties: thirst, body temp, behavior. It monitors blood chemistry, and takes orders from other parts of the brain. also has reward centers
cerebral cortex
thin surface layer on cerebral hemisphere
glial cells
"glue cells"...there are 9 times as many of these as nuerons
assosiation areas
things not connected to an observable response, or receive input 3/4s of the brain
frontal
personality, judge, plan, process
parietal
math and spatial reasoning
temporal
recognize faces
occipital
visual