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120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
theory of mental life and behavior that is concerned with how an organism uses its perceptual abilities to function within its environment
Psychodynamic Pyschology
theory that behavior results from pyshchological dynamics that interact within the individual, often outside conscious awareness
school of psychology that studies only observable and measurable behavior
Gestalt Psychology
school of psychology that studies how people perceive and experience objects as whole patterns
Existential Psychology
school of psychology that focuses on the meaninglessness and alientation of modern life, and how these factors leads to apathy and psychological problems
Humanistic Psychology
school of psychology that emphasizes nonverbal experience and altered states of consciousness as means of realzing one's full human potentail
Cognitive Psychology
school of psychology devoted to the study of mental processes in the broadest sense
Evolutionary Psychology
concerned with the evolutionary origins of behaviors and mental process, their adaptive value, and the purposes they continue to serve
Correlational Research
research technique based on the naturally occurring relationship between two or more variables
Independent Variable
the variable that is manipulated to test its effects on the other, dependent variables
Dependent Variable
the variable that is measured to see how it is changed by manipulations in the independent variable
Experimenter Bias
Expectations by the experimenter that might influence the results of an experiment
Nervous System
the brain, spinal cord, and the network of nerve cells that transmit messages throughout the body
Endocrine System
internal network of glands that release horomones directly into the bloodstream to regulate bodily functions
individual cells that are smallest units of the nervous system
short fibers that branch out from the cell body and pick ip incoming messages
single long fiber extending from the cell body; it carries outgoing messages
Nerve or Tract
group of axons bundled together
Myelin Sheath
white fatty covering found on some axons
Sensory (afferent) Neurons
neurons that carry messages from sense organs to the spinal cord or brain
Motor (efferent) Neurons
neurons that carry messages from the spinal cord or brain to muscles or glands
neurons that carry messages from one neuron to another
Glial Cells
cells that form the Myelin Sheath
electrically charged particles found both inside or outside the neuron
Resting Potential
electrical charge across a neuron membrane due to excess positive ions concentrated on the outside and excess negative ions on the inside
the condition of a neuron when the inside is negatively charged relative to the outside; when the neuron is at rest
Neural Impulse
(Action Potential)
the firing of a nerve cell
Graded Potential
a shift in the electrical charge in a tiny area of a neuron
Threshold of Excitation
the level an impulse must exceed to cause a neuron to fire
Absolute Refractory Period
a period after firing when a neuron will not fire again no matter how strong the incoming messages may be
Relative Refractory Period
a period after firing when a neuron is returning to its normal polarized state and will fire again only if the incoming message is much stronger than usual
All-or-None Law
principle that the action potential in a neuron does not vary in strength; the neuron either fires at full strength or it does not fire at all
Terminal Button
(Synaptic Knob)
structure at the end of an axon terminal branch
Synaptic Space (Cleft)
tiny gap between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of the next neuron
area composed of the axon terminal of one neuron, the synaptic space, and the dendrite or cell body of the next neuron
Synaptic Vesicles
tiny sacs in a terminal button that release chemicals into the synapse
chemicals released by the synaptic space and affect adjacent neurons
Acetylcholine (ACh)
(excitatory) effects arousal, attention, memory, motivation, movement. Too much causes spasms & tremors. Too little causes parlysis, torpor.
(inhibitory) inhibits wite range of behavior and emotions, including pleasure. Implicated in Parkison's Disease.
(inhibitory) Inhibits virtually all activites. Important for sleep onset, mood, eating behavior.
(excitatory) effects arousal, wakefulness, learning, memory, mood.
(inhibitory) inhibts tramission of pain messages.
Receptor Site
a location on a receptor neuron into which a specific neurotransmitter fits like a key into a lock
the ability of the brain to change in response to experience
Central Nervous System
division of the nervous system that consists of the brain and the spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
division of the nervous system that connets the central nervous system to the rest of the body
area containing the medulla, pons, and cerrebellum
part of the hindbrain that controls such functions as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure
part of the hindbrain that connects the cerebral cortex at the top of the brain to the cerrebellum
structure in the hindbrain that control certain reflexes and coordinate the body's movements
Brain Stem
the top of the spinal column; it widens out to form the hindbrain and midbrain
region between the hindbrain and the forebrain; it is important for hearing and sight, and it is one of several places in the brain where pain is registered
top part of the brain, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex
forebrain region that relays and translates incoming messages from the sense receptors, except those for smell
forebrain region that governs motivation and emotional responses
Cerebral Cortex
the outer surface of the two cerebral hemispheres that regulate most complex behavior
Occipital Lobe
part of the cerebral hemisphere that receives and interperts visual information
Temporal Lobe
part of the cerebral hemisphere that helps regulate hearing, balance and equilibrium, and certain emotions and motivations
Parietal Lobe
part of the cerebral cortex that receives sensory information from throughout the body
Frontal Lobe
part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for voluntary movement; it is also important for attention, goal directed behavior, and appropriate emotional experiences
Motor Projection Areas
areas of the cerebral cortex where response messages from the brain to the muscles and glands begin
Corpus Callosum
a thick band of nerve fibers connecting the left and right cerebral cortex
What 3 parts make up the hindbran?
What is the purpose of the midbrain?
controls hearing, vision relay point, and registers pain
What 3 parts make up the forebrain?
Cerebral Hemispheres
What 4 lobes make up the cerebral hemispheres?
Reticular Formation
network of neurons in the hindbrain, the midbrain, and part of the forebrain whose primary function is to alert and arouse the higer parts of the brain
Limbic System
ring of structures that play a role in learning and emotional behavior
Spinal Cord
complex cable of neurons that runs down the spine, connectiong the brain to most of the rest of the body
Somatic Nervous System
the part of the peripheral nervous system that carries messages from the senses to the central nervous system and between the central nervous system and the skeletal muscles
Autonomic Nervous System
the part of the peripheral nervous system that carries messages between the central nervous system and the internal organs
Sympathetic Division
branch of the autonomic nervous system; it prepares the body for quick action in an emergency
Parasympathetic Division
branch of the autonomic nervous system; it calms and relaxes the body
Endocrine Glands
glands of the endocrine system that release horomones into the bloodstream
Thyriod Gland
endocrine gland located below the voice box; produces thyroxin
four tiny glands embedded in the thyroid; they secrete parathormone
Pineal Gland
a gland located roughly in the center of the brain that appears to regulate activity levels over the course of the day
organ lying between the stomach and small intestine; it secretes insulin and glucagon to regulate blood sugar levels
Pituitary Gland
gland located on the underside of the brain; produces the largest # of body's horomones
Posterior Pituitary Gland
affects thirst, sexual behavior, paternal and maternal behavior
Anterior Pituitary Gland
"master gland", produces numerous horomones that trigger action of other glands; it regulates body growth and also affects motivation and emotions
the reproductive glands
Adrenal Glands
two endocrine glands located just above the kidneys
Adrenal Cortex
outer covering of the adrenal glands; releases horomones important for dealing with stress
Adrenal Medulla
inner core of the glands that also deal stress horomones
Beta Endorphin
a natural painkiller released by the body
the experience of sensory stimulation
process of creating meaningful patterns from raw sensory information
Receptor Cell
a specialized cell that responds to a particular type of energy
Absolute Threshold
the least amount of energy that can be detected as a stimulation 50 percent of the time
an adjustment of the senses to the level of stimulation they are receiving
Difference Threshold
(just noticeable difference)
the smallest change in stimulation that can be detected 50 percent of the time
the transparent protective coating over the front part of the eye
a small opening in the iris through which light enters the eye
the colored part of the eye
the transparent part of the eye inside the pupil that focuses light onto the retina
the lining of the eye containing receptor cells that are sensitive to light
the area of the retina that is center of the visual field
the small segment of the electromagnetic spectrum to which our eyes are sensitive
the different energies represented in the electromagnetic spectrum
receptor cells in the retina repsonsible for night vision and perception of brightness
receptor cells in the retina responsible for color vision
Bipolar Cells
neurons that have only one axon and one dendrite; in the eye, these neurons connect the receptors on the retina to the ganglion cells
sense experience that occurs after a visual stimulus has been removed
Ganglion Cells
neurons that connect the bipolar cells in the eyes to the brain
stresses the basic elements of experience
concerned with how an organism uses its perceptual abilities in its enviroment
A single nerve cell is also known as...
a neuron
A group of axons bundled together is called...
a nerve
Carries outgoing messages away from the nerve cell...
Receives incoming messages from surrounding neurons...
When a neuron is in a polarized state, there are mostly _______ ions on the outside of the cell membrane and mostly ________ ions on the inside.
positive; negative
During the ________ period, the neuron will fire only if the incoming message is considerably stronger than usual.
relative refractory period
True/False: A very strong incoming signal will cause a neuron to fire more strongly than before and in turn cause neighboring neurons to fire more strongly.
When a neural impulse reaches the end of the axon, it is transferred to the next neuron chemically through the release of...
Which drug increases the release of neurotransmitter?
Which drug occupies or blocks receptor sites?
Curare, LSD, Atropine
Which drug interferes with the reabsorption of neurotransmitter?
The _______ nervous system connects the central nervous system to all parts of the body beyond the brain and spinal cord?
Which brain structure is the center for such important biological functions as temperature control, eating, drinking, and sexual behavior?